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  1. 1
    285242

    Fertility rates and population projections: why the United Nations low population projection is best. Draft.

    Seckler D; Cox G

    [Unpublished] 1994 Mar 23. [28] p.

    This paper stems from study on world food needs in the next century. Of course in a study of this nature population projections are essential. The writer used the United Nations medium population projections, illustrated in figure 1, as an authoritative source. Like everyone else of whom we are aware, the author assumed that the United Nations "medium" projection is the best estimate, in the sense of highest probability, in the opinion of the United Nations population experts. Since the medium projection closely corresponds to the World Bank's population projection (they provide only one) through to 2025 the assumption is further justified--and, apparently, supported by the independent opinion of the World Bank experts. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    282368

    The World Bank near the turn of the century.

    Ranis G

    New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University, Economic Growth Center, 1994 Oct. 30 p. (Center Discussion Paper No. 712)

    This paper attempts to assess the World Bank's record of performance as principal lender, generator of ideas and purveyor of advice. It also examines its internal structure, its method of operation and its relations with the other actors on the development stage. Given the recently increased flows of private capital to the middle income countries, on the one hand, and the increased need for IDA money, on the other, we see a need for a redefinition of the Bank's central role. Moreover, we find the dominance of country and global lending targets, along with the absence of meaningful decentralization and capillary action between the conceptual and operating wings of the institution to be the main obstacles to better performance. On the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of Bretton Woods we then turn to offering some suggestions for the future. These include a more open and participatory approach with respect to non-Bank ideas, non-Bank lenders and the borrowing countries. We also suggest that the internal personnel promotion culture of the Bank constitutes an important dimension of the problem to be overcome. (author's)
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  3. 3
    282367

    Genetic resources, international organizations, and rice varietal improvement.

    Evenson RE; Gollin D

    New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University, Economic Growth Center, 1994 Jul. 38 p. (Center Discussion Paper No. 713)

    This paper examines the economic role of three programs of the International Rice Research Institute designed to achieve genetic improvement in rice. These programs are the international genetic resource collection (IRGC), the international plan breeding program (IRPB), and the international network for the genetic evaluation of rice (INGER a system of "nurseries" in which varieties and advanced lines are tested in national programs. All of these programs are designed to contribute to rice genetic improvement by collaborating with counterpart national rice research programs. A genealogical analysis of 1709 rice varieties, constituting more than 90 percent of all improved rice varieties from the 1965 - 1991 period in tropical and subtropical countries, was undertaken. All ancestors of these varieties were traced back to the original "landrace" genetic resources on which they were based. This analysis showed a very high degree of international exchange of genetic materials. Fewer than 8 percent of these improved varieties were developed entirely from national genetic resources. More than two-thirds utilized genetic resources made available by the IRPB and IRGC programs. Most of these were transferred through INGER. A statistical analysis of varietal production showed that the IRGC and IRPB programs stimulated increased national use of the INGER nurseries. (National decisions regarding the number of national nurseries were treated as endogenous choices). The IRPB and the INGER programs, as well as national plant breeding programs, contributed to varietal production. Coefficient estimates indicated that the INGER system facilitated a 20 to 25 percent expansion of varietal production by making genetic materials readily available to large numbers of national plant breeding programs through the 900 to 1000 nurseries managed by INGER each year. The implied economic value of additional accessions to the genetic resource collections (IRGC national collections) was high and a strong economic justification for further collection, cataloging and preservation of these genetic resources was implied. (author's)
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  4. 4
    296497

    The 20-year Programme of Action - Cairo Programme of Action on population and development.

    UN Chronicle. 1994 Dec; 31(4):[7] p..

    The 16-Chapter Cairo Programme of Action reaffirms the connection among population growth, poverty, patterns of production and consumption and the environment. it states: "Progress in any component can catalyse improvement in others." The Programme emphasizes the need for harmonizing population trends and patterns of development in order to increase the standard of living of current populations, while at the same time not jeopardizing the needs of future generations. It also emphasizes the imperatives of empowering women and guaranteeing choice in regard to family planning, and stresses that advancing gender equality and ensuring women's ability to control their own fertility are "cornerstones" of population and development programmes. The principle of "sovereignty", which guarantees that each country would decide for itself which programme recommendations are relevant to its conditions and needs, is also enshrined in the Programme. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    296496

    Investing in people - eliminating poverty - includes related articles on Preparatory Committee's progress report and social development - World Summit for Social Development.

    UN Chronicle. 1994 Dec; 31(4):[5] p..

    A fifth of the world's population live in absolute poverty, earning scarcely 2 per cent of the world's income. The ill-effects of this economic deprivation are often compounded by ethnic tensions and warfare, which can lead to the local displacement of people and large refugee movements. There are some 17 million refugees and 20 million displaced persons in the world today, deprived of home, health and education, their lives and livelihoods destroyed. These people add not to their nations' productivity but to their overall economic burdens. "In the worst of instances, the survival of an entire society or nation is threatened because the essentials of life are beyond the reach of its people", concluded participants in the 46th Annual DPI/NGO Conference. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    296467

    From the 'A-train' to fighting AIDS - Keith Haring lithograph created in 1990 to accompany a UN Postal Association stamp series.

    UN Chronicle. 1994 Jun; 31(2):[1] p..

    The grimy walls of the New York City underground subway system might seem an unlikely canvas for launching an art career. But from these bizarre beginnings, the unusual work of American pop artist Keith Haring soon came to light in major galleries and museums around the world. Born in a small Pennsylvania town in 1958, the young man created a distinctive, disturbing urban art with cross-cultural hieroglyphics encompassing social and political themes--from a Harlem billboard with the stark warning "Crack is Wack" to "Free South Africa" posters to a 300-foot mural on the Berlin Wall. After beginning studies at Manhattan's School of Visual Arts, Mr. Haring quickly became immersed in the downtown arts scene of the early 1980s, developing his trademark white chalk, graffiti-style drawings--the spaceship, barking dog and "glowing baby" are examples--on the streets and walls of New York. His deep commitment to the fight against the disease that ultimately killed him is demonstrated in his powerful work on our June cover--"Fight AIDS Worldwide". (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    296466

    Commission gives high priority to monitoring global trends - UN Population Commission meeting, Mar 28-31, 1994 - includes information on preparation of action program to be recommended at the Sep 5-13, 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, Egypt.

    UN Chronicle. 1994 Jun; 31(2):[3] p..

    The effect of population growth on the environment, the role and status of women, and the demographic implications of development Policies were among major topics discussed by the Population Commission at its twenty-seventh session (28-31 March, New York). "The most important lesson we have learned is that population growth and other demographic trends can only be affected by investing in people and by promoting equality between women and men", Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) and Secretary-General of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, told the 26-member body. In the single text approved during the session, for adoption by the Economic and Social Council, the Commission asked that high priority be given to monitoring world population trends and policies, and to strengthening multilateral technical cooperation to address population concerns. (excerpt)
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  8. 8
    296462

    Acting now to make a difference - Michael Merson, executive director WHO Global Program on AIDS - Fight AIDS Worldwide - Cover story - Interview.

    UN Chronicle. 1994 Jun; 31(2):[5] p..

    With an estimated 5,000 people infected each day with HIV, urgency is a feeling Dr. Michael Merson knows well. The devoted Executive Director of WHO's Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) speaks movingly to groups and individuals around the world about the need to act now to fight the deadly virus that leads to AIDS. "In Africa, south of the Sahara, some communities have been hit so hard that there are funerals every day or two. Soon this will be happening in parts of Asia and Latin America as well", he said on World AIDS Day--1 December 1993--in New York. "For a family already living at the poverty line or below, the loss of their breadwinner and caretaker is catastrophic for those left behind--the children and the elderly." Encouraging people to talk frankly about a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that's often shrouded in fear and mystery, dealing with Government and public denial about the gravity of the AIDS epidemic, and confronting insufficient resources to care for victims of the disease--these are daily challenges for Dr. Merson, who has been head of WHO's global efforts to fight AIDS since May 1990. Originally from New York, he joined WHO as a medical officer in 1978 and became Director of the Diarrhoeal Disease Control Programme in 1984, where he served until joining the GPA. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    296465

    Natural resources committee calls for global water plan - UN Committee on Natural Resources second session, Feb 22-Mar 4, 1994 addresses water management and sustenance if mineral resources.

    UN Chronicle. 1994 Jun; 31(2):[2] p..

    A worldwide plan to avert an impending global water crisis was called for by the Committee on Natural Resources at its second session (22 February-4 March, New York). The strategy should define specific areas of priority to diminish significantly by the year 2010 the threat to freshwater resources, the 24-member expert body said in asking the UN Commission on Sustainable Development to undertake that task. "Water shortages are becoming a common occurrence in industrialized and developing countries alike", stated a report examined by the Committee. "The world may be reaching a water crisis situation of global proportions." The Committee also asked Governments to establish a dynamic and multisectoral approach to water resources management, including assessing and protecting potential sources of freshwater. As for mineral resources--another major concern--the Committee wanted the Commission to forge a dialogue between the UN system and the international mining industry to develop new approaches to ensure a sustainable supply of mineral resources. Workshops on mineral resource assessment projects were recommended. A report was asked on key advances in state-of-the-art technologies to minimize environmental degradation resulting from mining and related processing. (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    296464

    Equal pay, urban women problems discussed by Commission - UN Commission on the Status of Women, 38th session, Mar 7-18, 1994 - includes news of other developments pertaining to equal pay and equality in marriage.

    UN Chronicle. 1994 Jun; 31(2):[4] p..

    Equal pay for work of equal value, women in urban areas and measures to eradicate violence against women were among the issues dealt with by the Commission on the Status of Women at its thirty-eighth session (7-18 March, New York). Being also the preparatory body for the Fourth world conference on Women in Beijing 1995, the commission's work focused on preparatory activities, in particular the drafting of the Platform for Action. In discussing priority themes--equality, development and peace--established for its thirty-seven through fortieth sessions, the Commission adopted 13 resolutions, many calling on Governments to urgently improve the situations of women around the world. "The road to Beijing must be paved with vision, commitment and a determination to harness the support of Governments to remove the remaining obstacles to the advancement of women", Gertrude Mongella, UN Assistant Secretary-General and Secretary-General of the Fourth World Conference, told the 45-member Commission on 7 March. It has the task of organizing that conclave, which is set for September 1995. (excerpt)
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  11. 11
    296447

    UN proclaims 1996 as Poverty Eradication Year: progress on 'Agenda for Development.' - includes related article on outline of program for September 5-13, 1994 International Conference on Population.

    UN Chronicle. 1994 Mar; 31(1):[5] p..

    The year 1996 was proclaimed the Year for the Eradication of Poverty by the General Assembly on 21 December. That text was among 52 resolutions and 18 decisions adopted by the General Assembly on the recommendation of its Second Committee (Economic and Financial). Issues considered ranged from the environment to the international economy, from population and human settlements to international humanitarian assistance. The Assembly welcomed the intended completion of the Secretary-General's proposed Agenda for Development" this year. It also decided to convene in Japan in 1994 a World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction. The concept of development had to be rethought, Nitin Desai, Under- Secretary-general for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development, told the Second Committee on 8 October. The world today is not the same as 30 years ago, when the concept of development was originally framed, he said. The urge to rethink development had grown from the gap between promise and results, as well as from interdependence, the globalization of production, the impact of regional integration and the effects of global communication. A development policy had to give priority to health and education, as well as such areas as the protection of the environment. (excerpt)
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  12. 12
    296446

    Families at risk: UN tackles the challenge - proposals to help unfortunate families - International Year of the Family, 1994 - Cover story.

    UN Chronicle. 1994 Mar; 31(1):[3] p..

    In today's world, many families face daunting challenges that threaten their ability to function and, indeed, to survive. Disease, war, poverty, famine, environmental problems, unemployment, drugs, crime and the scourge of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are taxing families in both the developing and developed worlds, often beyond their ability to cope. "War and political conflict are widespread today, and they exact a heavy toll", said the Secretary-General at the launching of the international Year of the Family on 7 December. "Separation and loss physically threaten family cohesion. Trauma and displacement inflict overwhelming emotional distress. Economically, unplanned development disrupts traditional patterns of family life. Industrial strategies are often pursued with little regard for their impact upon the family. The inability of some families to provide for themselves weakens family cohesion and undermines self-respect." (excerpt)
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  13. 13
    296319

    Death of a study: WHO, what, and why [editorial]

    Lancet. 1994 Apr 23; 343(8904):987-988.

    Earlier this year The Lancet received a package of material, much of it highly critical, relating to a report that we had published in July, 1993. A few weeks later virtually the same package arrived from a different source. The accompanying messages were broadly similar, essentially saying that the work in question had come in for heavy criticism and that the project itself had been abruptly halted. All this had taken place without any consultation with the researchers or proper debate. The study was by Hieu and colleagues in Vietnam and described the use of quinacrine pellet sterilisation in more than 30 000 women in that country. In this issue, Professor Hieu, Director of the Maternal and Child Health/Family Planning Department at the Ministry of Health in Hanoi, outlines his concerns, expressing dismay at the manner in which his work has come under attack. The Lancet is no stranger to controversy and its correspondence section is open to all (matters relating to efficacy and operator skill had in fact been aired in letters published in the Oct 2 issue, p 869), so why have Professor Hieu and his colleagues been treated in this underhand fashion? (excerpt)
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  14. 14
    294345

    Advising mothers on management of diarrhoea in the home: instructions for facilitators.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for the Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Programme for the Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases, 1994. 13 p. (CDD/93.2)

    Why was Advising Mothers produced? Every child that is seen at a health facility with mild diarrhoea, and every dehydrated child that has been successfully treated at the facility, will be sent home to follow Plan A of the WHO/CDD Diarrhoea Management Chart, Case Management in the Home (give increased fluids, continue feeding, and seek medical care when needed). Unlike many other treatments, which are provided by the health worker, case management in the home is entirely the responsibility of the mother or other child caretaker. If correctly carried out, it can have a significant impact on the health of the child. How well the mother carries it out depends partly on how well the health worker advises her. Advising a mother on home case management is often the last activity carried out during a consultation, and often the least well done. The advice and the manner in which it is given are often not sufficient to enable the mother to understand and have confidence in her ability to care for her child's diarrhoea. There are many reasons for this: the health facility may be crowded, a health worker may have little time, and it is not always clear just how to advise the mother. When assessing and treating a child with diarrhoea at a health facility, the health worker should follow the same, systematic approach with every child: "Look, Ask, Feel, Decide, Treat." (excerpt)
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  15. 15
    294344

    Advising mothers on management of diarrhoea in the home: a guide for health workers.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for the Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Programme for the Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases, 1994. 21 p. (WHO/CDD/94.49; CDD/93.1)

    Advising a mother on home case management is often the last activity carried out during a consultation, and often the least well done. The advice and the manner in which it is given are often not sufficient to enable the mother to understand and have confidence in her ability to care for her child's diarrhoea. There are many reasons for this: the health facility may be crowded, a health worker may have little time, and it is not always clear just how to advise the mother. When you assess and treat a child with diarrhoea at a health facility, there is a systematic approach which allows you to follow the same process each time: "Look, Ask, Feel, Decide, Treat." Advising a mother on how to care for the child at home may seem like a less structured activity; it is definitely one which calls for good judgement and understanding on your part. The purpose of this guide is to help you to improve this activity, by teaching a process which will allow you correctly and effectively to advise mothers on home case management. The process should also make it easier for mothers to remember the advice you give. The guide is to be used during a case management training course, or by health workers already trained in case management. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    294343

    Improving the practices of pharmacists and licensed drug sellers. Update.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Diarrhoeal and Acute Respiratory Disease Control

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Division of Diarrhoeal and Acute Respiratory Disease Control, 1994 Nov. 3 p. (Update No. 18)

    If diarrhoea in children is to be managed correctly, there is need to look beyond public sector health facilities. Good management has to be promoted in the home, and there is also a need to improve the practices of all providers of care, particularly in the private sector. Retail drug businesses are particularly important providers of care because: in most countries, pharmacies and over-the-counter drug stores are widely distributed geographically; they are the most frequently visited of all health-related facilities; for purposes of training, drug retail outlets are relatively easy to reach; products sold and advice given to customers for treating diarrhoea are generally inappropriate and, in some cases, dangerous. (excerpt)
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  17. 17
    274919

    An evaluation of infant growth. A summary of analyses performed in preparation for the WHO Expert Committee on Physical Status: the Use and Interpretation of Anthropometry.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Working Group on Infant Growth

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Nutrition Unit, 1994. [85] p. (WHO/NUT/94.8)

    In preparation for the WHO Expert Committee meeting on Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry, a Working Group on Infant Growth was established to assess the growth patterns of infants following current WHO feeding recommendations, and the relevance of such patterns to the development of growth reference data. This document presents the full report of the analyses carried out, which were the basis for the Working Group's recommendations to the Expert Committee. The information is being made available to the scientific community to encourage and support further research on the questions raised by the Expert Committee after its evaluation of present knowledge about infant-growth assessment. In providing this information, the Working Group seeks to improve the nutritional management of infants and children by motivating the development of new scientific information that will fill gaps in knowledge and resolve a number of crucial issues raised by the Group's analyses. (author's)
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  18. 18
    274799

    Breastfeeding counselling: a training course. Breastfeeding: Training health workers.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Diarrhoeal and Acute Respiratory Disease Control

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Division of Diarrhoeal and Acute Respiratory Disease Control, 1994 Aug. [4] p. (Update No. 14)

    Health workers can play a key role in the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding. Their presence at the time of delivery and their subsequent contacts with mothers and infants provide them with unique opportunities to help mother and baby to establish and maintain lactation. In the past two decades, there has been a rapid increase in our understanding, not only of the scientific basis of lactation and suckling, but also of effective management and prevention of breast-feeding problems, including the use of basic counselling skills. Research has shown that if health workers' attitudes and practices are supportive, it is more likely that mothers will breastfeed successfully and for a longer period. Unfortunately, breastfeeding has been neglected in the training of most health workers, leaving a serious gap in both their knowledge and skills. Training is urgently needed at all levels in up-to-date and effective breastfeeding management. The CDD Programme in collaboration with UNICEF has developed the package "Breast-feeding counselling: A training course" to help to fill the gap. (excerpt)
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  19. 19
    195817

    The impact of HIV / AIDS on education: a review of literature and experience.

    Shaeffer S

    Paris, France, UNESCO, Section for Preventive Education, 1994. 45 p. (ED-95NVS-5)

    The AIDS pandemic confronts us with a full range of development issues...issues of poverty, entitlement and access to food, medical care and income, the relationships between men and women, the relative abilities of states to provide security and services for their people, the relations between the rich and the poor within society and between rich and poor societies, the viability of different forms of rural production, the survival strategies of different types of household and community, all impinge upon a consideration of the ways in which an epidemic such as this affects societies and economies. Across Africa, evidence for the seriousness of... downstream effects is accumulating rapidly; given the nature of the disease and the shape of the epidemic curve ...now is the time to take action to mitigate the worst effects in the next two decades. Because this is a long wave disaster...the effects we are seeing now in Uganda and elsewhere are the result of events (personal, communal, regional, national, and international) that occurred a decade or more ago. Action taken now cannot change the present, nor can it change the immediate future. It can change the way the situation will look in the years after 2010. (excerpt)
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  20. 20
    193954
    Peer Reviewed

    An easy screening test for tubal patency in developing countries.

    De Muylder X

    Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 1994 Mar; 14(2):[6] p..

    In order to find a simple screening test to assess tubal patency among infertile women, comparison was made between the data provided by complete hysterosalpingography and that given by taking a single follow up film after 15 minutes of walking about at the end of the procedure. There was a good correlation between the follow up film and the complete hysterosalpingography. There was also a positive relationship between the follow up film and the outcome in terms of pregnancy rate. (excerpt)
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  21. 21
    179567

    [Technical cooperation of PAHO / WHO in the traditional midwives program] Cooperación técnica de OPS / OMS al programa de parteras tradicionales.

    Gutiérrez Trucios D; Sotelo Figueiredo JM

    In: La partera tradicional en la atención materno infantil en México, [compiled by] Mexico. Secretaría de Salud. Programa Nacional de Parteras Tradicionales. Mexico City, Mexico, Secretaría de Salud, Programa Nacional de Parteras Traditionales, 1994. 137-145.

    Mexico is one of the pioneering countries with the most experience in the work of traditional midwives, not only in the Latin American region, but throughout the world. Formal activities were initiated in 1937 and were mainly focused on training. To date, the institutions authorized to train traditional midwives in the country (the Secretariat of Health, the National Indigenous Institute, and the Mexican Social Security Institute) have registered approximately 24,000 midwives, of which 75% are trained. During this period, many strategies developed in Mexico have been disseminated and adopted by other countries in the region. (excerpt)
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  22. 22
    179568

    [Operations research: an essential element in the evaluation of the impact and systematization of the experience of the National Program of Traditional Midwives] Investigación operativa: elemento esencial en la evaluación del impacto y sistematización de la experiencia del Programa Nacional de Parteras Tradicionales.

    Moreno Castro M

    In: La partera tradicional en la atención materno infantil en México, [compiled by] Mexico. Secretaría de Salud. Programa Nacional de Parteras Tradicionales. Mexico City, Mexico, Secretaría de Salud, Programa Nacional de Parteras Tradicionales, 1994. 149-153.

    Linking operational research with general goals and achievements results in the scientific validation of the program's impact in terms of the modification of the situation of the population, the objective, and its environment. We can categorically state that without the evaluation process-understood in methodological terms as an operational investigation of all the strategies that make up an established program-it is not possible to establish scientifically valid correlations between the results and the impact of actions, nor to systematize the experience so that it can be replicated and disseminated. Within this framework, the Secretariat of Health, by way of the Board of Maternal-Infant Health, with the participation of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), decided to undertake an operational investigation to evaluate the impact of training for traditional midwives in the period 1989-1993 and to systematize this experience. (excerpt)
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  23. 23
    180605

    Protect the rights of adolescents to reproductive health education

    AIDS Action. 1994 Oct-Dec; (25):9.

    The reproductive health needs of adolescents as a group have been largely ignored to date by existing reproductive health services. Poor education and economic opportunities and sexual exploitation are important factors in the high levels of adolescent child-bearing. In many societies, adolescents face pressures to engage in sexual activity. Young women, particularly low-income adolescents, are especially vulnerable. (excerpt)
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  24. 24
    164971

    [International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, ICPPD '94, Cairo, Egypt, September 3-4, 1994] Conference Internationale des Parlementaires sur la Population et le Developpement, ICPPD '94, Le Caire, Egypte, Les 3 et 4 septembre 1994.

    International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (1994:Cairo)

    Bangkok, Thailand, [Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development], 1994. 40 p.

    Almost 300 parlementarians from 107 different countries convened in Cairo in 1994 to discuss population and development issues, as well as their respective policies. The positions of these conference attendees are described upon population and sustainable development, reproductive health, family planning, abortion, gender equality and women's independence, health and mortality, and the mobilization of resources to support population and development programs. Work group reports on these issues are presented, including a group report upon what parlementarians can do in their respective regions around the world. They issue a call to action. Participant lists are included at the end of the report.
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  25. 25
    172637

    [IEC in MCH / FP programs] IEC dans les programmes de SMI / PF.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1994. ix, 59 p. (Rapport d'Evaluation No. 7)

    This evaluation was made at the request of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) with the goal of evaluating strategies of information, education and communication (IEC) in support of the Family Planning Program (FP) financed by this organization, in order to improve the planning and implementation of future strategies. This evaluation took into consideration a broad number of projects implemented in different countries and regions, and separated them into two categories. The first category includes projects regarding FP or an IEC component (integrated approach); the second category includes projects that refer exclusively to IEC (independent approach). Generally speaking, those projects contributed to raising the level of knowledge about the utilization of family planning methods. In every country we visited, we found a difference between the level of knowledge, which is relatively satisfactory, and the level of practice, which is weaker. The analysis of performances per type of configuration shows that the projects with an IEC integrated component reinforce the capacity of the services to accomplish their functions by giving them resources and necessary means, elaborating tools and methods of investigation, realization and evaluation. The knowledge and the use of FP services are amplified by the information, the sensitization and the education of the populations. The intersectorial and multi-disciplinary coordination of the participants involved in the performance and the IEC activities is even better because this coordination takes place in an environment that integrates MCH (Maternal and Child Health)/ FP/ IEC services. (excerpt)
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