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  1. 1

    The World Summit on Social Development, health, and Latin America [editorial]

    Cohn A

    Cadernos de Saude Publica. 1995 Apr-Jun; 11(2):175-176.

    The World Summit on Social Development (WSSD) convened by the United Nations (UN) in March this year meant that social development was emerging as a global issue for the first time in history. While the Summit was a significant step forward in the world debate to the extent that it focused on human beings and the notions of equality and equity, in the Latin American context it also laid bare the essential contradiction between current economic stabilization and adjustment policies and social development as a priority. In this sense, one can raise the hypothesis that the Latin American image transmitted by various countries in various ways in the world scenario was one of a continent marked by internal economic problems prevailing over social issues. For example, one noted the absence of heads of state from the most economically significant countries, like Brazil, Mexico, and Argentina, the fact that only the Brazilian and Chilean delegations were present in the negotiations over the Summit's final position papers, and the very nature of the official documents submitted to the UN by the various countries, wavering between a bureaucratic and officialist tone in their final reports. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Tetanus, death and aerobics: the evaluation of disease-specific public health interventions.

    Sala-i-Martin X; Dow WH; Holmes J; Philipson T

    New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University, Economic Growth Center, 1995 Aug. 37 p. (Center Discussion Paper No. 736)

    This paper provides a theoretical and empirical investigation of the positive complementarities between disease-specific policies introduced by competing risks of mortality. The incentive to invest in prevention against one cause of death positively on the level of survival from other causes. This means that a specific public health intervention has benefits other than the direct medical reduction in mortality: it affects the incentives to fight other diseases so the overall reduction in mortality will, in general, be larger than the predicted by the direct medical effects. We discuss evidence of these cross-disease effects by using data on neo-natal tetanus vaccination through the Expanded Programme on Immunization of the World Health Organization. (author's)
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  3. 3

    The challenge of Africa: ministers debate vicious cycle of poverty and conflict, new initiatives for development - UN Economic and Social Council.

    UN Chronicle. 1995 Dec; 32(4):[4] p..

    Faced with unrelenting impoverishment, marginalization and social strife engulfing Africa - home to the greatest proportion of least developed nations in the world - ministers from every region of the world convened during the 1995 session of the UN Economic and Social Council to tackle the complex range of interrelated issues and problems that have made the economic and social development of Africa a formidable challenge. "Today, this continent often baffles the world by continually giving the international community reasons for alternating between hope and discouragement", UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali said on 4 July in an address to the opening of the Council's three-day high-level segment, whose purpose is to set UN policy on major international matters. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Commission acts on housing issues: children's rights, refugee strategy considered - United Nations Commission on Human Settlements - includes information on plans for 1996 HABITAT II conference.

    UN Chronicle. 1995 Sep; 32(3):[2] p..

    With children making up 40 per cent of the world's population, the Commission declared that mechanisms should be developed to protect their housing rights and called for an expert seminar on that subject, as well as further consideration of the issue at its next session, to be held in 1997. Other resolutions dealt with: the participation of women in human settlements development; aid to countries with economies in transition; strengthening efforts in Latin America and the Caribbean; and issues related to urban environment. Outgoing Commission Chairman David Johansson of Finland recalled that two major themes for the Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (HABITAT II) - to be held in Istanbul, Turkey, in June 1996 - were sustainable human settlements in an urbanizing world and adequate shelter for all. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    Violence against women: ringing the alarm to awake the conscience of society - includes related article on famous athletes' panel discussion of domestic violence - Fourth World Conference on Women - Cover story.

    Seufert-Barr N

    UN Chronicle. 1995 Jun; 32(2):[2] p..

    Women have also been the victims of the ethnic, religious, communal and political conflicts which have marked the end of the cold war. According to a European Union fact-finding team, 20,000 women were raped in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the first months of the war in the former Yugoslavia. Many women abused in wars are from the most marginalized and vulnerable sectors of society, such as indigenous, refugee or displaced women. Yet, most women who are terrorized and assaulted during wars take no active part in the conflict. And the participation of women in decision-making for the resolution of these wars is lower than in any other area. The Secretary-General has therefore concluded in a recent report that women must be given "more say in decisions related to war or peace; reconciliation or violence, which would allow them to contribute to preventing such tragedies rather than becoming their victims". (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Adding a gender dimension to economic decision-making - includes related article on economic aspects of women's unpaid work - Fourth World Conference on Women - Cover Story.

    Seufert-Barr N

    UN Chronicle. 1995 Jun; 32(2):[3] p..

    Women hold a meagre 1 per cent of executive positions in the 1,000 largest corporations based outside the United States. The proportion is higher, at 8 per cent, in the 1,000 largest corporations in the United States, but only a handful of women hold the top-most positions, according to a recent study by the UN Secretariat Division for the Advancement of Women. The same is true for the web of powerful global and regional multi-lateral institutions, where "women have been virtually excluded from key decision-making positions and from negotiating roles", as well as national trade policy, where the proportion of women is "insignificant", asserts Secretary-General Boutros Boutros- Ghali in a 1994 report. The result: the proportion of women in economic decision-making is not only "very low", states the report, but also "a gender dimension has been absent from macroeconomic policies and decisions regarding resource distribution, wealth creation and exchange". (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    Children often bear high cost of armed conflicts, poverty: Assembly promotes rights, ensures their tomorrows - includes related article on family - from a UNICEF report, The State of the Worlds Children.

    Seufert-Barr N

    UN Chronicle. 1995 Mar; 32(1):[4] p..

    Economic marginalization, along with the devastations of armed conflict, are "casting a shadow over the future of nations by depriving millions of children of the right to develop normally in mind and body", asserts The State of the World's Children 1995, published annually by the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF). In the wars of the last decade--a series of catastrophes that includes Rwanda, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Mozambique, Angola, Somalia, the Sudan, Afghanistan, Cambodia and Haiti--far more children than soldiers have been killed and disabled, according to the report. In just ten years, approximately 2 million children have died in wars and between 4 million and 5 million have been physically disabled. "These are statistics of shame. And they cast a long shadow over future generations and their struggle for stability and social cohesion", asserts the report. "More quietly, the continued economic and social marginalization of the poorest nations, and of the poorest communities within nations, is depriving far larger numbers of children of the kind of childhood which would enable them to become part of tomorrow's solutions rather than tomorrow's problems." (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    Age misreporting in Malawian censuses and sample surveys: an application of the United Nations' joint age and sex score.

    Palamuleni ME

    South African Journal of Demography. 1995; 5(1):11-17.

    The impact of age in demographic analyses, factors associated with age misreporting, the United Nations' procedure of evaluating age statistics and the application of this procedure to Malawian censuses are discussed. Although age reporting still remains inaccurate, there is some evidence to suggest a slight improvement in the quality of age reporting. Age misreporting varies from one region or district to another. These variations are explained in terms of the existing social, historical and cultural differences within the country. (author's)
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  9. 9

    Reproductive health conference urges wider use emergency contraception.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction

    Progress in Reproductive Health Research. 1995; (35):8.

    Emergency contraception should be available to all women who wish to use it, according to a recent conference of reproductive health specialists. In a consensus statement the group asserted that “millions of unwanted pregnancies could be averted” if emergency contraceptives were widely accessible. The conference called for further research on antiprogestogens for emergency contraceptive use. Emergency contraceptives are methods that women use after intercourse to prevent pregnancy. Several methods are known to be safe and effective, including higher doses of regular combined ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel contraceptives (the Yuzpe regimen) and the copper intrauterine device (IUD). Levonorgestrel may also be used, and mifepristone (an antiprogesterone drug that supresses ovulation and can inhibit implantation of the fertilized ovum in the uterus wall) is currently being studied to ascertain the optimal dose. “Any woman at risk of unwanted pregnancy may need these methods occasionally,” conference delegates agreed. (excerpt)
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  10. 10

    [HIV / AIDS: toward the year 2000] VIH / SIDA: hacia el ano 2000.

    Fuera del Closet. 1995 Nov; (7):4-8.

    Dr. Peter Piot, Associate Director of the WHO Global Programme on AIDS (GPA), is one of the many experts who believe that HIV/AIDS is no longer an epidemic disease like cholera, which follows a pattern with a predictable conclusion, but rather has become an endemic chronic infection like malaria. (excerpt)
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  11. 11

    Progress in development and use of antiviral drugs and interferon. Report of an informal consultation, Geneva, Switzerland, 13-15 March 1995.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Emerging and Other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Division of Emerging and Other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control, 1995. 30 p. (WHO/EMC/LTS/95.1)

    Considerable progress has been made in the development of antiviral agents. Several new compounds have become available to physicians over the past few years and many more are under development. Many of the recently developed agents represent incremental improvements related to improved pharmacokinetic and/or tolerance profiles. One of the reasons behind this progress has been the fight against the epidemic of HIV infection and its sequelae, with a resulting expansion in antiviral drug research. Other viral diseases have benefited from this increased interest, but with these successes problems of toxicity and viral resistance have also been encountered. Although there has been significant progress in the field, much still needs to be done to control and treat viral infections. There is a need to develop more effective vaccines and antiviral agents, to be alert in monitoring resistance and in devising strategies to overcome this problem, and to develop a better understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of many viral infections. An international group of experts met at WHO to assess today's state of the art in this field and to offer recommendations for the future. (excerpt)
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  12. 12

    Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. Report of a WHO expert committee.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expert Committee on Physical Status: the Use and Interpretation of Anthropometry

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1995. [463] p. (WHO Technical Report Series No. 854)

    The Expert Committee's report is intended to provide a framework and contexts for present and future uses and interpretation of anthropometry. Technical aspects of this framework are presented in section 2, and specific applications of anthropometry appropriate for a particular physical status or for particular age groups are dealt with in subsequent sections. For some groups, such as adolescents and the elderly, there has been little previous research, and the report provides a basis and impetus for future studies. For other age groups, such as infants and children, the report provides a re-evaluation in the light of current research, and allows for an integrated approach to anthropometry throughout life. It is intended to furnish scientists, clinicians, and public health professionals worldwide with an authoritative review, reference data, and recommendations for the use and interpretation of anthropometry that should be appropriate in many settings. (excerpt)
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  13. 13

    Popularizing women's human rights at the local level: a grassroots methodology for setting the international agenda.

    Suarez Toro M

    In: Women's rights, human rights: international feminist perspectives, edited by Julie Peters and Andrea Wolper. New York, New York, Routledge, 1995. 189-194.

    Women working at local and international levels must reach out to each other so that the experiences, discoveries, and agendas of one group can inform and influence the work of the other. In Vienna, women from diverse regions and with varied kinds of experience worked together to create a unified agenda for advocacy in the international arena. That they were able to do so is in itself a victory. But though Vienna may have brought the movement for women's human rights to a new threshold, it was only a stepping stone. The challenge for advocates of women's human rights remains: to contribute to the empowerment of women in everyday life; to make a tangible difference in women's lives by implementing the kinds of change they themselves choose; and to hold the United Nations and individual governments accountable for the needs and rights of women in their own very diverse communities and in the global governance. That challenge must be met at every level and in every possible venue. (excerpt)
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  14. 14

    Women's human rights: the emergence of a movement.

    Friedman E

    In: Women's rights, human rights: international feminist perspectives, edited by Julie Peters and Andrea Wolper. New York, New York, Routledge, 1995. 18-35.

    This essay focuses primarily on the process leading up to the World Conference on Human Rights, in a necessarily suggestive, not comprehensive, manner. To begin what must be a broader research effort, I have interviewed advocates from regional networks, women's human right experts in health and legal matters, representatives from human rights organizations, and Global Campaign coordinators; their contributions have been supplemented by primary and secondary sources on women's human rights. Admittedly, this paper--pieced together in a short time by a woman from, and residing in, the United States--represents only a partial picture of the movement. Like other movements for women's rights, the women's human rights movement has evolved from women organizing on local, national, regional, and international levels around issues that affect their daily lives. One special component of this movement is women's entry into the political "space" opened by the United Nations; women have taken advantage of the opportunities presented by international meetings--such as the World Conference on Human Rights and those that took place during the UN Decade on Women--to organize among themselves while transforming the official agenda. (excerpt)
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  15. 15

    Gender and development in action.

    Rathgeber EM

    In: Feminism / postmodernism / development, edited by Marianne H. Marchand and Jane L. Parpart. London, England, Routledge, 1995. 204-220.

    This chapter has suggested several possible reasons for the difficulty in operationalizing GAD projects but it may be worthwhile to focus further on what constitutes agreed-upon approaches in the field of development studies and practice and on the language used to justify and popularize different perspectives. As we have seen, development discourse is largely based on assumptions that have not changed substantially during the past thirty years and that never have been questioned very closely. Development practice has generally involved a heavy infusion of resources from outside with a predilection towards the "technological fix." Development theorists and practitioners have learned little from past mistakes, nor have they fundamentally changed their way of thinking or their mode of operation. As a result, isolated knowledge in the form of case studies or academic papers generated in either the North or South has had relatively little impact on most development practice. At the same time, we tend to minimize the recognition that the major actors in the development arena are both politically and economically motivated. In development planning and theorizing we seldom take into account the fact that donors seldom act exclusively from a sense of shared concern for the improvement of living conditions for people of the Third World but out of a desire to improve their own position. New power affiliations emerging out of development assistance have destroyed or eroded many traditional human relationships and values in the South. (excerpt)
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  16. 16

    Engendering development? Women in Development (WID) in international development regimes.

    Chowdhry G

    In: Feminism / postmodernism / development, edited by Marianne H. Marchand and Jane L. Parpart. London, England, Routledge, 1995. 26-41.

    This chapter will demonstrate that the so-called WID regime, as implemented by international development agencies, has its origin in two distinct yet overlapping strands of modernist discourse: the colonial discourse and the liberal discourse on markets. The colonial discourse based on the economic, political, social and cultural privileging of European peoples, homogenizes and essentializes the Third World and Third World women. The liberal discourse on markets, based on a negative view of freedom, promotes free markets, voluntary choices and individualism. Its epistemological premises and practical implementations disempower Third World nations in the international political economy. Moreover, as it intersects with colonial discourse, liberal discourse paradoxically tends to disempower poor Third World women (despite its stated objective of helping women to "develop"). In this chapter I argue that this disempowerment of Third World women is exemplified and embodied by the WID regime, because it is situated at the intersection of these two (modernist) discourses. (excerpt)
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  17. 17

    Women's studies and developing countries: focus on Asia.

    Chamberlain MK; Howe F

    In: The women and international development annual. Volume 4, edited by Rita S. Gallin, Anne Ferguson, and Janice Harper. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1995. 51-75.

    The growth of women's studies since 1970 has not been limited to the United States. Similar developments, some as dramatic, have been underway in other countries where there were networks of women scholars and activists. The United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand have made significant advances since the 1970s in women's studies research and in the number and range of courses available. Elsewhere courses appeared on the European continent, particularly in West Germany, the Netherlands, and the Scandinavian countries, where strong government support was available. In most developing countries, however, women's studies as such was little known prior to 1980. The notable exception was India. Here the origins of women's studies are attributable to the investigations of the Committee on the Status of Women in India, which were carried out from 1971 to 1974. The Committee's Report highlighted a lack of knowledge about the diversity of women's lives and pointed to the need for further research and reappraisal of the traditional assumptions of the social sciences. With that background, the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) established a Programme of Women's Studies in 1976 "to develop new perspectives in the social sciences--through examining basic assumptions, methodological approaches and concepts concerning the family, household, women's work, productivity, economic activity--to remedy the neglect and underassessment of women's contributions to the society. (excerpt)
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  18. 18

    Alliance: the issues at stake.

    Miller N

    Civil-Military Alliance Newsletter. 1995 Jan; 1(1):2.

    The Alliance is concerned with control and prevention of HIV and AIDS and military personnel, their families and their communities. Issues of special concern also fall into three broad sectors: those concerning military to military relations, those concerning civil-military relations, and those concerning peacekeeping issues. (excerpt)
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  19. 19

    Alliance activities: What can be done?

    Civil-Military Alliance Newsletter. 1995 Apr; 1(2):5.

    This brief article summarizes these Alliance activities: a collaboration of the Alliance, the World Health Organization, and the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank to hold two-step conferences/training sessions for military and civilian medical officers; assessing the HIV-related causes of civil and military instability; and assisting the coalitions of civil and military authorities by helping to secure financial and other assistance for their work.
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  20. 20

    Programme review and strategy development report: Mozambique.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Technical and Evaluation Division; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Africa Division

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1995. vi, 68 p. (Programme Review and Strategy Development Report No. 47)

    The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), in collaboration with the Government of the Republic of Mozambique, undertook a Programme Review and Strategy Development (PRSD) exercise to review the country's programme of population activities, identify the main population issues and challenges facing the country and formulate strategies necessary to address these issues and challenges. The PRSD exercise took place from 16 May to 12 June 1994. The strategies recommended in this report are based on extensive discussions with senior officials of various ministries and organizations, especially the Ministries of Health, Mineral Resources, Education, State Administration, and Cooperation; the National Planning Commission; Provincial Governors, District Administrators; the Eduardo Mondlane University (UEM); various resident missions in the United Nations system; multilateral and bilateral donor agencies; and national and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The recommendations of the Mission were also enriched by experiences gathered during a field visit to the four provinces of Manica, Nampula, Sofala and Zambezia. (excerpt)
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  21. 21

    [Living conditions of women and maternal mortality in Latin America] Condiciones de vida de la mujer y mortalidad materna en América Latina.

    Rendon L; Langer A; Hernandez B

    Revista Cubana de Salud Publica. 1995 Jun; 21(1):[11] p..

    Three possible causes have been outlined that explain the indifference of many governments to this problem. First, the magnitude of maternal mortality was not exactly known in many countries because of the limited data available about the causes of death. In 1987, only 75 of the member states of the World Health Organization were able to provide information on maternal mortality. Among the 117 developing countries, 73 were not able to provide this kind of information. Second, maternal mortality has been underestimated. This tendency has fluctuated from 37 % in the developed countries to 70% in the developing countries. Third, the women in countries with high maternal mortality rates are often positioned low on the social scale and suffer discrimination. It is not unusual under these circumstances that these women encounter numerous education, nutrition and health barriers, despite their enormous contribution to the family subsistence and survival. Due to these or other reasons, little effort has been made to solve this problem, long due to be acknowledged by the world as one of extreme importance. The goal of this document is to describe the conditions of life of the Latin American women, examine the relationship between these conditions and maternal mortality, and suggest feasible solutions within this context. (excerpt)
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  22. 22

    International Conference on Population and Development -- a Canadian demographer's perspective.

    Beaujot R

    SusPop News. 1995 Jan; (11):2-4.

    This article discusses the agenda and achievements of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, emphasizing that an increase funding is needed to achieve and continue the goals of the conference.
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  23. 23

    Optimum population and the search for sustainability.

    Wilcox MB

    SusPop News. 1995 Jan; (11):4-6.

    The author discusses two examples of the association between the concept of optimum population and sustainable development, and presents suggestions for the next UN conference on population.
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  24. 24

    World health report 1995 -- executive summary.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 1995. [17] p.

    The purpose of the report is to highlight such inequities and to tackle the wider question: what are the global health priorities? It also tries to answer other crucially important questions. Which are the major diseases, the major causes of death, handicap, disability and diminution of the quality of life? Which conditions cause most misery, although they may not be fatal? Which countries, or communities within countries, have the greatest health needs? Where should health resources be targeted? The report, for the first time, has attempted to examine the burden of ill-health not just by disease, by also by age, as the impact of illness differs across the age spectrum. Where possible, the analysis of health status has been carried out for infants and children, adolescents, adults and the elderly. On the basis of the data available and considered to be reasonably reliable, ten leading causes of death, illness and disability have been identified. There is also an explanation of what WHO is doing to bridge the gaps in health, an attempt to assess health trends in the coming years, and an effort to chart a health future for mankind-a future in which a baby lives, not dies, in it mother's arms. (excerpt)
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  25. 25

    International legal instruments relevant to women.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa. African Centre for Women

    [Addis Ababa, Ethiopia], Economic Commission for Africa, 1995. [3], 69 p. (E/ECA/ACW/ILI/4(a)/94)

    In order to increase awareness of the legal rights of women and existing legal instruments protecting women, this document reprints the major international human rights conventions on women and a list of the International Labor Organization (ILO) Conventions concerning women workers. This document was created in the belief that women must be aware of their rights in order to understand and/or claim them and that the enhancement of legal literacy will promote women's rights as well as an understanding of how the law can be used as a tool for social change. The reprinted documents are 1) the UN Convention on the Political Rights of Women (with annexes listing the countries party to the convention, reservations, and countries where women could vote equally as of 1955); 2) the 1957 UN Convention on the Nationality of Married Women; 3) the 1964 UN Convention on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriage, and Registration of Marriages; 4) Chapter 24 of Agenda 21 (Global Action for Women Towards Sustainable and Equitable Development Programme Area); 5) the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; 6) the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child; 7) a list of nine ILO Conventions covering Women Workers; and 8) the Charter of Ratification of Conventions, which is a chart illustrating the ratification status of each convention by country.
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