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  1. 1

    Population conference set for 1994; ageing, international migration examined - International Conference on Population and Development.

    UN Chronicle. 1991 Jun; 28(2):[4] p..

    Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UN Population Fund and Secretary-General of the Conference, said preparations for the event reflected the enormous needs and challenges of the future, as well as the notable advances that had been made in the population field, particularly by developing countries in implementing policies and programmes. Egypt and Tunisia both have offered to host the Conference, scheduled for August 1994. Further preparatory meetings are planned in August 1993 and early 1994. It would be the fifth international population conference convened by the UN. Conferences held in Rome in 1954 and in Belgrade in 1965 were purely technical meetings, limited to scientific discussions on population topics. Subsequent intergovernmental conferences in Bucharest in 1974 and in Mexico City in 1984 were concerned with establishing objectives, principles and goals, and making recommendations in the population field. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Report: Albania.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Technical and Evaluation Division; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Division for Arab States and Europe

    New York, New York, UNFPA, [1991]. [6], 33 p.

    A United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) mission to Albania in 1989 attempted to identify the country's priority population issues and goals. Albania, a socialist country, has made many accomplishments, including an administrative structure that extends down to the village level, no foreign debt, universal literacy, a low death rate (5.4/1000), and involvement of women in development. At the same time, the country has the highest birth rate in Europe (25.5/1000), a high incidence of illegal abortion, lack of access to modern methods of contraception, and inadequate technology in areas such as medical equipment and data collection. Albania's population policy is aimed at maintaining the birth rate at its current level, reducing morality, and lowering the abortion rate by 50% by 1995. Goals for the health sector include increasing life expectancy, reducing infant and maternal mortality, improving the quality of health services, and decreasing the gap between the standard of living in rural and urban areas. Family planning is not allowed except for health reasons. Depending on trends in the total fertility rate, Albania's population in the year 2025 could be as low as 4.6 million or as high as 5.4 million. Albania has expressed an interest in collaborating with UN agencies in technical cooperation projects. The UNFPA mission recommended that support should be provided for the creation of a population database and analysis system for the Government's 1991-95 development plan. Also recommended was support to the Enver Hoxha University's program of strengthening the teaching of population dynamics and demographic research. Other recommendations included activities to strengthen maternal care/child spacing activities, IEC projects, and to raise the status of women.
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  3. 3

    [Population and reproduction] Poblacion y reproduccion.

    Rosenbaum RF

    In: Jornadas Multidisciplinarias sobre el Aborto, 25 de febrero al lo de marzo, 1991. Salon de Honor del Ilustre Colegio Abogados de La Paz. [La Paz], Bolivia, Sociedad Boliviana de Ciencias Penales, 1991. 45-63.

    The problems created by excessive population growth at the global level and in Bolivia, and the response of the UN Population Fund are summarized. Today's world population of 5.3 billion is projected to reach 6.25 billion in 2000. In many areas, population growth has outstripped carrying capacity. Over 90% of the growth is in developing countries, where urban growth is particularly rapid. Because balance between human population and resources and environmental protection are key elements in quality of life and for sustainable development, population concerns should be a fundamental part of development strategies. The mandate of the UN Population Fund since 1973 has been to acquire and disseminate in developed and developing countries a knowledge of population problems and possible strategies to confront them, and to assist developing countries, at their request, to find appropriate solutions to their population problems. National population goals and objectives should include reducing average family sizes, reducing the proportion of women not using contraception, reducing early marriage and motherhood, and achieving a contraceptive prevalence of at least 56% of fertile-aged women in developing countries by the year 2000. Infant and maternal mortality rates should be lowered, average life expectancy should be increased to at least 62 years, and geographic distribution of the population improved. Bolivia, with its annual population growth rate of 2.2% and total fertility rate of 5.1, per capita income of $633/year, life expectancy of 58 years, and infant mortality rate of 102, is a priority country for the UN Population Fund. No coherent program of cooperation between the UN Population Fund and Bolivia has yet been developed, but 32 projects have been assisted in Bolivia since 1972 with a total investment of approximately US$105 million, of which 44.7% was destined for maternal-child health services and 29.0% for data collection.
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  4. 4

    Technical note on Norplant.

    Hurtado F

    [Unpublished] 1991 May 9. [5] p.

    Norplant is an effective, long-lasting, reversible contraceptive that provides protection for five years. It consists of six thin, flexible Silastic capsules filled with 36 mg of levonorgestrel, inserted just under the skin of a woman's upper arm in a minor surgical procedure. To date (1991), more than 55,000 women in 46 countries have used it in clinical trials and pharmacological evaluations. The pregnancy rate is 0.2 per 100 continuing users for the first year. The most frequently reported side effect is change in the menstrual bleeding pattern. In addition, headache, nervousness, nausea, dermatitis, acne, weight gain, and some effects on hair as hirsutism and hair loss may be associated with Norplant use. The net continuation rate is over 77% of new acceptors the first year and 35% after five years. Any specially trained physician, nurse, nurse-midwife, or trained health worker can do insertions and removals. To make sure the woman is not pregnant, Norplant should be inserted within seven days after the onset of menstrual bleeding or immediately postabortion. Norplant may be used by almost any woman who is in good health. It is particularly suited for women who want long-term birth spacing or cannot use contraceptives that contain estrogen. It can also be an appropriate method for lactating women starting at least six weeks after childbirth. At present more than half a million women have used Norplant in countries where it has been approved for widespread distribution: Finland (1983); Sweden, Ecuador, Indonesia (1985); Thailand, Dominican Republic, Colombia (1986); Peru, Venezuela, Sri Lanka (1987); Chile (1988); and Kenya, China, Czechoslovakia (1990). Among several other countries, Haiti, Nepal, and Tunisia have also authorized Norplant in their national family planning program. With approval of Norplant by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 1990, the method faces potentially greater demand in the future.
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  5. 5

    Norplant levonorgestrel implants: expansion to ten new countries.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] [1991]. 26, [2] p.

    In 1991 Norplant was used in 46 countries by more than 1 million women. In 20 countries regulatory approvals for Norplant had been received, including by the US Food and Drug Administration in December, 1990. In 1988 the United Nations Population Fund provided a grant to the Population Council (PC) to expand Norplant to 10 new countries. A Starter Pack of materials was prepared for countries wishing to introduce Norplant. In October 1990 a PC staff associate and a consultant visited Burkina Faso, Mali, and Togo to discuss Norplant preintroduction trials. In both Mali and Togo presentations were made. In May 1991 the regional medical associate received a request to conduct a seminar on Norplant in Burundi. Three physicians were trained in Chile and the PC regional medical associate visited Chile in October 1990 to supervise the first training program. In Bolivia a trial started at the Hospital Obrero No. 1 and services began in September 1990. A project also aimed to compare the acceptability of Norplant with other methods. In Jamaica a study was undertaken to assess the acceptability of Norplant and to plan for its use at 3 clinics, and 5 physicians were trained in its use with 300 women enrolled. Southeastern Asian regional activities in 1990 involved a project training paramedical personnel on Norplant counseling. Three nurse/midwives from each of about 100 hospitals attended a 2-day training session. Nine trained teaching personnel implemented 15 sessions covering 292 nurses and midwives; and 14 visits to provinces for evaluation. India's introduction of Norplant may not be completed in time because of caseload requirements. A preintroduction trial was finalized in April 1991 in Vietnam with about 400 acceptors for 2 years. West Asia and North Africa regional activities concerned consultation in Algeria and plans to introduce Norplant at 2 sites in Rabat, Morocco.
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  6. 6

    Policies and support for natural family planning: rationale and future plans.

    Donayre J

    In: Natural family planning: current knowledge and new strategies for the 1990s. Proceedings of a conference, Part II, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., December 10-14, 1990, edited by John T. Queenan, Victoria H. Jennings, Jeffrey M. Spieler, Helena von Hertzen. [Washington, D.C.], Georgetown University Institute for International Studies in Family Planning, [1991]. 91-2.

    The UN Population Fund (UNFPA) has neither policy for any specific method or approach to family planning, nor preference for any particular method. UNFPA's judgement on particular methods is based upon public assessments and UNFPA's perception of its appropriateness and effectiveness. General policies regulating UNFPA support to population programs rest upon a set of fundamental principles related to the type of relationship maintained with governments of the UN member states and to ethical and human rights implications. The UNFPA supports natural family planning (NFP) as one of many viable family planning options for use in a comprehensive national program. NFP methods are methods of choice for couples who are able to abstain methodically for sufficient periods of time, are capable of following specific instructions, and are able to communicate effectively with each other. A natural constituency therefore exists for NFP. Moreover, UNFPA believes in the educational value of natural methods. NFP helps couples to understand basic features of their reproductive physiology and to develop capacities for self-observation. This educational component of NFP helps improve women's status within the family, in relation to their partner or spouse, and in society overall. UNFPA looks forward to the time when NFP becomes an active and dynamic part of national family planning programs everywhere.
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  7. 7


    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, [1991]. v, 36 p. (Report)

    The former government of Romania sought to maintain existing population and accelerate population growth by restricting migration, increasing fertility, and reducing mortality. The provision and use of family planning (FP) were subject to restrictions and penalties beginning in 1986, the legal marriage age for females was lowered to 15 years, and incentives were provided to bolster fertility. These and other government policies have contributed to existing environmental pollution, poor housing, insufficient food, and major health problems in the country. To progress against population-related problems, Romania most urgently needs to gather reliable population and socioeconomic data for planning purposes, establish the ability to formulate population policy and undertake related activities, rehabilitate the health system and introduce modern FP methods, education health personnel and the public about FP methods, promote awareness of the need for population education, and establish that women's interests are served in government policy and action. These topics, recommendations, and the role of foreign assistance are discussed in turn.
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  8. 8

    Interview: Mr. Tevia Abrams, UNFPA Country Director for India.

    ASIA-PACIFIC POPIN BULLETIN. 1991 Dec; 3(4):10-2.

    The government of India set up a population program 25 years ago, yet the population is expected to surpass that of China in the near future. The current UN Population Fund (UNFPA) program for India covers the period 1991-95 with coordination, implementation, and evaluation. Improved services focus on states with high fertility and mortality, high infant mortality, self-reliance in contraceptive production, models for maternal health care and traditional health care, national communication strategy, public awareness enhancement, and raising women's status by female literacy expansion and employment generation. UNFPA trains, provides equipment and contraceptives, and nongovernmental organization participation. The bulk of the $90 million cost of the program will come from UNFPA: maternal-child health, family planning (FP), and information, education, and communication (IEC) will receive the most funding. Ethnic and tribal areas will get attention under a decentralized scheme in accordance with the concept of a multicultural society where early age at marriage and high economic value of children are realities. The Ministry is responsible for IEC and FP targets and allocation of funds. Government institutes and universities carry out population research. The creation of India POPIN patterned after the Asia-Pacific Population Information Network is under development under IEC activities. The status of women is varied throughout India, in the state of Kerala literacy reaches 100%, and the birth rate of 19.8%/1000 women is below the national average of 30.5. In contrast, the states of Bihar and Rajasthan with female literacy of 23% and 21%, respectively, have birth rates of 34.4% and 33.9%.
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  9. 9

    Programme review and strategy development report: Botswana.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, [1991]. vii, 71 p.

    The Government of Botswana followed good economic policies during the 1970s-80s and received considerable revenues from minerals which it invested in its social and economic infrastructure. this resulted in more employment and improved health, education, and skills of the population. Even though these actions were a good start in dealing with population issues, the population continues to grow rapidly (3.45%) and total fertility is high (6.39). Despite the country's small population size (1.3 million; population density=2/square km), it strains Botswana's limited resource base. In the future, the water supply will be Botswana's most serious problem. It is now facing increased teenage and unwanted pregnancies, malnutrition, overcrowding, and street children. Yet Botswana has no official population policy. Maternal and child health (MCH) programs provide family planning (FP) information, services, and supplies, but based on the growth rate, women tend to use contraceptives to space births. Contraceptive prevalence is around 32%. The government does not have a definite information, education, and communication (IEC) strategy that targets populations not served by MCH/FP programs. UNFPA recommends that the government of Botswana begin formulating a population policy and implementation strategy. It suggests that the strategy include an institutional framework; a policy document; the organization of a national population program as soon as possible; IEC; a component addressing women, population, and development; FP services; a framework for data collection and analyses; and mechanisms to improve date quality, analyses, and dissemination of findings.
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  10. 10

    Research on socio-cultural factors affecting family planning programmes in developing countries.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1991. 33 p. (UNFPA Report)

    The United Nations Population Fund recognizes the importance of paying attention to sociocultural factors in developing appropriate and effective population policies and strenthening the operational aspects of family planning programs. To that end, the Fund hosted a 2-day meeting of 22 experts in the field. The Expert Group Meeting on Research on Sociocultural Factors Affecting Family Planning Programmes in Developing Countries brought together an international and diverse group of social scientists and research specialists to discuss what is known in the field, what needs to be known, and what needs to be done to improve the effectiveness of family planning programs. Participants concurred on the universal relevance of sociocultural factors in population programs and that programs could be more effective if sociocultural considerations were more fully taken into account. Social and cultural setting influenced how the idea of population control could be broached with policy makers, how they affected resource deployment, and the working styles of involved institutions. Shortfalls in program performance therefore often reflect the failure to adequately consider local cultural and social settings. Greater program effectiveness could be had if such factors were recognized and program modifications made at the start of programs. A need was also expressed to broaden the scope and reach of population regulation efforts in all programs. This would involve extending program efforts beyond the target group of ever-married women who have reached their desired family size to reach adolescents and members of cultural minorities. Abstracts of major papers presented are included.
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  11. 11

    African women. A review of UNFPA-supported women, population and development projects in Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Zaire, and Zambia.

    de Cruz AM; Ngumbu L; Siedlecky S; Fapohunda ER

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1991 Jan. 45 p.

    In the late 1980s, UNFPA-supported women, population, and development projects in 4 African countries were reviewed during their early stages of implementation. The Gabon project aimed to identify pressing needs of rural women who worked in agroindustries or participated in agricultural cooperatives so the government could know how to integrate rural women into national development and in developing programs benefiting women. It realized that providing women with information about family health and sanitation did not meet their needs unless they first had a minimum income with which to implement what they learned. The Guinea-Bissau project chose and trained 22 female rural extension workers to inform women about sanitation and maternal and child health, nutrition, and birth spacing to improve the standard of living. It also hoped to strengthen the administrative, planning, and operational capacity of the women's group of a national political party to improve maternal and child health. Yet the women's group did not have the needed knowledge and experience in project development to operate a successful extension-based program. Further, it was unrealistic to expect women to train to become extension works when the government would not hire them permanently. In Zaire, women at local multiservice women's centers in 3 rural regions imparted information and education to modify traditional beliefs and behavior norms to increase women's role in development. In Zambia, Family Health Programme workers provided integrated maternal and child health care and family planning services through local health centers countrywide. The projects used scientific field surveys and/or interviews with villagers, local leaders, and organizations to conduct needs assessments. They did not assess the institution's strengths and weaknesses to determine its ability to be a development agency. The scope of all the projects as too limited. The duties of the consultant in 2 projects were not delineated, causing some confusion.
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  12. 12

    The world's women 1970-1990: trends and statistics.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Statistical Office; United Nations. Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs; UNICEF; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]; United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. xiv, 120 p. (Social Statistics and Indicators Series K No. 8; ST/ESA/STAT/SER.K/8)

    5 UN agencies worked together to develop this statistical source book to generate awareness of women's status, to guide policy, to stimulate action, and to monitor progress toward improvements. The data clearly show that obvious differences between the worlds of men and women are women's role as childbearer and their almost complete responsibility for family care and household management. Overall, women have gained more control over their reproduction, but their responsibility to their family's survival and their own increased. Women tend to be the providers of last resort for families and themselves, often in hostile conditions. Women have more access to economic opportunities and accept greater economic roles, yet their economic employment often consists of subsistence agriculture and services with low productivity, is separate from men's work, and unequal to men's work. Economists do not consider much of the work women do as having any economic value so they do not even measure it. The beginning of each chapter states the core messages in 4-5 sentences. Each chapter consists of text accompanied by charts, tables, and/or regional stories. The 1st chapter covers women, families, and households. The 2nd chapter addresses the public life and leadership of women. Education and training dominate chapter 3. Health and childbearing are the topics of chapter 4 while housing, settlements, and the environment comprise chapter 5. The book concludes with a chapter on women's employment and the economy. The annexes include strategies for the advancement of women decided upon in Nairobi, Kenya in 1985, the text of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, and geographical groupings of countries and areas. During the 1990s, we must invest in women to realize equitable and sustainable development.
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  13. 13

    UNFPA-funded projects executed by the WHO/Western Pacific Regional Office (WPRO).

    Carino L; Stray-Pedersen B; Shah U; van der Does C

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], [1991]. [5], 44 p. (Evaluation Report)

    UN Population Fund (UNFPA)-supported projects and programs are evaluated to provide information needed in planning, programming, and decision making. Such information helps allow the improvement of current and future program activities, greater effectiveness in utilizing UNFPA financial assistance, and country government participation in improving projects and programs. This document reports results of an evaluation of UNFPA-funded regional and country projects carried out by the WHO/Western Pacific regional office (WPRO). The evaluation was conducted by a team of 4 independent consultants and 2 UNFPA officers working on-site in China, Vietnam, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, and Fiji. Discussions were held with government officials and field staff from UNDP/UNFPA and WHO/WPRO country offices. Broadly, positive UNFPA/WPRO collaboration exists in maternal-child health/family planning, and should be continued and strengthened. WPRO execution of UNFPA-funded projects is then discussed in detail in sections covering the regional project, support to country projects, issues in WPRO/UNFPA collaboration, the role of women, and important factors affecting performance. WPRO support units and procedures are then addressed, and include personnel matters, human resource development, financial matters, supply and equipment procurement, and communication issues. Recommendations are presented in a closing section.
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  14. 14

    Programme review and strategy development report: Bolivia.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, [1991]. vi, 66 p.

    The UN Population Fund (UNFPA) reviewed the process of population policy formulation in Bolivia in May-June 1990 in a Programme Review and Strategy Development Report. Faced with high external debt and falling output but a population growing at 2.8%, Bolivia lacks the luxury of a vital registration system or a population policy. It is generally believed that the population density is too low for adequate production, and that a population policy means demographic birth control. An opinion survey of national leaders in 1989 showed an emerging realization of the need for a population policy, but ignorance of what such a policy entails. Bolivia has a National Social Policy Council (CONAPSO) which has produced important research and policy guidelines in other areas, but has neglected population issues. There is no research or statistical data since the Census of 1976, except for a few sample surveys; what information exists is global, and none of it is used for designing development plans. Maternal/child health (MCH) is poor in Bolivia, with significant malnutrition, infant mortality, deaths from preventable disease, tetanus, and respiratory infections, as well as excessive childbearing, nonmedical abortion, and malnutrition in women. An MCH Action Plan for 1990 has 6 clear goals and actions. No IEC program is in place. There is no appreciation of the magnitude of women's economic contribution in existing national data. Most donor funds and technical cooperation have been devoted to job creation and small projects involving health and education, such as sanitation and water projects in 11 small towns. The report ends with 9 general strategies covering such topics as population-development policy, MCH/family planning services, IEC, education of leaders, national statistics, women's issues, and increasing and coordinating international assistance.
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  15. 15

    A child's place in an overpopulated world.

    Stutsman R

    ZPG BACKGROUNDER. 1991 Oct; 1-4.

    During the 1990's 1.5 billion children will be born, more than in any other decade. 10% of them will not reach their 5th birthday. The causes of these deaths are contaminated drinking water, poor sanitation, common diseases, environmental pollution, and malnutrition. None of these are mysterious problems; the solution is only a matter of will. Even the US which ranks 6th in per capita gross national products suffers from these problems as it does not even make the top 10 in any significant measure of child welfare. The US ranks 18th in child mortality rates and 21st in < 5 mortality rates. In the US, 101 cities, containing 50% of the US population, have failed to meet Environmental Protection Agency standards for ground level ozone. Child labor is also an international problem that exists in the US as well. The average fine for a child labor violation is $170. In cases involving permanent injury or death to a child the average fine is only $750. Clearly even the US does not place a very high value on children. In every nation, including the US, family size is a very accurate predictor of child poverty, mortality, disease, and abuse. The more children there are in a family the more likely they are to be poor, get sick, be physically abused, or die. Families with 5 or more children are 3 times more likely to be poor than families with only 2 children. Child survival programs alone are hot as successful as a combined program of child survival and family planning. Thus family planning programs should be in place in every country that is currently having trouble keeping its children healthy, well fed, and prosperous. If every tax payer in the industrialized world contributed 1 penny a day, or US3.65 annually, to family planni ng assistance, there would be enough resources to ensure that all the children of the world would be wanted and cared for properly.
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  16. 16

    Youth, population and development.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, [1991]. [3], 16 p. (Programme Advisory Note)

    This report explains that a comprehensive strategy is needed to meet the reproductive health needs of young people and to facilitate their participation in development. Out of a world population of 5.3 billion people, 1.5 billion are between the ages of 10 and 24 years. 82% of these young people live in developing countries. And with the total fertility of developing countries at 4.0, the number of young people will continue to increase. Developing countries already face enormous problems in providing education and employment to these young people. The report identifies the issues that are involved in youth, population, and development, such as reproductive health information, family planning services, population distribution and urban migration, and sustainable development. The report also provides examples of UNFPA-funded youth projects. A program in Thailand, for example, aims to raise contraceptive awareness among adolescents in school. The outcome of these projects indicates the need fora comprehensive strategy that takes into account the following: 1) developing and implementing youth policies, plans, and programs; 2) carefully targeting IEC activities to specific audiences; 3) strengthening maternal and child health/family planning services for young people, including unmarried youth; 4) improving the status of young women; 5) increasing the involvement of men in family matters, especially family planning; 6) complementing other development activities that have wide-range impact; and 7) using nongovernmental organizations to help empower young people.
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  17. 17

    Programme review and strategy development report: Nigeria.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1991. iv, 73 p.

    Nigeria has more people within its boundaries than any other nation in Africa. Since it total fertility rate is so high (6.6) and the modern contraceptive prevalence rate is so low (3.5%), its population is growing considerably (3.3%). April 1989, the Government of Nigeria officially launched its National Policy on Population which set several goals, e.g., family planning (FP) coverage to 80% of women of reproductive age and reducing the population growth rate to 2% by 2000. Part of the national overall strategy for implementing the population policy in 1992-1996 includes giving priority to activities in maternal and child health (MCH)/FP; information, education, and communication (IEC); and women's role in population and development. It also stresses collection of population data, demographic analysis, and research. For example, the last population census was in 1963 so the Government plans a census in late 1991. Nigeria has integrated FP into the MCH program within the context of primary health care. Specifically, it centers on training and using traditional birth attendants to deliver infants in a safe manner, to provide FP services (e.g., as distribution of nonprescription FP methods), and to educate women about women's health and FP using IEC techniques. Further the Government intends to institutionalize the IEC strategy at all levels. For example, the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council and its corresponding State Committees have integrated population education into secondary school curricula. In addition, IEC population education activities have been extended to nonformal and adult education, such as the organized labor sector and counseling at clinics and other health facilities. The Government has set up the National Commission for Women to integrate women's issues into all sectors of national development. Donor agencies active in population activities in Nigeria include UNFPA, UNICEF, UNICEF, USAID, the World Bank, the European Economic Community, Japan, and the Netherlands.
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  18. 18

    Population: more than a numbers game.

    Walker A

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 1991 Nov 9; 303(6811):1194-7.

    World population reached 5 billion on July 11, 1987. Current UNFPA projections predict world population stabilization at 10 billion by 2050. However, the current population is already exerting a tremendous amount of pressure on the carrying capacity of the planet. Ozone depletion, global warming, and acid rain are all the result of human activity at a level of half the current projection. World food production stabilized in 1988 and fell 5% in both 1987 and 1988. In both those years, world population grew 3.6% annually. Every year 14 million tons of grain production are lost to soil erosion, irrigation damage, poor land management, air pollution, flooding, acid rain, and increased ultraviolet radiation. Controlling population growth is not an easy task because of the complexities involved. Increasing female literacy and reducing infant mortality rates are very powerful means of controlling growth. China has served as the best example by reducing its growth rate from 4.75 in the early 70s to 2.36 in just 10 years. They accomplished this in a homogeneous society by making population control a civic duty. They provided rewards for small families and penalties for large ones. Family planning need is still very high, although it ranges from 12% in the Ivory Coast to 77% in the Republic of Korea. The UNFPA goal is to make family planning available to 59% os the world is couples by 2000. To do this, an additional US$9 billion needs to be spent which is a tiny fraction of total development aid to the 3rd world. In 1990 .9% of the total amount of development aid went to population and family planning programs.
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  19. 19

    Population and the environment: the challenges ahead.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1991. 44 p.

    When discussing issues of population and the environment, 2 factors stand out: 1) poverty is continuing to grow, rather than shrink. Worldwide over 1 billion people live in absolute poverty and the total international debt of low-income countries is over $1,000 billion and growing; 2) social sector programs designed to maintain health, family planning services, housing, and education are constantly underfunded and do not receive the priority that they merit in national and international development programs. This report from the UNFPA contains discussions of sustainable development, the problem of growing urban populations, the balance between population and resources, land degradation, tropical forest destruction, loss of biodiversity, water shortages, population impacts on quality of life, and policy considerations.
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  20. 20

    Governing Council: all eyes on "the field".

    POPULATION. 1991 Aug; 17(8):1.

    UNFPA's Governing Council has authorized the Fund to spend up to US$201.3 million during 1992 on programs designed to strengthen the Fund's programs and country programs assisted by the Fund. The Council also adopted a resolution in support of the UNFPA 1992-95 intercountry program, as well as regional programs in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab States and Europe, Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Furthermore, the Council also gave approval to 15 country and sub-regional programs in the following places: Albania, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Congo, Dominican Republic, Honduras, India, Malaysia, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Tunisia, and the English-speaking Caribbean sub-region. One of the resolutions adopted by the Council calls for an increase in the number of staff members active in the Fund's field activities. This resolution establishes 7 new posts for international professionals and 90 new regular posts. The Council also called for increased cooperation with other international agencies. Another significant decision, the Council has allocated US$130.3 million (or a sum not to exceed 13.8% of programmable resources) for technical support, administrative, and operational services for 1992-95. The Council praised UNFPA's efforts at promoting awareness of the connections between population, the environment, and development, Moreover, the Council has asked the Fund to help set up contraceptive factories in individual countries for the purpose of containing the spread of AIDS. Finally, the Council discussed funding for the 1994 International Conference on Population.
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  21. 21

    Contraceptive source and the for-profit private sector in Third World family planning. Evidence and implications from trends in private sector use in the 1980s.

    Cross HE; Poole VH; Levine RE; Cornelius RM

    [Unpublished] 1991. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Washington, D.C., March 21-23, 1991. [63] p.

    Estimates by Family Health International and UNFPA predict that the annual cost of modern family planning in meeting the target overall contraceptive prevalence level of 52% will be between $5-9 billion by the year 2000. The number of couples using modern methods of contraception will increase dramatically in future years, incurring great cost to donors, governments, and users. Urbanization, rising incomes, and higher education levels are generally seen as positive factors in permitting an expanded private sector role in the provision of modern contraceptives, providing an alternative source to donor and government programs. The for-profit concerns within the private sector of developing countries, were studied using available 1978-89 data from 26 countries to examine private family planning sources of contraceptives. Also, hypothetical determinants of private family planning use are established and their interrelationship with the use of for-profit family planning services, is investigated. Contrary to result expectations, it was found that use of the major provider for-profit private sector is declining in the face of rising incomes, urbanization, and better education. Government services are crowding out the private sector. Additionally, results indicate a strong user desire for longer-term methods. Full comprehension of the private sector and the factors governing choice of contraceptive source should lead to more effective use of donor and government funding in efforts to achieve set population objectives. Policy and program development will more accurately reflect social needs. Policy implications of the results are discussed.
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  22. 22

    Report. Seminar on Maternal and Child Health / Family Planning Programme Management, convened by the Regional Office for the Western Pacific of the World Health Organization, Nadi, Fiji, 29 April - 10 May 1991.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for the Western Pacific

    Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 1991 Jul. [3], 67 p. (Report Series No. RS/91/GE/08(FIJ); (WP)MCH/ICP/MCH/001-E)

    12 national coordinators of UNFPA funded maternal and child health/family planning projects attended the Seminar on Maternal and Child Health/Family Planning Programme Management in Nadi, Fiji between April 19-May 10, 1991. The Regional Office for the Western Pacific of Who organized the seminar. Participants came from Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Papua New Guinea, Republic or Marshall Islands, Republic of Palua, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. Seminar leaders concentrated on having participants use the UNFPA project formulation guidelines and evaluation procedures. Participants learned about project formulation, target setting, project management (personnel, time, and logistics), management information systems (MIS), and project strategies especially community participation. At the end of the seminar, they applied their new knowledge and skills in developing workable country plans of action. Resource personnel helped each participant with preparing the country plans. Overall the participants considered the seminar to have been a success. Yet, even though UNFPA laid out the guidelines logically, participants found them to be complex and difficult to understand. They also expressed the need for training after the seminar to make it more effective. Participants acknowledged the importance of MIS and that MIS must be developed further in participating countries. Further they mentioned the value of community based data in effectively managing projects. A sample country plan of the Federated States of Micronesia and the Kingdom of Tonga follows the report.
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  23. 23

    Managing external collaboration in family planning.

    Yang JM

    In: Korean experience with population control policy and family planning program management and operation, edited by Nam-Hoon Cho, Hyun-Oak Kim. [Seoul], Korea, Republic of, Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, 1991 Sep. 311-27.

    The Korean experience with collaboration in family planning (FP) is explored in this chapter. Attention is paid to the nature of the decision, external resources (International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in detail and the following in brief: the UN Economic and Social Commission (UNECOSOC) and the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), the Population Council of New York (PC), the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA), the US Agency for International Development (USAID), and the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation (JOICFP)). Suggested criteria for FP projects include, community concern, prevalence, seriousness of unmet need, and manageability, but with external collaboration, consideration should be given to whether domestic resources are insufficient, the priorities of potential donors, expected problems with compliance with the grant, and government commitment to the project. External collaboration can take the form of moral support, technical cooperation, or financial support. The nature of the project as well as the expected achievements of the project need to be identified. Resources may be manpower, facilities, commodities, money, and/or time. The Korean experience with IPPF began with a visit by IPPF in 1960. In 1961, the Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea (PPFK) was accepted as a member of IPPF. Support which began in 1961 has reached over 16 million dollars cumulatively. At present about 25% of support for FP comes form IPPF. The author's experience as a representative of PPFK to IPPF and other groups is described. Tables provide information on commodities supplied by year and dollar amount, and allotment of UNFPA Assistance to Ministries and Institutions between 1973-86 by the number of projects and the dollar amount; types of program activity and dollar amount from UNFPA is also provided.
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  24. 24

    International assistance and health sector development in Nigeria.

    Parker DA

    Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms International, 1991. vii, 266 p. (Order No. 9116069)

    The effectiveness of official development assistance in responding to health problems in recipient countries may be examined in terms of 1) the results of specific aid-supported projects, 2) the degree to which the activities have contributed to recipients' institutional capacity, and 3) the impact of aid on national policy and the broader development process. A review of the literature indicates a number of conceptual and practical constraints to assessing health aid effectiveness. Numerous health projects have been evaluated and issues of sustainability have been studied, but relatively little is known about the systemic effects of health aid. The experience of Nigeria is analyzed between the mid-1970s and the late 1980s. In the 1970s, Nigeria's income rose substantially from oil revenues, and a national program was undertaken to increase the provision of basic health services. The program did not achieve its immediate objectives, and health sector problems were exacerbated by the decline of national income during the 1980s. Since 1987, a progressive national primary healthcare policy has been in place. Aid has been given to Nigeria in comparatively small amounts per capita. Among the major donors, WHO, UNICEF, and, most recently, the World Bank, have assisted the development of general health services, while USAID, UNFPA, and the Ford Foundation have aided the health sector with the principal objective of promoting family planning. 3 projects are examined as case studies. They are: a model of family health clinics for maternal and child care; a largescale research project for health and family planning services; and a national immunization program. The effectiveness of each was constrained initially by limited coordination among donors and by the lack of a supportive policy framework. The 1st 2 of these projects developed service delivery models that have been reflected in the national health strategy. The immunization program has reached nationwide coverage, although with uncertain systemic impact. Overall, aid is seen as having made a marginal but significant contribution to health development in Nigeria,a primarily through the demonstration of new service delivery approaches and the improvement of management capacity. (author's)
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  25. 25

    A strategy for reducing numbers? Response.

    Jolly R

    HEALTH FOR THE MILLIONS. 1991 Dec; 17(5):28.

    UNICEF advocates the reduction of infant/child mortality because it feels that such an action will reduce both fertility and human suffering. It was feared in the beginning, and today as well, that increasing the survival rate for children would cause rapid population growth. However, there is a large body of evidence to the contrary. When such measures are combined with measures to promote and support family planning there are even greater reductions in fertility levels. This is why such organizations as UNFPA, WHO, and UNICEF have advocated this course of action. This strategy is also present in the Declaration of the World Summit for Children. Anyone advocating the reduction in support for programs designed to enhance child survival as a method of population control is confusing the issues, misdirecting environmental attention, and stirring up the debate about international mortality. The evidence clearly shows that family planning without family health, including child health, is much less successful. Further, child mortality, even at high levels does little to slow population growth while such death and suffering greatly burden women and families. While rapid population growth and high population densities in developing countries present serious problems, both are much less important than the high levels of consumption in developed nations. Each child in the industrialized world will, at present levels of consumption, be expected to consume 30 to 100 times more than a child born in the poorest nations. Such suggestions in a time of instant global communication only attempt to set back international morality and tempt those in the international intellectual community to embrace ideas similar to the eugenic principles that led to the holocaust.
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