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New York, New York, AVSC, 1991. 28 p.The annual report for 1990-1991 of the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) enumerates changes that came about in 1990, accomplishments of the last decade, and then summarizes activities by region with a brief feature on 1 country in each. Some of the developments in 1990 included introduction of Norplant, a training workshop in Georgia for physicians from newly independent CIS states, and the Male Involvement Initiative. The Gulf War delayed major activities requiring travel. Overall, in 1990 the AVSC provided 133,328 sterilizations, 72% female and 28% male in 50 countries, trained 325 doctors, led 58 courses in counseling and voluntarism training 568 counselors, and published or collaborated on numerous professional articles and teaching materials. In-country work emphasized no-scalpel vasectomy and minilaparatomy female sterilization under local anesthesia. As an example of country projects in 20 African nations, a client-oriented, provider-efficient system for improving clinic management and quality of care called COPE, was the focus in Kenya. Male responsibility was an emphasis in Latin America. In India, where sterilization is the most popular contraceptive method, training centers were upgraded in 12 states. In the US, AVSC conducted training sessions for physicians in laparoscopy under local anesthesia.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health, Technologies for Primary Health Care [PRITECH], 1991. , 14,  p. (USAID Contract No. DPE-5969-Z-00-7064-00)In September 1991, 2 consulting groups, WHO, and the Department of Health of the Philippines collaborated in a study to determine the quality of the diarrheal training unit (DTU) courses at various hospitals in Manila, Cebu, Zamboanga, and Tacloban, the Philippines and the ability of the DTU trainees to apply what they learned. The evaluation team observed 2 courses in diarrheal case management at the National Rehydration, Treatment, and Training Center (NRTTC) in Manila and at the Southern Islands Medical Center (SIMC) in Cebu presented simultaneously between September 2-6, 1991. During the course, trainees at NRTTC were able to observe 54 diarrhea cases while those at SIMC were able to observe 8. The simulation testing showed that trainees of the NRTTC course were better able to assess and manage diarrhea cases at the end of the course than were those of the SIMC course. This was because NRTTC participants had had more extensive practical training. This finding suggested that the best training method consisted of experience and confidence acquired in actually managing cases. Case simulation was valuable in identifying deficiencies in trainee knowledge and skills that would have otherwise been missed. In fact, facilitators at SIMC observed trainee problems in all 3 major skill areas: assessment, treatment, and counseling. The evaluation of participant postcourse knowledge and skills and of content and teaching methods of the training courses should prove useful to the DTU faculty and the Control of Diarrheal Disease program in planning for future DTU training. Further it provided a base to measure ensuing participant performance in the field. The team arranged for administration of part B of the study which is to identify strengths and weaknesses of the trainees.
POPULATION EDUCATION IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC NEWSLETTER AND FORUM. 1991; (34):17-20.In May 1991, UNESCO and the Ministry of Education of Pakistan sponsored a Regional Workshop for the Integration of Population Education in Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All in Islamabad, Pakistan. Prior to the workshop, resource persons and experts met to develop guidelines for participants that were geared towards curriculum and material needs and core population education messages. 1 workshop group addressed integration of population education messages into primary education and the other into literacy programs. All participants observed and analyzed the problems and needs of a Muslim community and Saidpur village. The 1st group visited primary schools and spoke to teachers. The participants agreed that population education messages should be integrated into social studies, science, languages, and religion subjects at grade levels 3-5. The messages should include population related beliefs and values, problems of population growth, small family size, responsible parenthood, sex preference, population and development, the role of elders, and improving the status of women. They tested 4 of 11 developed lesson plans. Both teachers and students were generally pleased, but believed that posters and illustrations would better the plans. The other group conducted a needs assessment survey among 27 Muslim families. Participants found >100 population related issues that needed to be addressed in literacy programs. These issues fit into 6 categories and the group focused on social and cultural values and beliefs. Participants developed materials that highlighted several topics, such as early marriage and preference for males. They used puppet shows, puzzle games, posters and discussions, and story telling with pictures to communicate the messages. Puppet shows were the most popular method among housewives.