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Washington, D.C., Island Press, 1991. lxii, 272 p.In 1988, the World Meteorological Organization and the UN Environment Program established the Intergovernmental Panel on climate Change (IPCC) to consider scientific data on various factors of the climate change issue, e.g., emissions of major greenhouse gases, and to draw up realistic response strategies to manage this issue. Its members have agreed that emissions from human activities are indeed increasing sizably the levels of carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere. The major conclusions are that effective responses need a global effort and both developed and developing countries must take responsibility to implement these responses. Industrialized countries must modify their economies to limit emissions because most emissions into the atmosphere come from these countries. They should cooperate with and also provide financial and technical assistance to developing countries to raise their living standards while preventing and managing environmental problems. Concurrently, developing countries must adopt measures to also limit emissions as their economies expand. Environmental protection must be the base for continuing economic development. There must be an education campaign to inform the public about the issue and the needed changes. Strategies and measures to confront rapid population growth must be included in a flexible and progressive approach to sustainable development. Specific short-term actions include improved energy efficiency, cleaner energy sources and technologies, phasing out CFCs, improved forest management and expansion of forests, improved livestock waste management, modified use and formulation of fertilizers, and changes in agricultural land use. Longer term efforts are accelerated and coordinated research programs, development of new technologies, behavioral and structural changes (e.g., transportation), and expansion of global ocean observing and monitoring systems.
Santiago, Chile, United Nations, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, 1991. 146 p. (Libros de CEPAL No. 31; LC/G.1648/Rev.2-P)This book reviews the issue of changing production patterns with social equity and the integration of environmental priorities within development objectives in Latin America and the Caribbean. The book is also a preparatory document for the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro. The book is based on six central ideas. 1) Environmental sustainability is a necessary outcome of economic policy in Latin America for meeting the needs of future generations and for ensuring sustained growth at present. 2) The origins and consequences of environmental problems differ between developed and developing countries. 3) Man's relationship to nature occurs at all levels from individual to global, and all levels are interactive. 4) Sustainable development outcomes secure a dynamic balance between all forms of capital and assets. 5) Integration of environmental concerns within the development process requires a systematic process, appropriate economic policies, management of natural resources, technological innovation, broad-based community participation, education, institutional consolidation, investment, and research. 6) The 1992 UNCED provided an opportunity to adopt a new perspective on development that was environmentally sustainable. The book examines the links between environmental sustainability and macroeconomic policy, natural resources, changing production patterns, poverty, development of strategies, financing, and international cooperation. It defines "sustainable development"; describes the nature of relations between economic policies, natural resources, and the environment; analyzes the main relations between poverty and the environment and the role played by technology in changing production patterns; identifies new institutional structures and financial policies and arrangements; and links the international agenda with sustainable development.
In: Earth summit. Conversations with architects of an ecologically sustainable future, by Steve Lerner. Bolinas, California, Commonweal, 1991. 25-38.The public debate on the environment leading to the 1992 Earth Summit in Brazil has been restricted to global climate change instead of global change. The Summit should be part of an ongoing process and not a framework convention followed by protocols. Separate conventions for biodiversity and deforestation are likely to emerge, even though one convention integrating both biodiversity and deforestation is needed. Many environmental and development issues overlap, suggesting a need for an international group to coordinate these issues. Negotiating separate conventions for the various issues is costly for developing countries. Rapid population growth contributes to environmental degradation, but no coordinated effort exists to reduce it. The US continues to not support the UN Population Fund which, along with threats of US boycotts and disapproval, curbs initiatives to reduce population. At present population and economic growth rates, an environmental disaster will likely happen in the early 2000s. Developing countries, which also contribute greatly to global warming, will not take actions if industrialized nations do not initiate reductions of greenhouse gases. Developed countries emit the most greenhouse gases, have been responsible for most past emissions, and have the means to initiate reductions. Of industrialized nations, the US stands alone in setting targets to reduce carbon dioxide. Unlike some European nations, the US does not have an energy policy. The US abandoned public transportation for the automobile while Europe has a strong public transportation system. The World Bank has improved greatly in addressing global environmental issues, but only 1% of its energy lending is for energy efficiency. The Bank knows that projects implemented by nongovernmental organizations are more successful than those implemented by governments, yet it continues to lend money to governments. Humans need to redesign existing linear systems to be like nature's circular systems in which by-products are starting products for another reaction.
Rosslyn, Virginia, John Snow [JSI], Resources for Child Health [REACH], 1991 Mar. , 16 p. (USAID Contract No. DPE-5927-C-00-5068-00)Children may fail to come into contact with the immunization system, may drop out before becoming fully immunized, or may stay in the system long enough to gain full immunity from given target diseases. As child immunization coverage nears 80% at the end of 1990, greater emphasis will be placed upon the quality of Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) services. It is important to lower barriers to immunization and increase the certainty that every immunized child gains full protection. While EPI managers are able to measure coverage levels and assess and monitor immunization quality with the EPI 30-cluster survey, the analysis is complex and time-consuming. The Coverage Survey Analysis System (COSAS), however, employs computer technology to quickly and accurately analyze data. COSAS was developed by the World Health Organization with the input of assisting organizations and gives program managers access to information on the age distribution of immunizations, dose intervals, dropout rates, and other factors which influence program quality. Missed opportunities for immunization (MOI) occur when a child eligible for immunization leaves a health center without obtaining antigens needed for full protection. MOIs are therefore sensitive indicators of the quality of EPI services. Exit interviews have observed MOIs in certain developing countries in the range of 17-76% with a median of 49%. This decreased likelihood of a child being immunized infers eventual higher costs, delayed or missed protection, and loss of confidence in the EPI system. COSAS may help evaluate the quality of care, but it is unable to identify the determinants of quality care. Observation checklists and exit interviews are, however, able to determine the causes of poor service quality and find that they are frequently due to false contraindications, improper screening, lack of supplies, fear of giving multiple injections, and poor clinic organization.
Report of the ESCAP/UNDP Expert Group Meeting on Population, Environment and Sustainable Development: 13-18 May 1991, Jomtien, Thailand.
Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP], 1991. iv, 41 p. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 106)The 1991 meeting of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific considered the following topics: the interrelationships between population and natural resources, between population and the environment and poverty, and between population growth and consumption patterns, technological changes and sustainable development; the social aspects of the population-environment nexus (the effect of social norms and cultural practices); public awareness and community participation in population and environmental issues; and integration of population, environment, and development policies. The organization of the meeting is indicated. Recommendations were made. The papers on land, water, and air were devoted to a potential analytical model and the nature of the interlocking relationship between population, environment, and development. Dynamic balance was critical. 1 paper was presented on population growth and distribution, agricultural production and rural poverty; the practice of a simpler life style was the future challenge of the world. Several papers focused on urbanization trends and distribution and urban management policies. Only 1 paper discussed rural-urban income and consumption inequality and the consequences; some evidence suggests that increased income and equity is associated with improved resource management. Carrying capacity was an issue. The technological change paper reported that current technology contributed to overproduction and overconsumption and was environmentally unfriendly. The social norms paper referred to economic conditions that turned people away from sound environmental, cultural norms and practices. A concept paper emphasized women's contribution to humanism which goes beyond feminism; another presented an analytical summary of problems. 2 papers on public awareness pointed out the failures and the Indonesian experience with media. 1 paper provided a perspective on policy and 2 on the methodology of integration. The recommendations provided broad goals and specific objectives, a holistic and conceptual framework for research, information support, policies, resources for integration, and implementation arrangements. All activities must be guided by 1) unity of mankind, 2) harmony between population and natural resources, and 3) improvement in the human condition.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1991; (31-32):89-103.International cooperation in population activities (69 of 73 countries reporting) is still needed according to the 6th UN Population Inquiry among Governments, 1988. There is a decline in need for consultants and priority requests for computer equipment and training. Difficulties have arisen due to funding decreases and slow implementation. The responding sample population involved 108 (79 developing and 29 developed) of 170 member and observer states. Questions pertained to attainment of policy goals, future needs and priorities, and government policies and programs. The questionnaire and response rate were similar to the 5th Survey conducted in 1983. Comparability to developing countries is uncertain since the response was only 60% of 132 developing countries. The population of the developing countries responding was 3.5 billion or 60% of the world's 5.1 billion. The results of the data aggregation are presented in terms of sources of past technical support, relative contribution of technical cooperation, need for technical cooperation on population issues, and statements of governments. The conclusions reached were that all had received support for population programs from international sources. 36 countries reported having 4-6 sources of support, of which 66% were in the UN system. In the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) 80% of the countries assigned technical cooperation as the most important contribution to population progress. Slightly fewer countries from the Economic Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) and the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) reported similar impacts. However, >50% also experienced difficulties with technical cooperation. ECA countries had difficulties with reduced funding and slowness in implementation, and minor complaints about poor donor agency coordination, differences in priorities between the government and donors, and too narrow a technical focus. Compared with the last inquiry, family planning was now a priority. Computer equipment and training programs were ranked the highest in technical support. There was some regional variation. Only 8 expressed a negative response to technical cooperation.
WORLD HEALTH. 1991 Mar-Apr; 11-3.The World Health Organization primary health care (PHC) strategy's longstanding emphasis upon improving rural health at the expense of urban health improvement is noted and international health experts' preoccupations with and skills in infectious diseases are considered as much of the underlying cause of neglect. While the health of both rural and urban populations are interdependent, greater attention needs to be focused upon PHC in urban areas. Urban areas are growing faster than rural areas, with urban growth rates 4 times greater than rural growth rates in the developing world. The poorest of the poor, dispersed, mobile, and invisible, are at great risk, and often do not appear in official health statistics. Urban health statistics typically describe averages instead of the extremes faced by these groups. Concentrated in cities, medical and other health care resources fail to reach and help the poor. The poor face both the urban problems of environmental pollution, violence, sexually transmitted diseases, and cardiovascular diseases as well as the rural problems of malnutrition and infectious disease. PHC initiatives should be supported and accepted by health institutions and authorities, incorporating strong community focus and involvement. Intersectoral participation and monitoring are also needed to properly effect low cost, effective technologies designed to help populations help themselves.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1991. x, 51 p. (World Bank Technical Paper No. 159)A World Bank report outlines the results of an empirical study. It lists institutional characteristics connected with successful tropical disease control programs, describes their importance, and extracts useful lessons for disease control specialists and managers. The study covers and compares 7 successful tropical disease control programs: the endemic disease program in Brazil; schistosomiasis control programs in China, Egypt, and Zimbabwe; and the malaria, schistosomiasis, and tuberculosis programs in the Philippines. All of these successful programs, as defined by reaching goals over a 10-15 year period, are technology driven. Specifically they establish a relevant technological strategy and package, and use operational research to appropriately adapt it to local conditions. Further they are campaign oriented. The 7 programs steer all features of organization and management to applying technology in the field. Moreover groups of expert staff, rather than administrators, have the authority to decide on technical matters. These programs operate both vertically and horizontally. Further when it comes to planning strategy they are centralized, but when it comes to actual operations and tasks, they are decentralized. Besides they match themselves to the task and not the task to the organization. Successful disease control programs have a realistic idea of what extension activities, e.g., surveillance and health education, is possible in the field. In addition, they work with households rather than the community. All employees are well trained. Program managers use informal and professional means to motivate then which makes the programs productive. The organizational structure of these programs mixes standardization of technical procedures with flexibility in applying rules and regulations, nonmonetary rewards to encourage experience based use of technological packages, a strong sense of public service, and a strong commitment to personal and professional development.
AIDS CARE. 1991; 3(4):395-8.While scientists demonstrated that they have pushed ahead in developing treatment and a vaccine for AIDS, comparatively little was voiced regarding AIDS as a development issue at the 7th Conference on AIDS. In the context of socioeconomic development, President Museveni of Uganda and others spoke on AIDS, recognizing the need for behavioral change in preventing HIV infection. The family was also recognized as a basic unit of caring, important in fostering global solidarity. Topics discussed included the fusion of technology and human response in the fight against AIDS, NGO-government integration, community home care, and the need for an difficulty of measuring behavior change. In research, evidence was presented attesting to the cost-effectiveness of home care, while other types of research interventions, the effectiveness of audiovisual media in message dissemination, evaluation methods, and ethnographic methods for program design and evaluation were also explored. Where participants addressed psychosocial factors in development, little was presented on training. Informal discussions were robust, and covered the need for academic research, the process of an international conference, program principle transferability, and counseling. There was, however, an overall realization at the conference that progress is slow, AIDS challenges human nature, and coordinated international efforts may be incapable of effecting more rapid positive change. Even though sweeping solutions to AIDS did not emerge from this conference, more appropriate programs and conferences may develop in the future, with this conference opening AIDS in the arenas of community, development, hope and science.
New York, New York, UNFPA, . ix, 66 p.This paper discusses Sri Lanka's population policy with special focus upon UNFPA's role in establishing and implementing a successful multi-sectoral family planning program for the country. Progress made in the past years must continue, while ongoing efforts are made to attain the goal of 2.1 TFR by year 2000. A suitable program must be better coordinated with a view to cutting waste and duplication, guarantee an adequate supply of appropriate contraceptive supplies, streamline research operation, more fully implement its educational programs, and recognize women's centrality in population programs, and recognize women's centrality in population programs. UNFPA assistance should be offered to effect such programmatic change and development, with service delivery needs addressed 1st. The Government of Sri Lanka lacks adequate resources to supply calls for an integrated approach focused upon creating a National Coordinating Council; developing a more sophisticated and targeted approach to information, education, and communication; providing contraceptive supplies, software for service delivery, and client counseling; training providers; and improving coordination with other multilateral programs for child care and human resource development. The present population and development situation, the national population program, proposed sectoral strategies for implementation, the role of technical assistance, and general recommendations for external assistance are discussed in detail.
International Family Planning Perspectives. 1991 Sep; 17(3):108-13.South Asia consisting of Bangladesh, India, Nepal Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, claims 1/5 to total world population with expected population growth of at least 200 million by the year 2000. Taking issue with assumptions behind World Bank (WB) and United Nations (UN) population projections for the region, the authors make less optimistic assumptions of country fertility and mortality trends when running population projections for the region. Following discussion of methodological issues for and analysis of population projections, the paper's alternate assumptions and projection results are presented and discussed. Projections were made for each country of the region over the period 1985-2010, based on assumptions that only very modest fertility declines and improvements in life expectancy would develop over most of the 1990s. South Asian population would therefore grow from over 1 billion in 1985, to 1.4 billion by 2000, and almost 1.8 billion by 2010. Overall slower fertility decline than assumed for the UN and WB projections point to larger population growth with momentum for continued, larger growth through the 21st century. Rapid, substantial population growth as envisioned by these projections will impede movement toward an urban-industrial economy, with a burgeoning labor force exceeding the absorptive capacity of the modern sector. Job seekers will pile up in agriculture and the informal sector. Demands upon the government to deliver education and health services will also be extraordinarily high. High-tech niches will, however, continue expanding in India and Pakistan with overall negative social effects. Their low demand for labor will exacerbate income disparities, fuel interpersonal, interclass, and interregional tensions, and only contribute to eventual ethnic, communal, and political conflict. Immediate, coordinated policy is urged to achieve balanced low mortality and low fertility over the next few decades.
In: Consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries. Proceedings of the United Nations / Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques Expert Group Meeting, New York, 23-26 August 1988. New York, New York, Taylor and Francis, 1991. 345-77.Drawing from recent studies concerning the consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries, this paper argues against the common notion that population growth stands as a major obstacle for economic development in developing countries, emphasizing the complexity of demographic and economic interrelations. The studies discussed were presented at the UN Expert Group Meeting on Consequences of Rapid Population Growth in Developing Countries. The 1st section of the paper examines the prospects for continued population growth and its implication for the age structure of developing countries. Considering historical and current data, the 2nd section discusses inter country relations between population and economic growth rates, and how population growth affects such inter-country economic relations. The 3rd section examines the following sectoral issues: employment, savings rates, income distribution, and investment. While the 4th section considers the impact of population growth on resources and the environment, the 5th and 6th sections consider possible benefits of population growth. These possible benefits include bringing about economies of scale and hastening technical and institutional change. The 7th section examines the impact of population growth on kinship structures, and the 8th section considers a methodology for quantifying externalities resulting from population growth. Finally, the last section presents the conclusions of the UN Expert Group Meeting.
An agenda for action in sub-Saharan Africa. A collaborative initiative of the World Bank, UNFPA and IPPF.
INTEGRATION. 1991 Mar; (27):10-7.An Agenda for Action to Improve the Implementation of Population Programs in Sub-Saharan African in the 1990s is a joint project of the World Bank, the UN Population Fund, the IPPF, the WHO and the African Development Bank. The goals of the agenda are to build public consensus and commitment to population activities, to bring together beneficiaries, implementors and policy makers with these groups to improve population program implementation, to share country program experiences, to make African institutions responsible for ("Africanize") the Agenda, or ultimately to include demographic factors in development. 20 African countries are the focus of the Agenda, grouped by region and language. Major issues include socio-cultural and economic roadblocks, poor transportation infrastructure, lack of community participation, no alternatives to early marriage for women, poor political commitment by decision-making or health ministries. Family planning programs can be improved by better contraceptive technology, program design, and human and financial resources for implementing programs. The methods by which the Agenda proposes to reach its goals are to do literature searches of action strategies, in-depth country analyses, inter-country sharing of experiences, analysis of implementation capability based on case studies, and analysis of contraceptive technology assisted by WHO's Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction and the Population Council. The Agenda will be managed by a Population Advisor Committee, which is an African "think tank," and regional Country Group Task Forces, coordinated by the World Bank's Africa Technical Department.
In: Preserving the global environment: the challenge of shared leadership, edited by Jessica T. Mathews. New York, New York/London, England, W. W. Norton, 1991. 39-77.The thesis that human population growth will eventually destroy the equilibrium of the world ecosystem, because environmental strain is a nonlinear effect of the linear growth, is embellished with discussions of technology and resulting pollution, population dynamics, birth and death rates, effects of expanded education, causes of urbanization, time constraints and destabilizing effects of partial development and the debt crisis. It is suggested that the terms renewable and nonrenewable resources are paradoxical, since the nonrenewable resoureces such as minerals will always exist, while renewable ecosystems and species are limited. The competitive economy actually accelerates destruction of biological resoureces because it overvalues rare species when they have crossed the equilibrium threshold and are in decline. Technological outputs are proportional to population numbers: therefore adverse effects of population should be considered in billions, not percent increase even though it is declining. Even the United Nations does not have predictions of the effects of added billions, taking into account improved survival and decreased infant mortality. Rapid urbanization of developing countries and their debt crisis have resulted from political necessity from the point of view of governments in power, rather than mere demographics. Recommendations are suggested for U.S. policy based on these points such as enlightened political leadership, foreign aid, and scientific investment with the health of the world ecosystem in mind rather than spectacle and local political ideology.