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UN Chronicle. 1991 Jun; 28(2): p..The world's estimated 8 million female refugees--over half of the total refugee population--were the focus of International Women's Day on 8 March. "None have more fully demonstrated the capacity of women to cope and prevail than those women", Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar said in his traditional message for the Day. Visions of women's potential for leadership were explored at "Making Women Count in the 1990s", a panel discussion held at UN Headquarters. Refugees, women and development issues, and women and work were other topics discussed by panelists Catherine O'Neill, Winn Newman and Dr. Nafis Sadik. Ms. O'Neill works with the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children; Mr. Newman, a lawyer, has successfully argued landmark legal cases in the United States on equal pay for work of comparable value; and Dr. Sadik is the Executive Director of the UN Population Fund. Author Erskine Childers, formerly with the UN Development Programme, was the moderator. The keynote speaker was former United States Congress member and Vice-Presidential candidate Geraldine Ferraro. (excerpt)
UN commission proposes action to prohibit violence against women; China offers to host fourth women's conference - United Nations Commission on the Status of Women.
UN Chronicle. 1991 Jun; 28(2): p..Action to prohibit violence against women, ensure equal opportunities for disabled women and give priority to international protection of refugee and displaced women and children was recommended by the Commission on the Status of Women at its thirty-fifth session (27 February-8 March, Vienna). The 43-member body also launched preparations for the Fourth World Conference on Women: Action for Equality, Development and Peace. Fifteen resolutions, which also focused on women in vulnerable situations--including migrants, prostitutes and battered women--and the integration of women in development, were approved by the Commission. Most texts will go to the Economic and Social Council and the General Assembly for final adoption later this year. The Commission asked that discussions start on the possibility of preparing an international instrument that explicitly addresses the issue of violence against women. The first step should be to develop a framework for that instrument, in consultation with the Committee for the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). An expert meeting on this issue should be convened in 1991 or 1992, with the participation of CEDAW and the Committee on Crime Prevention and Control, the Commission specified. (excerpt)
Population conference set for 1994; ageing, international migration examined - International Conference on Population and Development.
UN Chronicle. 1991 Jun; 28(2): p..Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UN Population Fund and Secretary-General of the Conference, said preparations for the event reflected the enormous needs and challenges of the future, as well as the notable advances that had been made in the population field, particularly by developing countries in implementing policies and programmes. Egypt and Tunisia both have offered to host the Conference, scheduled for August 1994. Further preparatory meetings are planned in August 1993 and early 1994. It would be the fifth international population conference convened by the UN. Conferences held in Rome in 1954 and in Belgrade in 1965 were purely technical meetings, limited to scientific discussions on population topics. Subsequent intergovernmental conferences in Bucharest in 1974 and in Mexico City in 1984 were concerned with establishing objectives, principles and goals, and making recommendations in the population field. (excerpt)
Exploitation of women workers in family enterprises decried - United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women.
UN Chronicle. 1991 Jun; 28(2): p..Women who work in family enterprises without payment are being exploited, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) declared, calling for guaranteed payment, social security and social benefits for them. As it concluded its tenth annual session (21 January-1 February, New York), the Committee also recommended that the value of women's domestic work be added to countries' gross national products. Nations should provide information on disabled women and on measures taken to ensure equal access for them to education, employment, health services and social security. The 23-member watchdog body monitors how countries implement the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. (excerpt)
Human Rights Quarterly. 1991 May; 13(2):229-256.The Charter of the United Nations forbids discrimination on the basis of "race, sex, language or religion." Some of the delegations involved in drafting the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights felt that this short list of four nondiscrimination items was enough and should be repeated in the Declaration. Others wanted to be more exhaustive. The matter was referred to the Sub-Commission on the Prevention of Discrimination and the Protection of Minorities. This commission recommended that the article in the Declaration state that "[e]veryone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind such as race, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, property status, or national or social origin." Everything after "religion" was added to the Charter list. A few objections were raised, but nothing was deleted from the list. Instead, the two items of "color" and "birth" were added to the Sub-Commission's recommendation. Article 2 of the Declaration is thus an expansion of the Charter's mandate that the new world organization promote human rights for all without discrimination. This theme of nondiscrimination runs through all the deliberations about the Declaration, and whatever disagreements there were about the various items on the list were minor. There was complete agreement that the article on nondiscrimination was a keystone of the Declaration and a gateway to its universality. If we take away someone's race, sex, and opinions on various subjects, all information about his or her background, about birth and present economic status, what we have left is just a human being, one without frills. And the Declaration says that the human rights it proclaims belong to these kinds of stripped-down people, that is, to everyone, without exception. As Mr. Heywood, the Australian representative, said, "logically, discrimination was prohibited by the use in each article of the phrase 'every person' or 'everyone.'" That is why the prohibition against discrimination is not repeated- -as it well might have been--with each article, but is stated at the beginning and made applicable to "all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration." Given this opening prohibition against discrimination, there is, strictly speaking, no need for repetition. But that does not mean that the temptation was not there, especially in the case of sex-based discrimination. Nor does it mean that the final product--a litany of the words "everyone" and "no one"--was arrived at without struggle. For there was a struggle, especially in the case of women's rights. (excerpt)
Annual report of the administrator for 1990 and programme-level activities. Role of UNDP in combating HIV / AIDS: policy framework for the response of UNDP to HIV / AIDS.
[Unpublished] 1991 May 9. 9 p. (DP/1991/57)The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) HIV//AIDS policy framework outlined builds upon and strengthens existing UNDP HIV/AIDS policies derived from Governing Council decisions, the WHO/UNDP Alliance to Combat AIDS, UNDP documents and directives, and the resolutions and decisions of the General Assembly, the World Health Assembly, and other organs, agencies, and institutions of the UN system. It is supplemented by a more extensive policy document outlining strategies, strategic options, and implementation arrangements for the guidance of the UNDP. The HIV/AIDS policy framework also attempts to communicate and clarify UNDP responsibilities with regard to the HIV/AIDS pandemic within the framework of the Global AIDS Strategy. This framework will facilitate UNDP working relationships with other UN organizations, multilateral and bilateral donor organizations, national governments, community-based organizations, and nongovernmental organizations. It will ensure that UNDP resources and efforts effectively reach people, communities, and governments. Sections describe the HIV/AIDS policy setting, long- and short-term policy goals, priorities, HIV/AIDS program delivery mechanisms, collaboration, institutional development, guiding principles for policy development, and monitoring and evaluation.
Tokyo, Japan, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Institute of Population Problems, 1991 Feb 22. , 143 p. (Research Series No. 267)According to the UN Population Projections of 1990, the world population of 5 billion, 292 million, 200 thousand in 1990 will reach 6 billion, 260 million, 800 thousand in the year 2000 with an annual increase rate of about 100 million. 94% of the increase will be in developing countries. In the year, 2025, the world population will be 8 billion, 54 million. 96% of the increase between 2000 and 2025 will also be in developing countries. The ratio of the population of developing countries to the world population was 77% in 1990 and will be 80% and 84% in 2000 and 2025 respectively. The new UN projections added about 10 million to the previous figure projected for 2000 and 38 million to the same for 2025. The World Bank's Projections are 6 billion 204 for the year 2000 and 8 billion 15 million for 2025. Their figures are slightly smaller than UN figures. Their data also include Taiwan and socio-economic group specific population, both of which are not found in UN data. In 2150, the world population is projected to be 11 billion 499 million with all of the increase from 2050 to 150 taking place in the developing region. According to high medium, and low variants in the UN projections, world population in 2020 will be 9 billion 400 million, 8 billion 500 million, and 7 billion 600 million respectively. Asian population, which constituted 55% of the world population in 1950, will be 59% in 1990. Since 1980, Southern Asia and Africa have seen the highest increase rates. African population, which was 9% in 1950 and 12% in 1990, will increase to 19% in 2025. After 2000, population in some regions of Europe will decrease as it will in Japan after 2010. The world population as a whole changed from high fertility and high mortality to high fertility and low mortality and then to low fertility and low mortality. In 1990, the population pyramid of developing nations was expansive triangular, while that of highly industrialized nations was constructive high rise or near stationary. The age specific ratio in industrialized regions will be 13% in 2000 and 18-19% in 2025.
Washington, D.C., Island Press, 1991. lxii, 272 p.In 1988, the World Meteorological Organization and the UN Environment Program established the Intergovernmental Panel on climate Change (IPCC) to consider scientific data on various factors of the climate change issue, e.g., emissions of major greenhouse gases, and to draw up realistic response strategies to manage this issue. Its members have agreed that emissions from human activities are indeed increasing sizably the levels of carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere. The major conclusions are that effective responses need a global effort and both developed and developing countries must take responsibility to implement these responses. Industrialized countries must modify their economies to limit emissions because most emissions into the atmosphere come from these countries. They should cooperate with and also provide financial and technical assistance to developing countries to raise their living standards while preventing and managing environmental problems. Concurrently, developing countries must adopt measures to also limit emissions as their economies expand. Environmental protection must be the base for continuing economic development. There must be an education campaign to inform the public about the issue and the needed changes. Strategies and measures to confront rapid population growth must be included in a flexible and progressive approach to sustainable development. Specific short-term actions include improved energy efficiency, cleaner energy sources and technologies, phasing out CFCs, improved forest management and expansion of forests, improved livestock waste management, modified use and formulation of fertilizers, and changes in agricultural land use. Longer term efforts are accelerated and coordinated research programs, development of new technologies, behavioral and structural changes (e.g., transportation), and expansion of global ocean observing and monitoring systems.
Towards developing a community based monitoring system on the social and economic impact of AIDS in East and Central Africa.
[Unpublished] 1991. 4,  p.Proposed is a short-term, initial study of the potential of a community-based system to monitor the social and economic impact of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Eastern and Central Africa. The study was requested by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). Its initial phase, which will be conducted in the UK, will consist of a literature review and preparation of a proposal for a pilot project. Particular emphasis will be placed on poor households in which family survival is threatened by the death from AIDS of an economically active adult. Assessed will be the extent to which a community-based monitoring system can aid households and communities in coping with the excess mortality created by AIDS and also provide information to national leaders that can be used to guide the formulation of national AIDS policy. Components of such a monitoring system are the regular collection of data, processing of the data into a form where they can be used as the basis for initiating actions, and definition of a set of interventions. Such an activity assumes the existence of both institutions that can collect and process the data and agencies capable of initiating interventions. Examples of successful monitoring systems exist in the areas of food security and child malnutrition. Their success appears to have been based on the availability of data at the points where action is to be taken, involvement of existing community institutions, a convergence of community and external agency objectives, and a common perception of problems and their relative importance. The pilot project is expected to involve a small number of areas in one or two countries of East and Central Africa with a high incidence of AIDS.
HYGIE. 1991; 10(2):3-4.A strategic plan for objectives and operations of the International Union for Health Education (IUHE) in the 1990s is presented. The IUHE's principal aims are to strengthen the position of education as a major means of protecting and promoting health, to support members of the IUHE, and to advise other agencies. Core functions will include advocacy/information services/networking, conferences/seminars, liaison/consultancy/technical services, training, and research. The objectives of the IUHE are to promote and strengthen the scientific and technical development of health education, to enhance the skills and knowledge of people engaged in health education, to create a greater awareness of the global leadership role of the IUHE in protecting and promoting health, and to secure a stronger organizational and resource base. These objectives will be achieved by developing an disseminating annual policy papers on key global issues, developing new procedural guidelines for the IUHE's world and regional conferences, clarifying the roles of the headquarters and regional offices, and developing recruitment incentives to boost membership. The corporate identify of the IUHE will be revised, formal U.N. accreditation will be sought, and mutually beneficial relationships will be fostered with selected U.N. and non-governmental organizations. Additionally, the scientific and technical strengths of the IUHE will be boosted, a resources referral service developed, a fund raising office created, worker achievements recognized, and a bursary fund established.
[Resolution No.] 46/98. Implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women [16 December 1991].
GENERAL ASSEMBLY OFFICIAL RECORDS. 1991; (Suppl 49):168-70.This document contains the text of a 1989 UN resolution on implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women. The resolution recalls previous relevant resolutions; reaffirms the UN's goal of encouraging the full participation of women in economic, social, cultural, civil, and political affairs; and expresses regret that a high-level interregional consultation on women in public life scheduled for 1991 failed to occur. The resolution proceeds to 1) urge governments, international organizations, and nongovernmental organizations to implement the recommendations arising from the first review and appraisal of the strategies, 2) call for improvements in female literacy and empowerment, and 3) reaffirm the central role of the Commission on the Status of Women in implementing the strategies. Additionally, the resolution makes several specific requests of the Commission and of the Secretary-General for actions that will further the implementation of the strategies.
Santiago, Chile, United Nations, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, 1991. 146 p. (Libros de CEPAL No. 31; LC/G.1648/Rev.2-P)This book reviews the issue of changing production patterns with social equity and the integration of environmental priorities within development objectives in Latin America and the Caribbean. The book is also a preparatory document for the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro. The book is based on six central ideas. 1) Environmental sustainability is a necessary outcome of economic policy in Latin America for meeting the needs of future generations and for ensuring sustained growth at present. 2) The origins and consequences of environmental problems differ between developed and developing countries. 3) Man's relationship to nature occurs at all levels from individual to global, and all levels are interactive. 4) Sustainable development outcomes secure a dynamic balance between all forms of capital and assets. 5) Integration of environmental concerns within the development process requires a systematic process, appropriate economic policies, management of natural resources, technological innovation, broad-based community participation, education, institutional consolidation, investment, and research. 6) The 1992 UNCED provided an opportunity to adopt a new perspective on development that was environmentally sustainable. The book examines the links between environmental sustainability and macroeconomic policy, natural resources, changing production patterns, poverty, development of strategies, financing, and international cooperation. It defines "sustainable development"; describes the nature of relations between economic policies, natural resources, and the environment; analyzes the main relations between poverty and the environment and the role played by technology in changing production patterns; identifies new institutional structures and financial policies and arrangements; and links the international agenda with sustainable development.
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL OFFICIAL RECORDS. 1991; (Suppl 1):37-9.This document contains the text of a 1991 UN resolution on the UN's work program in the field of population. After reviewing previous UN action on this issue and stressing the relationship between population and development, the resolution notes with satisfaction the progress made in implementing the population work program to date and makes the following specific requests of the Secretary-General: 1) to continue to give monitoring world population trends and policies high priority; 2) to continue working on specified issues; 3) to give priority to strengthening multilateral technical cooperation in specified areas; and 4) subject to the availability of funds, to study the needs of developing countries for skilled human resources in the field of population. In addition, the resolution reemphasizes the importance of maintaining the population program and strengthening coordination among various UN agencies and departments and among member states and appropriate intergovernmental, nongovernmental, and national organizations.
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL OFFICIAL RECORDS. 1991; (Suppl 1):39-40.This document contains a 1991 UN resolution on the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). After reviewing previous UN action on this issue, the resolution 1) names the conference; 2) makes recommendations about preparatory activities; 3) identifies six broad objectives for the ICPD; 4) identifies population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development as the overall theme of the conference and identifies six issues which require attention (population growth and structure; population policies and programs; the interrelationships between population policies, development, the environment, and related matters; changes in the distribution of population; linkages between the status of women and population dynamics; and family planning programs, health, and family well-being); 5) stresses the need to take the circumstances of developing countries into consideration; 6) authorizes the UN to convene expert meetings on each issue; 7) requests that appropriate UN agencies guide the preparatory activities and that UN resources be devoted to this task; 8) asks regional commissions to meet to review population policies and programs; 9) sets up a mechanisms to receive progress reports; 10) sets dates for the second and third sessions of the Preparatory Committee; and 11) makes funding recommendations.
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL OFFICIAL RECORDS. 1991; Suppl 1:24-5.This document contains the text of a 1991 UN resolution on refugee and displaced women and children. After reviewing previous UN action on this issue, the resolution recommends that: 1) member states cooperate with UN agencies and nongovernmental organizations to address the root cases of refugee migrations; 2) women and children be protected from violence and abuse; 3) the specific needs of refugee women and children be considered in planning; 4) refugee women be given sufficient information to make decisions on their own future; 5) women and, when possible, children, be given access to individual identification documents; 6) refugee women participate fully in the assessment of their needs and in the planning and implementation of programs; 7) the UN Secretary-General review the ability of its organizations to address the situation of refugee women and children; and 8) international organizations increase their capacity to respond to the needs of refugee women and children through greater coordination of efforts. The resolution commends member states which receive large numbers of refugees and asks the international community to share the resulting burden and further recommends that all pertinent organizations adopt an appropriate policy on refugee women and children, female field staff be recruited, staff be trained to increase awareness of the issues related to refugee of women and children and skills for planning appropriate actions, and the collection of refugee statistics be disaggregated by age and gender.
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL OFFICIAL RECORDS. 1991; Suppl 1:20-1.This document contains the text of a 1991 UN Resolution on violence against women. After reviewing previous UN action on this issue and noting that the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women fails to explicitly address violence, the resolution recommends that member states 1) recognize that violence against women can be countered by a variety of measures, 2) remember that violence against women results from male-female power imbalances, 3) prohibit violence against women, and 4) protect women from all forms of mental or physical violence and that 1) an international instrument be developed to address this issue explicitly, 2) the UN Secretary-General convene a meeting of experts on this issue, 3) governments train criminal justice and health care personnel to ensure justice in equality issues, and 4) researchers investigate the causes of violence against women.
[Resolution No.] 1991/22. National, regional and international machinery for the advancement of women [30 May 1991].
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL OFFICIAL RECORDS. 1991; Suppl 1:23-4.This document contains the text of a 1991 UN resolution on the establishment of national, regional and international machinery to promote the advancement of women. After reviewing previous UN action on this issue, the resolution recommended that: 1) all countries establish appropriate machinery for the advancement of women by 1995; 2) governments provide adequate resources to ensure the effective functioning of national machinery; 3) the UN provide technical assistance; 4) countries exchange information on this topic; 5) the UN support such an exchange of information; 6) a UN interregional advisor assist in these and related efforts; 7) technical help be provided to facilitate the preparation of reports for the 1995 World Conference on Women; 8) the UN Secretary-General report on UN activities in this regard to the 36th session of the Commission on the Status of Women; 9) the Secretary-General invite governments to publish pertinent case studies; 10) appropriate sections of the Secretariat be strengthened; 11) governments make accurate information on their national machinery available; 12) governments ensure proper training of staff and include gender-analysis training and information; and 13) the UN report on the effectiveness of these efforts to the World Conference on Women.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. , 96 p.A worldwide educational campaign has been launched in response to the discouraging results of the 1990 appraisal of implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women to the Year 2000. As part of that campaign, this book uses statistical data compiled by the UN to describe the obstacles faced by women attempting to achieve equality in political participation and decision making; advancement in education, employment, and health; and participation in the peace process. The objective of this book is to raise the awareness of these issues among governments, nongovernmental organizations, educational institutions, the private sector, and individuals. Each of the first six chapters discusses one area of women's lives and ends by delivering a series of challenges to be met by the year 2000. Chapter 1 discusses discrimination against women (its roots; the lag between theoretical and practical advances; sex stereotypes; and discrimination in marriage, the family, and society) as well as its legal remedies. Chapter 2 defines women's health as a vital prerequisite to equality and covers such topics as the global health boom; women as primary health care providers; clean water, sanitation, and nutrition; the effects of economic crisis; maternal mortality; fertility and family planning; increasing malnutrition; AIDS; genital mutilation; and son preference. Chapter 3 looks at women's education as a key to empowerment and focuses on illiteracy, the effects of the economic crisis on education, and the special problems of rural women. Chapter 4 considers aspects related to acknowledgment of women's work such as the multiple roles of women, accounting for women's economic activity, households headed by women, women in agriculture, women in the informal sector, women suffering from exploitation in the formal sector, and the effects on women of economic adjustment programs. Chapter 5 examines women in political life, and Chapter 6 defines the role women play as victims of domestic and other violence and as advocates of peace. The concluding chapter provides a practical guide to obtaining further information from the UN.
DIARIO OFICIAL (SAN SALVADOR). 1991 Sep 27; 312(180):6-7.This Decree creates a National Committee to Ensure the Operation of the Agreements and Operations of the International Conference on Central American Refugees. The Committee is composed of representatives of various El Salvador government agencies and headed by the Vice Minister of Foreign Relations. The following are the functions of the Committee: a) to plan, formulate, and approve projects and to execute them; b) to facilitate the detailed formulation of proposed projects, to work with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the United Nations Development Program, and to be responsible for the final approval of the projects; c) to establish regular and timely coordination between national agencies and international non-governmental agencies that participate in the planning and/or execution of projects; d) to create support groups at the national level with the participation of national authorities, representatives of cooperating countries, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the United Nations Development Program, and other interested international agencies and financial institutions and non-governmental organizations; e) to call together these support groups for regular meetings with the goal of ensuring periodic consultation on the supervision, promotion, and mobilization of support and resources; and f) to ensure that the Committee has the necessary resources for the execution of the Plan of Action.
[Resolution No.] 46/203. Prevention and control of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), 20 December 1991.
GENERAL ASSEMBLY OFFICIAL RECORDS. 1991; (Suppl 49):139-40.This UN Resolution on prevention and control of AIDS was adopted on December 20, 1991. The resolution notes that the World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that 30-40 million individuals (90% in developing countries) will be infected with HIV by the year 2000 and that the epidemic will have produced 10-15 million AIDS orphans by that time. The UN expresses concern that the epidemic is increasing rapidly in urban areas and developing countries. The UN recognizes that the epidemic demands a multisectoral response and that discriminatory measures against people with AIDS not only force the epidemic underground where it is more difficult to combat but also infringe upon the human rights of the victims. The resolution stresses the need to promote safer sex behavior and to detect and treat other sexually transmitted diseases as early as possible. It also notes the importance of supplying young people in particular with sex and health education and counseling. All means of transmission should be targeted, including IV drug use and unsafe medical practices, and the status of women should be improved so they can protect themselves from unsafe sex. It is also important that scientific technologies and pharmaceuticals be made available quickly and affordably. The resolution urges Member States to give the AIDS pandemic top priority; to continue to develop national AIDS programs; to develop information, education, and counseling services; to adopt a multisectoral response to the socioeconomic consequences of AIDS; to encourage private sector, community group, and nongovernmental organization involvement; and to protect the human rights of infected individuals. The scientific community is asked to continue research into means of prevention and therapy. The WHO is asked to strengthen information exchange among Member States and to help countries develop plans to deal with the socioeconomic consequences of AIDS to women and children in particular. The Secretary-General is asked to use the capacities of the UN system to plan multisectoral activities and to earmark funds for requested assistance. The information capacity of the UN should be used to intensify public information activities. A report on the implementation of this resolution is to be made to the 47th session of the General Assembly.
[Resolution No.] 46/167. Women, environment, population and sustainable development, 19 December 1991.
GENERAL ASSEMBLY OFFICIAL RECORDS. 1991; (Suppl 49):129-30.On December 19, 1991, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution on women, the environment, population, and sustainable development. The resolution requests that the Commission on the Status of Women make relevant parts of the report of its 36th session (in 1992) available to the Preparatory Committee for the UN Conference on Environment and Development. In addition, UN agencies are asked to strengthen their data collection and capacity-building efforts in the field of women, environment, population, and sustainable development. UN agencies are urged to integrate women as active participants at all levels in the planning and implementation of programs for sustainable development. Finally, the Secretary-General is asked to report on the role of women in the environment and sustainable development at the 48th session of the General Assembly.
GENERAL ASSEMBLY OFFICIAL RECORDS. 1991; (Suppl 49):170-1.On December 16, 1991, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution to improve the status of women in the Secretariat. The resolution notes that the UN failed to achieve a goal of 30% participation by women in posts subject to geographical distribution by 1990 and recalls the goals for 1995 of a 35% overall participation by women in posts subject to geographic distribution and of 25% participation of women in posts at the D-1 level and above. The resolution then urges the Secretary-General to afford greater priority to the recruitment and promotion of women and to increase the number of women employed in the Secretariat from developing countries and other countries from which women are poorly represented. Member States are encouraged to engage in activities (such as nominations, recruitment, and creating rosters) which support these efforts. The Secretary-General is requested to assign a senior-level official to implement the action program for the improvement of the status of women in the Secretariat and to submit the results of a comprehensive study of the barriers to the advancement of women as well as details of the action program to the General Assembly. A progress report for 1991-95 is to be made to the Commission on the Status of Women.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1991 Feb 1. , 90 p.Global population assistance is illustrated in the extensive tables and charts of this volume. Information is given by country and region, by donor commitments, and by expenditures during 1982-89. Previously published 1988 data is adjusted. The data reflect public accounts, which may not be accurate. The four most common accuracy errors are in variable definitions over time and place of what constitutes population assistance, the identification of a single function that is in fact a multiple function, variation in accounting time periods, variations in currencies and in fluctuating exchange rates, and variation in the ability of governments to manage public accounts. The revisions of the 1988 are done with assurance that the extent of total commitment is accurate. Reports that are released just after the end of the fiscal year are considered less accurate. The trends in assistance show expansion from only a few private foundations and the International Planned Parenthood Federation during the 1950s with selected donor support in a few developing countries to Nordic countries by the late 1950s giving support to Asian population assistance. Population technical assistance was formally a part of development assistance in 1966. Level of assistance worldwide has ranged from $100 million in 1967 (1985 prices) to over $10.4 billion (1985 prices) in 1985. The largest multinational donor is the UN Population Fund, which manages about 33% of world population assistance funds. Population assistance flows through three main channels (direct bilateral aid from individual donor countries, UN agencies, and nongovernmental organizations). Major developed country donors are 17 of the 18 members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's Development Assistance Committee (DAC). 74% of total international population assistance in 1989 (valued at $561 million) was given by DAC donors plus the Soviet Union. Other contributions amount to 17% from World Bank loans, 5% from private foundations, and 4% from UN accounts. Norway, followed by the Unites States, and Finland contribute more than two cents per Overseas Development Assistance dollar. All regions receive substantial amounts, although the level per country varies. The largest sums go to large and poor countries.
In: Environment: children first, [compiled by] UNICEF. New York, New York, UNICEF, . 2 p..The view is taken that human rights was not sufficiently addressed in preparatory committees to the 1992 UN Conference on the Environment and Development (UNCED). Only one afternoon session in the entire four weeks of meetings was devoted to the discussion of poverty, health, and education. The author believes that environmental issues are human rights and children's rights issues. The scientific issues were the dominant issues addressed at UNCED meetings, while the issues of debt alleviation of nations, environmentally-friendly development, and people-oriented development were left in question. The Conference's action plan, Agenda 21, is considered the appropriate vehicle for addressing financial and technical problems and implementation. Nongovernmental organizations are viewed as the appropriate groups to assure that changes involve benefits to people. The effort must involve a united human rights perspective among all nongovernmental groups. The Convention of the Rights of the Child was ratified by over 100 countries. This convention indicated that a development issue was the assurance of children's right to life, survival, health, education, and an adequate standard of living. The UNCED is viewed as the potential means of actually setting the course for sustainable development. Actualization of sustainable development is considered as requiring major changes in the use of human and material resources and the participation and imagination of millions of people.
In: Environment: children first, [compiled by] UNICEF. New York, New York, UNICEF, . 3 p..The focus of this article is on the impact of environmental degradation on women and children. The position is taken that the poor in developing countries, most of whom are women and children, are the most vulnerable to environmental disasters and depletion of natural resources. Children are the most susceptible to the effects of environmental degradation in terms of disease, malnourishment, and pollution and toxic chemicals. The task of collecting fuelwood contributes to wastage of time and energy and loss of schooling, health care visits, child care, and food quality. If animal dung or other agricultural products are used as replacement fuel sources, soil nutrient loss results. When land is sufficiently degraded, household food production becomes impossible. Migration as a solution to environmental depletion results in urban slums. One solution is identified as empowerment of communities and satisfaction of basic needs. Social mobilization campaigns are useful for promoting use of latrines and safe sanitation. Promotion of sanitation is facilitated by the inclusion of ideas about privacy and convenience. Oral rehydration therapy and immunization are useful in controlling and preventing disease. A shift to smoke-free, efficient stoves reduces deforestation. Food security problems can be alleviated with improved crop varieties, nitrogen-fixing plants, small-scale irrigation, and appropriate technologies. UNICEF is associated with a people-centered approach, which is considered the most hopeful prospect for preserving the global environment and achieving more equitable and sustainable development.