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  1. 1

    World Bank support for industrialization in Korea, India, and Indonesia.

    Banerji S; Najmabadi F

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Operations Evaluation Department, 1992. [72] p. (World Bank Operations Evaluation Study)

    The World Bank has always regarded industrialization in developing countries as a major element of the structural transformation process that signifies economic development. Up to the end of fiscal 1990, lending to all industrial activities constituted 16.9 percent of the Bank's total cumulative lending, and came to US$41.4 billion. Of this sum 63 percent was channeled through the financial intermediaries, and 37 percent went to industrial projects. Similarly, the mandate of the International Finance Corporation engaged it heavily in industrial development, not only by the provision of loans to private industrial enterprises, but also by participating in the equity of such enterprises. The Bank's broader support of infrastructure and human resource development also fed into industrial development. While the Bank's support of industrialization has been consistent and significant, the nature of the support has changed over time. Through the 1950s and much of the 1960s, the Bank took for granted industrialization strategies based on import substitution, generally pursued in the framework of comprehensive planning and extensive government participation in industrial activity. The Bank saw its main objectives as institution building (in DFCs), improved project evaluation, resource mobilization, and greater freedom for private enterprise. Over the 1970s the intellectual climate on industrialization strategies changed. The newly-industrialized countries (NICs) of East Asia rose to prominence. Outward-oriented trace policies came to be regarded as central to industrial success. During this period, the Bank's emphasis also shifted. The Bank engaged increasingly in policy dialogue with borrowers on broad issues of strategy. In the 1980s, with the culmination of this shift in a series of structural and sectoral adjustment operations, the Bank's philosophy of industrial strategy took a clear, defined, and theoretically rationalized form. It is this philosophy that is the subject of this study. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    100-day relief plan for Somalia launched; famine threatens millions with starvation - includes related information on the death of Mohammed Osman.

    UN Chronicle. 1992 Dec; 29(4):[8] p..

    With famine threatening an estimated 4.5 million people with imminent death from starvation, Under-Secretary- General for Humanitarian Affairs Jan Eliasson announced on 14 September that UN agencies would undertake a comprehensive 100-day play to accelerate relief efforts in Somalia, including immediate and massive infusions of food and seeds, as well as provision of shelter materials, clean water supplies, basic health services and other efforts to stabilize the society and the economy. Somalia on 20 August had welcomed the emergency relief efforts under way, including the beginning of a two-month emergency airlift of food by the United States. The World Food Programme (WFP) had conducted an airlift, in cooperation with the Red Cross and other agencies, into isolated areas in the interior of Somalia and had for some time been flying in food to Mogadishu and the southern region of the country, where starvation and death were almost widespread. The main challenge, reported the Secretary-General on 28 August (S/24480), was not delivering humanitarian relief supplies to ports and airports in Somalia, but protecting the convoys transporting supplies to warehouse and distribution centres. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Human rights of minorities: modern forms of slavery are 'great scandal.' - United Nations.

    UN Chronicle. 1992 Dec; 29(4):[4] p..

    Slavery, sex tourism and xenophobia were among the broad range of issues addressed by the Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities at its forty-fourth session (3-28 August, Geneva). Racial discrimination, the rights of minorities and indigenous peoples, economic, social and cultural rights, the administration of justice and other human rights matters were also on the agenda. As the principal subsidiary of the Commission on Human Rights, the 26-member Subcommission asked that increased attention be paid to issues related to trafficking in children, child labour and prostitution, children in armed conflicts and commercial or exploitative adoptions. The Subcommission was gravely concerned over sex tourism and requested the World Tourism Organization to discuss ways of preventing that phenomenon. States should take urgent measures to protect minors from exposure to or involvement in child pornography, it said. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Behavioral interventions for the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV. [Intervenciones conductuales para la prevención de la transmisión sexual del VIH]

    Institute of Medicine. International Forum for AIDS Research

    Washington, D.C., Institute of Medicine, International Forum for AIDS Research, [1992]. 8 p.

    The fourth meeting of the International Forum for AIDS Research was organized around three overall objectives: a) to consider a model for categorizing behavioral interventions; b)to share information about current behavioral intervention programs in which IFAR members are involved; and c) to foster discussion about the adequacy of present strategies. The meeting began with an analytical phase that explored aspects of methodology, followed with presentations on selected programs, and concluded with a generic case study exercise that highlighted different social scientific perspectives on producing change in human behavior. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    UNDP HIV-related language policy.

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]. HIV and Development Programme

    [New York, New York], UNDP, HIV and Development Programme, 1992. [1] p.

    This paper presents the principles adopted by the UN Development Programme to guide its HIV-related language. It states that the appropriate use of language respects the dignity and rights of all concerned, avoids contributing to the stigmatization and rejection of the affected and assists in creating the social changes required to overcome the epidemic.
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  6. 6

    Statistical charts and indicators on the situation of youth 1970-1990.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Development. Statistical Office; United Nations. Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. x, 50, [1] p. (Statistics on Special Population Groups. Series Y. No. 6; ST/ESA/STAT/SER.Y/6)

    This compendium provides statistical tables and charts and descriptive summaries of the main trends in the social and economic conditions of youth in 176 countries during 1970-90. Country specific tables are presented at the end of each of the five chapters on population, education and training, economic activity, health and childbearing, and households and marital status. Regional and subregional averages are based on unweighted data. Subregional averages are indicated where there are wide differences among countries. Data are obtained from official national and international sources. The world youth population aged 15-24 years was an estimated 519 million men and 493 million women in 1990 (>1 billion total). This total reflects a 52% increase since 1970. Over 80% of youth lived in developing regions. Over 60% lived in Asia. The annual growth rate of youth declined to 1-2% during the late 1980s. In 37 countries, the youth growth rate is increasing by more than 3% per year. In developed regions, the youth growth rate was under 0.5% per year. The male/female sex ratio was about 106:100. In 30 countries the sex ratio was higher. Over 50% of youth lived in urban areas in Eastern Europe and the USSR, other developed regions, North Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, East Asia, Southeast Asia, and West Asia. Most youth lived in rural areas in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Oceania. Almost 30% of young men aged 20-24 years were household heads in developed regions and sub-Saharan Africa. By age 20, few women were married, except in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Fertility rates among women aged 20-24 years were lowest in developed regions, except Eastern Europe and the USSR, and in East and Southeast Asia. 66% of youth lived in countries with very low per capita income (under $1000/year). Young women's illiteracy rates were higher than men's except in Latin America and the Caribbean.
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  7. 7

    Agreement on a comprehensive political settlement of the Cambodia conflict [Excerpts, 23 October 1991].

    Paris Conference on Cambodia (1991: Paris)


    This document contains major provisions of the 1991 Agreement on a Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodian Conflict relating to refugees and the observance of human rights. The agreement notes that efforts will be made to help Cambodian refugees and displaced person affect a voluntary return to Cambodia. Efforts are also to be made to ensure that the conditions leading to this mass exodus do not recur. The agreement calls for full respect for the human rights and fundamental freedoms of all Cambodians, including these refugees.
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  8. 8

    WHO guidance on formulation of national policy on the control of cholera.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Task Force on Cholera Control

    [Unpublished] 1992. [2], 11 p. (WHO/CDD/SER/92.16 Rev 1)

    Prepared by the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Task Force on Cholera Control, this paper describes WHO's position on several key areas of cholera control. It is intended to provide guidance and support for national health authorities and others in preparing policies for the control of cholera. The paper may also be useful to international, bilateral, and nongovernmental agencies when deciding upon appropriate assistance to countries for controlling cholera outbreaks. Sections are on surveillance and reporting, use of the laboratory, cholera immunization, control of the international spread of cholera, the use of antibiotics, tourism in cholera-affected areas, water supply and sanitation, general considerations on cholera and food, cholera and international trade in food, and health education.
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  9. 9

    Essential drugs: action for equity.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Action Programme on Essential Drugs and Vaccines

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, [1992]. 27 p. (WHO/DAP 92.5)

    Drugs play an important role in protecting, maintaining, and restoring health. The marked increase in the number of pharmaceutical products marketed in recent years has not, however, made the necessary drugs available to all people and has not been matched by a proportionate improvement in health. In recent decades, it has been difficult for developing country governments to procure drugs and vaccines at reasonable prices. Even when they can afford modern products, their regulatory control, equitable distribution, and rational use by both prescribers and the public have posed large problems. Purchased drugs do not necessarily meet health priorities or end up where they are most urgently needed. The World Health Organization (WHO) therefore established the Action Program on Essential Drugs in 1981 to provide operational support to countries in the development of national drug policies based upon essential drugs and to work toward the rational use of drugs. The action program seeks to ensure that all people are able to obtain the drugs they need at a price they and their country can afford; that the drugs are safe, effective, and of good quality; and that they are prescribed and used rationally. This brochure describes the activities of the WHO program in sections on the essential drugs concept, how many drugs are really needed, the work of the action program, key elements of a national drug policy, using drugs rationally, the program and research, global partners, and the future outlook.
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  10. 10

    Education for the prevention of AIDS. No. 1. Selection of extracts from teachers' guides. Revised ed. Education pour la prevention du SIDA. Selection d'extraits de guides pedagogiques a l'usage des enseignants. Educacion para la prevencion del SIDA. Seleccion de paginas de guias pedagogicas para el uso de personal docente.

    UNESCO. AIDS School Education Resource Center; World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Paris, France], UNESCO, 1992 Oct. [8], 146 p.

    UNESCO's AIDS School Education Resource Center (ASERC), in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), has compiled eight teachers' guides from Australia, Canada, Cameroon, Spain, the Pacific islands, Uganda, and the US (Hispanic curriculum). The teachers' ability to consider the myths, taboos, attitudes, habits, and knowledge of their students determines the effectiveness of AIDS preventive education. There are different approaches to effectively teach secondary school students. Essentially all the guides have a section on knowledge and information about HIV/AIDS (e.g., ways to prevent HIV transmission and clinical symptoms) and a section on appropriate attitudes and behavior towards HIV/AIDS (e.g., adopting preventive behavior). This last section contains participatory activities on decision making and on how students should behave towards and deal with persons with AIDS. Various teaching aids proposed by the guides include transparencies, fact sheets for teachers, pupils' guides, videocassettes, films, ideas for making puppets, and a glossary. Annex 1 has a pre-test that teachers can use to assess student knowledge, attitudes, and behavior towards AIDS. Annex 2 lists bibliographical references to other guides available at ASERC.
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  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    [Health and environment: a global challenge] Sante et environnement: un defi mondial.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Commission on Health and Environment


    WHO's Commission on Health and Environment states that a healthy environment is not only a necessity: the right to live and to work in an environment favorable to physical and mental health is recognized by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It is for everyone to see to it that this right be respected. It is the duty of individuals and businesses to act and of public powers to supply a strategic and institutional framework necessary for action. Three major objectives can be defined at the global level: establish a sustainable base for health for all, assure a favorable environment for health (i.e., reduce physical, chemical, and biological risks and furnish all the means to acquire the necessary resources for health), and make all individuals and organizations aware of their responsibilities in regard to health and environmental conditions which are necessary to all. To achieve a sustainable base for all, it will be necessary to slow down and finally stop population growth as fast as possible and to promote ways of life and plans of consumption conforming to requirements of ecological sustainability in developed countries. Two principles are at the center of all actions aiming to guarantee a healthier and more stable environment: more equitable access to resources between individuals on the national level and between countries, and full participation of citizens in planning. Participation contributes to the promotion of health and the quality of the environment because it serves as a means to organize action and to motivate individuals and communities while allowing them to work out policies and projects based on their own priorities. It also allows individuals to influence the choices of the means to reap the best part of limited resources. Participation policy structures offer the means to fight against environmental degradation.
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  12. 12

    [Maternal care in developing countries: recommendations of FIGO] Cuidados maternos nos paises em desenvolvimento --recomendacao da FIGO.

    International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics

    PLANEAMENTO FAMILIAR. 1992 Jul-Sep; (57):6.

    At the 13th General Assembly of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), which took place in September 1991, recommendations were formulated concerning the responsibility for maternal care in developing countries. The general recommendations included: to increase the access of women to maternal care by decentralization, and, in order to maximize the use of human resources, to ensure that the staff have the required minimum specialized training with continuous supervision for safe and effective delivery of service. Specific recommendations suggested that, when there is a lack of medical specialists, it is possible to train groups of medical personnel to carry out various functions, including emergency surgical procedures. These functions have to be clearly defined and competencies have to be maintained along with new competencies. FIGO must fund workshops on special techniques for midwives, general practitioners, technicians, and other health workers at the primary and secondary intervention levels. Taking into account the 5 major causes of maternal death, some fundamental practices could prevent and treat these women at the primary health care level: 1) for prolonged labor, its earliest possible diagnosis, its management, and practical guidance; 2) for postpartum hemorrhage, uterine massage, oxytocin, and manual removal of the retained placenta; for puerperal infection, early detection and practical utilization of antibiotics using a list of dosages; 3) for hypertensive cases during pregnancy, early identification and appropriate treatment; 4) for the prevention and management of complications of abortion, making available and acceptable contraceptives in order to prevent undesired pregnancies. The success of these measures depends on the support and participation of the community. Health workers must collect data for the evaluation of maternal care. The implementation of these recommendations requires the cooperation of national societies of gynecologists/obstetricians and associations of midwives and schools of nursing.
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  13. 13

    The "Earth Summit" on population.

    United Nations Conference on Environment and Development [UNCED], (1992: Rio de Janeiro)

    POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1992 Sep; 18(3):571-82.

    The UN Conference on Environment and Development, commonly known as the Earth Summit, took place June 3-14, 1992, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The majority of the 172 countries were represented by heads of state, making this the largest-ever gathering of world leaders. The conference offered the following legally binding conventions for signature: a treaty aimed at preventing global climate change through controlling man-made emissions of greenhouse gases, and a treaty aimed at preventing the eradication of biologically diverse species and protecting flora and fauna. Each was signed by 153 countries at the conference. The US, however, failed to sign the treaty on biodiversity out of concern that provisions in the treaty would unduly restrict the biotechnology industry in that country. The treaty on climate change specifies a reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000 as an objective to be met voluntarily. The convention on biological diversity requires that countries adopt a variety of regulatory measures aimed at conserving biological resources. The summit also adopted several nonbinding documents. For example, the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development outlines 27 principles which express a commitment to improving the environment, while Agenda 21 is a lengthy and detailed blueprint discussing how individual countries and the world as a whole can achieve in the next century environmentally sound development. Population issues were not central in any of the Rio documents, but were given significant attention in the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21. The full text of the Rio Declaration as well as the preamble and chapter five of Agenda 21 on demographic dynamics and sustainability are reproduced.
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  14. 14

    The impact of changes on Latin American and Caribbean women: education, knowledge and demographic trends. Discussion note.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. Women and Development Unit

    [Unpublished] 1992. Presented at the International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD], 1994, Expert Group Meeting on Population and Women, Gaborone, Botswana, June 22-26, 1992. 9 p. (ESD/P/ICPD.1994/EG.III/DN.10)

    Current theoretical and conceptual frameworks have included broader notions of social welfare and the quality of life within development discussions. Gender issues have been more easily integrated into development models. Modernization, as advances in economic conditions and the growth of technology, has rapidly changed societies. Although democracy has been included as a given for human development, a wider gap has appeared between the rich and poor. In Latin America expectations were set up for the social mobility of women and young people, when the debt crisis hit. Future models of women in development must eliminate the gender dichotomies and offer perspectives that explain the contradictions. A proposal was offered for achieving international competitiveness by changing production patterns, using innovation to achieve efficiency and equity, and creating possibilities for international cooperation. Gender equity means redistribution within socioeconomic groups and involvement of women in development. In Latin America, importance was placed on how women were integrated into development. Flexibility and innovation will be the goals of education, which should be compatible with the past traditional role women have carried. Specific measures will need to be introduced for maternal and child care, prenatal care, and flexible working hours. Child care must be part of a coordinated effort among public, private, business, and community sectors. The domestic burden of women will need to be lightened. Reproduction rights in Latin America and the Caribbean must be secured not only for women but also for men. Advances in medicine have reduced risk in childbirth, raised life expectancies, and provided options for women to control unwanted fertility. Excess female mortality due to preventable causes was highest among poor women. Access to education has increased but without a companion increase in labor market opportunity or income levels. In 1977, ECLAC adopted a Regional Plan of Action for the Integration of Women into Latin American and Caribbean Development which recognized women's vulnerability and the need for comprehensive, periodic assessments.
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  15. 15

    The impact of mother's education on infant and child mortality in selected countries in the ESCWA region. Discussion note.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia [ESCWA]. Social Development and Population Division.

    [Unpublished] 1992. Presented at the International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD], 1994, Expert Group Meeting on Population and Women, Gaborone, Botswana, June 22-26, 1992. 21 p. (ESD/P/ICPD.1994/EG.III/DN.13)

    A number of researchers have associated child and infant mortality in developing countries with maternal education. The correlation has remained strong even when proximate variables and other socioeconomic variables were controlled. Setting was considered key to refinement of the associations. The illustrations from Jordan and Egypt showed that a particular level of education was needed before fertility declined and urban-rural differences prevailed. Analysis of 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey data indicated a strong association between child survival and maternal education. Children of women with a secondary education had the lowest infant and child mortality. The impact of maternal education was strongest in Cairo and Alexandria. Findings showed that the child mortality rate for rural women with secondary education was 38% of that for illiterate women; the rate for educated urban women was 61% of that for uneducated women. Analysis of Egyptian Fertility Survey data for 1980 found that child mortality at any age was inversely related to maternal educational level. The infant mortality rate for uneducated mothers was 89% greater than for mothers with 6 or more years of schooling; neonatal mortality was 91% greater, postneonatal mortality was 86% greater, and child mortality was 108% greater. Multivariate analysis indicated that maternal education of at least 6 years decreased postneonatal mortality by 46.2%. Infant mortality was reduced by 26% with at least 6 years of maternal schooling. Child mortality was not affected by maternal education in the multivariate analysis. Data analysis based on data from the Egypt Pregnancy Wastage and Infant Mortality Survey, 1980, revealed that probability of dying in infancy decreased with increased levels of maternal and paternal education. Neonatal mortality was most affected by parental educational status. Multivariate analysis of Jordanian Fertility Survey data for 1976 and 1981 showed that mortality was higher for mothers with less than 6 years of education. Maternal and paternal education had independent effects, but paternal education had the greater impact. Paternal education lasting 9 or more years had an impact on urban child mortality, whereas paternal education must reach at least 12 years in rural areas in order for the effect to be observed. Inconsistent results were found for the impact of spousal differences in education. Rural lack of education had the strongest impact on child survival.
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  16. 16

    Activities of All Pakistan Women's Association 1949.

    All Pakistan Women's Association [APWA]

    Karachi, Pakistan, APWA, [1992]. [38] p.

    The All Pakistan Women's Association (APWA), established in 1949 and granted consultative status with the UN in 1952, seeks to further the moral, social, economic, and legal status of Pakistani women and children. On the international level, APWA has played a leading role in promoting collaboration and a sharing of experiences on women's and children's issues among nongovernmental organizations. In addition, the APWA campaigns for international security conflict resolution and disarmament and was the 1987 recipient of the UN Peace Messenger Certificate. Within Pakistan, the provision of health care services to women and children in rural areas, urban slums, and squatter settlements is a priority. 56 family welfare centers have been established by APWA to provide family planning education and services, prenatal care, maternal-child health referrals, immunization, oral rehydration, breast feeding promotion, basic curative care, and group meetings. No other family planning services are available in the areas where these centers are located. The centers are staffed by a female health visitor, who provides a range of contraceptive methods and follows up acceptors, and motivators, who provide family planning education in the community. The motivator also recruits a volunteer in each community who opens her home as a place for weekly group meetings and contraceptive distribution. APWA's strategy, however, is to introduce family planning through community development projects aimed at income generation, child care, nutritional education, and primary and adult education. Since 1987, comprehensive rural development projects have been carried out in 20 villages in all 4 provinces. Another emphasis has been the improvement of women's status through legal action. The APWA was instrumental in having an equal rights for women clause inserted in the 1972 Interim Constitution and succeeded in preventing passage of an ordinance that would have made compensation for the murder of a woman half that for the murder of a man.
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  17. 17

    Nations of the earth report. Volume III. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development: national reports summaries.

    United Nations Conference on Environment and Development [UNCED]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNCED, 1992. vi, 518 p.

    The UN Conference on Environment and Development's (UNCED) final volume of the Nations of the Earth Report contains 72 summary reports of 80-81 developing countries or regions. These unofficial summaries do not always reflect the full and accurate positions of the governments concerned. Instead, they give an indication of the contents of the full reports so the reader will know what to find in the full reports. UNCED analysts compiled the summaries into the following main categories: drafting process, problem areas, past and present capacity-building initiatives, recommendations and priorities on environment and development, financial arrangements and funding requirements, environmentally sound technologies, international cooperation, expectations from UNCED, and table of contents for the full report. The summaries are in English. The full reports should be available on CD-ROM by mid-1993. Summaries of regional reports cover the Arctic region, Southern African Development Coordination, USSR, and the European Community. The Pacific Island Development Coordination and Organization of Eastern Caribbean States regional reports are in volume II. The appendices include UNCED guidelines for national reports, an overview of all national reports (main findings, anticipated results of the conference, drafting process, relationship between development and environment, evaluation of the process, and classification of terms), and contents of volumes I and II.
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  18. 18

    Directory of funders in maternal health and safe motherhood.

    Appropriate Health Resources and Technologies Action Group [AHRTAG]

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Division of Family Health, Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme, 1992. [10], 75, viii p. (WHO/MCH/MSM/92.7)

    WHO's Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme asked the Appropriate Health Resources and Technologies Action Group (AHRTAG) to compile this directory of organizations willing to provide funding to nongovernmental organizations to either strengthen existing maternal health and safe motherhood programs or implement such programs in developing countries thereby improving maternal health. The introduction gives general background information about the Safe Motherhood Initiative and explains how to use the directory. The directory lists the agencies willing to provide support by country. It also has a section on each agency listing the address; telephone, telex, and FAX numbers; types of projects each agency is willing to support; information on funding (grant size and length of project requirements); and conditions for support. The directory provides a section with general guidelines on how to prepare a project proposal to be submitted to the listed organizations. For example, it stresses that the proposal should be concise and short and include the following: summary of no more than 1 page in length, organizational background, statement of need, aims and objectives, strategy/workplan, monitoring, evaluation, and budget. The Appendix lists organizations that did not respond to AHRTAG's survey.
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  19. 19

    The prevalence of anaemia in women: a tabulation of available information. 2nd ed.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health. Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme; World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Health Protection and Promotion. Nutrition Programme

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1992. 100 p.

    The discussion of the prevalence of anemia in women focused on definitions of nutritional anemia, cause of nutritional anemia, and the sources of data and estimation methods. Tables are provided by country and region for hemoglobin levels (mean and percentage below the mean for lactating women, for pregnant women, for nonpregnant women, and all women) and for serum iron, serum folate, and serum vitamin B12 (mean and percentage below the norm). WHO's Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Program is the repository for data. Nutritional anemia is caused by malnutrition such that the hemoglobin content of the blood is lower than normal as a result of deficiency in 1 or more essential nutrients. Iron is usually stored in the bone where it can be used to increase the rate of formation of hemoglobin to satisfy increased needs, such as during pregnancy. Causes of anemia are low nutrient intake, poor absorption or utilization, or increased nutrient losses or demands. Iron is absorbed more readily in the presence of animal foods or vitamin C and inhibited by meals of tea or high levels of bran. Other causes are malaria, sickle cell disease, bacterial infections, blood loss from obstetric causes, or intestinal parasites, such as hookworms. Underlying factors are poverty and hardships from poor nutrition, water shortages, food taboos, inadequacies in food production and storage and the absence of effect systems of social security. Anemia can be a direct cause of death or contribute to hemorrhage, which can lead to death, e.g., an anemic mother during childbirth cannot afford to lose less than 150 ml of blood, compared with a healthy mother's 1 liter blood loss. Anemic mothers have a lower resistance to infection, and surgery poses a risk. WHO anemia levels are determined as < 120 g/L of hemoglobin for nonpregnant adult women and < 110 g.L for pregnant adult women, < .50mg/L serum iron, < 3 ng/ml serum folate concentration, and < 100 pg/ml serum vitamin B12. 2,170 million persons were found to be anemic according to WHO definitions. The most affected groups were pregnant women, preschool age children, low birth weight infants, other women, the elderly, school age children, and adult men. In developing countries, prevalence rates are 40-60% among pregnant women. In developed countries, 18% if pregnant women and 12% of nonpregnant women are anemic. Over 33% of women in the world were anemic; the problem is particularly acute in Asia.
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  20. 20

    Inventory and review of research and evaluation studies on population education. Sri Lanka.

    UNESCO. Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific [PROAP]

    [Unpublished] 1992 Apr. [110] p.

    Sri Lanka's review of population education studies aimed to provide a compilation and an analytical review of research and evaluation findings. Potential benefits are expected for improving policy making and practice, for locating the gaps in programs and the necessary action needed, and for facilitating the use research in planning and evaluation. Research deficiencies in program evaluation were noted by Professor J.E. Jayasuriya in 1986. The population education task in 1972 was tremendous and included introduction of curricular reform in 8000 primary schools and 5500 junior secondary schools, with only a 6-month start-up time. Program implementation was still ongoing when reforms were instituted in 1977, and 1978, and 1983. Data were collected in some fashion during this period, and evaluations were conducted on an ad hoc basis by postgraduate students. Much more research information is available on demographic trends in fertility and family planning (FP). Reforms did not include University Departments of Education, and training activities were devoted primarily to training teachers for the ever increasing demand. The review included 75 listings among the following topics: basic research studies (55), KAP studies (4), management (4), personnel training (2), curriculum development and instructional materials (4), information dissemination (1), and program impact evaluation (3). There were no studies of teaching methodology or classroom instruction. A limitation of the study is the arbitrary nature of the criteria, which was developed by UNESCO/PROAP. There also was a limited time frame which did not allow for direct contact of instructions or researchers. A summary of the research activity is provided. Each study is listed by title, place and publisher, number of pages, series of document number, language, objectives, key words, availability, methodology, and findings.
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  21. 21

    Brief review of the regional sectoral programme in population education during the last two decades and challenges for the future.

    UNESCO. Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. Regional Advisory Team on Population Education

    Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO, Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1992. [2], 33, [55] p. (Population Education Programme Service [PES])

    The review was prepared at the request of Mr. Saad Raheem Sheikh of the UNFPA Asia and Pacific Region headquarters in New York. A description is given of the Asia and Pacific regional sectoral program in population education between the 1970s and 1990s. The review covered changes in program emphasis objectives, and strategies. Achievements are documents in the appendixes with lists of training programs, workshops, and materials produced or conducted. The summary conclusion was that UNFPA financial assistance and UNESCO technical services were instrumental in the implementation by countries in the region of national population education programs for both the formal and informal educational sectors. Program development varied by country from no program at all to institutionalization of population education. Teams of trained personnel managed national population education programs in the region. A set of prototypical educational materials for learning and training and for research and evaluation was developed. Innovative strategies were employed during the planning and implementation stages. The original conception of population education was expanded to include environmental issues, sex education, AIDS, aging, and urbanization. Financial and technical support is still needed in the region to ensure institutionalization of programming. Prior review of the Regional Advisory Team revealed acceptance by countries and a record of efficacy and effectiveness. A key factor was the ability to respond quickly to country requests. The Regional Advisory Team also developed excellent relationships with all UNFPA country directors in the region and the national office.
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  22. 22

    The role of health centres in the development of urban health systems: report of a WHO Study Group on Primary Health Care in Urban Areas.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Study Group on Primary Health Care in Urban Areas


    The WHO Study Group on Primary Health Care (PHC) in Urban Areas has written a report after examining the development of reference health centers in urban areas in various parts of the world. It considers such centers to be a potentially important way to improve urban health services. Reference health centers, with real roots in the community and good links to first level and referral level care, can address the problems of access to health care and intersectoral collaboration. Each center should be based on a general model, but its exact operation depends on local conditions and on a comprehensive situation analysis that considers social and financial factors and the level of organizational development. Each reference center should determine what needs to be done locally with local and national resources. Outside donors should only provide assistance for operational costs and a last resort. To plan services adequately, decision makers must define geographical catchment areas and travel times. These definitions must see to it that services integrate with each other vertically (with services at health post and hospital levels), and horizontally (with government, and nongovernmental, and community projects). A solid epidemiological understanding of major local health problems is essential for expanding PHC through reference health centers. This knowledge comes from an assessment of demographic, morbidity, mortality, and social data an evaluation of coverage of underserved and marginal groups. Reference health centers would be in an ideal position to gather and analyze these data. Innovative ways to obtain the resources for urban PHC are collection of user fees and close supportive links with universities and nongovernmental organizations. The Study Group looks at how reference health centers in Cali, Colombia; Manila, the Philippines; and Newark, New Jersey in the US, developed.
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  23. 23

    Children of the Americas. Child survival, protection and integrated development in the 1990s.

    UNICEF. Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean

    Santa Fe de Bogota, Colombia, UNICEF, Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, 1992. [6], 83 p.

    The majority of the world's population is comprised of women of childbearing age and youths under 18 years old. Their well-being and survival are essential not only to the biological survival of the human race, but also to the transfer of sustainable development between generations. It is therefore in our best interest to protect and prepare them to embark upon productive, participatory futures. Many children, however, roil in the inequalities and disparities between the world's societies and economies and suffer inadequate education, poor health, and poverty. Steps must therefore be made to reduce global inequalities and foster a greater degree of balance between social subsectors. Complementary public policies to stimulate equal opportunity and halt environmental decay would be positive steps. Excess maternal and child morbidity and mortality may be prevented; maternal-child malnutrition should be reduced; all children should be guaranteed the opportunity to enroll and complete primary school education; poverty and illiteracy should be eradicated; and drinking water and sanitation services should be provided to all families. Concerted local and international efforts are called for to safeguard the quality of the environment in which women of childbearing age and children exist. UNICEF concentrates upon only Latin America and the Caribbean in this document reviewing the current state of affairs and what needs to be done. A videocassette entitled 500 seconds and 2 series of radio programs supplement the text to comprise a comprehensive multimedia project. Subsequent presentations will consider the entire hemisphere.
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  24. 24

    Integration of population education in APPEAL. Volume Three. Population education in literacy and continuing education.

    UNESCO. Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific [PROAP]

    Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO, PROAP, 1992. [3], 115 p. (Population Education Programme Service)

    Workshops were conducted in 1989 and 1991 in Indonesia and Pakistan to discuss the integration of population education into primary school curricula and into continuing education and literacy programs. This document provides a summary of prototype materials for integration of population messages in nonformal education. On-site visits were conducted in the rural villages of Sinar Bakti and Sari Harapan in the eastern district of Lembang, and 24 semi-literate persons were interviewed on demographic information, knowledge, attitudes, practices in family planning, problems and solutions, and aspirations. Workshop participants drafted materials with the help of resource persons, and 1 flip chart, 1 chart, and 2 booklets were field-tested. The core messages were that mother and child health care promotes family welfare; there is a right age for marriage; children can be spaced; women should be allowed to obtain a higher education; educated mothers add to family quality of life; women's groups can be effective; and rapid population growth leads to water shortages. Each of these messages for semi-literates is further differentiated by format, specific objectives, materials, messages and submessages. For example, a flip chart with 11 pictures is developed for stimulating discussion on the benefits of improving women's educational status. The instructions for facilitators are to direct learners to study the pictures and read the text and then direct questions about the messages in the pictures. Learners are expected to explain the pictures and text and draw conclusions. The learning materials from Pakistan were developed based on a needs assessment approach. Interviewers visited houses and asked for knowledge and attitudes on messages about small family size and social welfare, the right marriage age, responsible parenthood, population and development, reorientation of population-related beliefs and values, and enhancement of the status of women. The results of the inquiries are given. An example of these issues is represented in teaching materials for reorienting beliefs on the right marriage age. The target would be out-of-school youths and adults. The focus would be on how 1) early marriage affects the health of the mother and child, and 2) young mothers are not mentally prepared for the consequences of frequent pregnancies. A puppet show is provided as well as a guide for facilitators of discussion.
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  25. 25

    Integration of population education in APPEAL. Volume Two. Population education in universal primary education.

    UNESCO. Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific [PROAP]

    Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO, PROAP, 1992. [3], 100 p. (Population Education Programme Service)

    As part of the goal to integrate population education into primary school curriculum and literacy programs, workshops were held in 1989 and 1991. The noteworthy teaching materials for primary education included in this document were generated from the experiences in Indonesia and Pakistan. Workshop participants completed questionnaires on various aspects of population education and then visits were made to 3 primary schools in SD Jayagiri, SD Negeri Lembang V, and SD Negeri Cibodas, Indonesia; observations were made and teachers and principals identified their needs. A similar process led to the production of materials for Pakistan after visits to a Muslim community about 4 km from Islamabad and to Saidpur, Pakistan. The materials from Indonesia focused on core messages and submessages on small family size for family welfare, delayed marriage, responsible parenthood, population planning for environmental and resource conservation and development, reorientation of beliefs, and improved status for women. Each core unit had a submessage, objective, content, method or format, target audience, and learning activity. For example, the core message on small family size for family welfare contains the message that a family needs a budget. The objective is to develop an awareness of the relationship between family needs and family income. The content is to stress the limits to expenditures within family resources and a comparison of sharing available resources in a large family. The method or format is a script for radio directed to out-of-school children and class VI. Dialogue is presented in a scene about purchasing food at a local market. The noteworthy curriculum materials from Pakistan focuses on their problems, their population, family, teachings of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, implications of population growth, living things and their environment, and Shimim's story. Each issue has a class time, subject, core message, and instructional objective. In Shimim's story, the social studies class is devoted for 45 minutes to the core message about elders as an asset to the family and society. Reading material is provided and the teacher directs questions about the material and tests students with true/false questions.
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