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  1. 1
    107089

    Strengthening government capacity for national development and international negotiation: the work of Save the Children Fund in Mozambique.

    Save the Children Fund

    [Unpublished] 1991. Presented at the Annual Conference of the Development Studies Association, Swansea, England, September 1991. 27 p.

    This conference paper offers lessons learned by the Save the Children Fund (SCF) regarding work in Mozambique in the course of seven years. SCF began its involvement in Mozambique in late 1984 supporting the government's expanded program of immunization. Objectives were to support essential services by working with the authorities from national through district levels. Models of good practice were assisted at the provincial level in Zambezia. The program diversified in 1986 with the development of policy about orphaned children traumatized by the war. Nutrition, transport, and emergency support followed over the next two years with a great deal of assistance going to the Mozambican emergency structure. The current SCF program has evolved in two major directions: 1) funding, logistical, and technical support at the provincial level to develop models of good practice, and 2) technical assistance at the central government level by experienced expatriate advisors placed within the Ministries of Health and Education along with training for Mozambican counterparts. The ruling government party FRELIMO was seen to be committed to progressive development policies, particularly in primary health care, education, and social welfare. The impact of the strategy on the lives of children was difficult to assess because of the devastation of the country by war and economic decline. A functioning health information system has been developed based on the advice given by computer specialists of SCF. A special focus of SCF's contribution to alternatives to institutional care has been the assessment of the impact of war, violence, and separation on children. This includes the tracing of surviving members of families of orphaned children and reuniting them and teacher training to reconstruct the child's life in school settings. SCF's food security adviser has also contributed substantially to the World Bank Food Security Strategy Paper approved in 1989.
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  2. 2
    076314
    Peer Reviewed

    [The Red Cross on the front line] La Croix-Rouge en premiere ligne.

    REVUE DE L INFIRMIERE. 1991 May 21; 41(10):33-5.

    The coordinator of a project fighting against AIDS in Tanzania in collaboration with the government is a Danish nurse, one of 4 mobilized teachers, working for the Tanzanian Red Cross to spread the message of prevention in primary and secondary classes in the North of the Kagera region using original pedagogical methods such as theater, song, and poems. The educational project consists of a group of 8 persons (social workers and nurses) travelling in 2 groups directed by a doctor. The Red Cross helps orphans, providing them with uniforms and school supplies by turning to the village administration, who indicates which families need help with their health. At present the problem of the cholera epidemic is the most pressing, and AIDS is dealt with in conjunction with the filtration of water and the plantation of trees in the Red Cross program that started in March 1989. The extreme poverty is attributable both to AIDS and to the war with Uganda, in addition to economic difficulties caused by the free fall of the price of coffee, the principal cash crop of the region, and the fact that banana trees contracted a disease. It is a higher priority for most men to obtain food than a box of condoms, especially since the disease is hard to comprehend until symptoms appear. However, they do not distribute condoms, but only inform young people where to get them, partly because of the opposition of religious organizations to this preventive measure. The other solution is to have only 1 sexual partner, but a good number in their audience are Muslim who have several wives. Many other nongovernmental organizations mobilize in Tanzania with actions against this epidemic. Some people change their behavior, other never do, and the hope lies in making young people aware of this disease.
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  3. 3
    070129

    Maternal and child health and catastrophe.

    Drake JW

    [Unpublished] 1991. Presented at the 119th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association [APHA], Atlanta, Georgia, November 11-14, 1991. 46, [1] p.

    The effects of the aftermath of the August 2nd, 1990 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, the UN Security Council imposed sanctions, and the UN military offensive against Iraq on Iraq's maternal and child health sector and its public health infrastructure are examined. A review of the UN sanctions and dates of implementation are provided. A series of international responses ensued and are described. By February 1991, Baghdad had <5% of a normal water supply and the system was in collapse. Families, particularly women and children, suffered food shortages including infant formula, burns from makeshift cooking devices, e.g., epidemiologic and disease reporting ceased, drugs and vaccines were in short supply or absent, and sanitation and sewage systems were dysfunctional. It is concluded that OAS and US action against Haiti in the form of sanctions and military action would place a tremendous burden on the poor, and it is suggested that careful consideration be given before steps are taken. Also, discussed is the modern method of conflict resolution which is fueled by weapons technology and the profit incentive. There is a called to action for developing a realistic conception framework for the study and conduct of relationships with nations. There is a need to guide change peacefully and to resolve conflict without threat to life and the public's health, human environment, and ecosystem. The modern weapons technology and the protocols allowable under the UN Charter did not accomplish this in Iraq.
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  4. 4
    067137

    Family planning and the Gulf war.

    Hanafi H

    PEOPLE. 1991; 18(2):24-5.

    The effect of the Gulf War on family planning services in the Arab Region is discussed. The war may also underscore the problems of inequities in the distribution of wealth, misuse of natural resources, displacement of people (refugees and human rights), and precariousness of economies based on disorganized imported/exported labor. It is hoped that this will lead to a coordinated population policy on migration and population movements in the Arab Region. The Arab world has also exposed it's high fertility rates, mortality rates, poverty, and conditions of women. The IPPF family planning associates have functioned in 14 Arab countries with hesitant support. The scarce family planning resources may be diverted to investments in national security and emergency care and curative services. Health, education, nutrition, and joblessness are critical for Iraqis, Jordanians, and those fleeing or being expelled from Iraq, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. Their status may be no better than the refugees stranded in Jordan. Attitudes from the war may lead to pressure on mothers to replace the dead, or retreat into thinking about safety in numbers. Public opinion against the West's imperialist plots about family planning, as evidenced in Israel's pronatalist policies, may equate family planning with being anti-Islamic and antinationalist. These fears are further exacerbated by the fundamentalist concerns about anti-Islamic family planning. Religious fanaticism also threatens the newly acquired rights of women to choose the desired number of children, to education, and to hold public office. A further complication is the political nature of international assistance which may punish poorer Arab nations for their rebellion, or be distributed based on political aims. No Arab nation is neutral and IPPF will suffer resulting in fewer exchanges and regional-based activities.
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  5. 5
    070889

    Different strategies for different situations.

    Trigg P

    WORLD HEALTH. 1991 Sep-Oct; 10-2.

    The number of malaria cases is rising very rapidly in undeveloped, politically, and economically unstable areas. The magnitude of malaria varies within these prone areas, however. There are several species of anopheles mosquito that transmit different malaria species to a variety of human populations in different climates and physical environments. So no single prevention and control strategy works for all situations. Different strategies include at least 1 of the following control measures: early diagnosis and early treatment, impregnated bednets, close surveillance, insecticide spraying, developing health services, and personal protection measures. Malaria specialists have recommended different control strategies depending on the malaria situation. They have identified 8 such situations: African savanna malaria, desert fringe and highland fringe malaria, malaria associated with traditional agriculture in plains and river valleys outside Africa, forest related malaria, malaria associated with extensive agricultural development, urban malaria and malaria in planned human settlements, coastal and marshlands malaria, and malaria in war zones and areas with sociopolitical disturbances. African savanna malaria represents the most serious situation since it occurs in Sub-Saharan Africa where 80% of malaria cases in the world and 90% of malaria mortality cases occur. It also has highly efficient mosquitoes which transmit malaria to almost everyone early in life. In terms of agricultural development, the crops most associated with malaria are rice, sugar cane, and bananas because of irrigation and cotton because of seasonal labor and massive use of insecticides. The health community does have the technical means to bring about a substantial fall in the effect of malaria, all that is needed is political will, well-managed resources, malaria specialists, health workers, and active community participation.
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  6. 6
    069834

    In Sri Lanka, a clearer focus.

    POPULATION. 1991 Dec; 17(12):3.

    In order to improve maternal and child health and family planning services in areas of Sri Lanka that lag in health and social development, UNFPA has created a program called "More Focused." This program targets underserved places such as fishing villages, plantations, and slums. More Focused represents part of UNFPA's program package intended to help Sri Lanka reach its goal of replacement level fertility by the year 2000. The approach of More focused offers underserved regions more than simply contraceptive services. The program provides an array of services that address problems such as poor nutrition, low literacy levels, and cultural factors. For example, More Focus is attempting to improve the conditions and the self-confidence of women working in Sri Lanka's free-trade zones, which contain the heaviest concentration of malnourished women. The project gives women instruction on nutrition, money management, health, family planning, etc. The women have gained confidence and have organized themselves to discuss employment-related issues with their employees. For its 1992-96 country program, UNFPA has emphasized the "cafeteria approach" to family planning, which makes available a wide variety of contraceptives. In the past, many had complained that Sri-Lanka had concentrated too heavily on sterilization. The new approach makes contraceptive services more sensitive to specific social and cultural settings. Nonetheless, Sri Lanka still faces serious obstacles to achieving its goal for the year 2000. Years of civil war have interrupted the accomplishments of its once-legendary family planning program. Nonetheless, UNFPA remains optimistic that the country's continuing family planning effort will lead to replacement level fertility.
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