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Environmental and project displacement of population in India. Part I: Development and deracination.
UFSI FIELD STAFF REPORTS. 1991; (14):1-16.Official development projects in India have displaced at least 20 million persons since Indian independence in 1947, and the majority have not been relocated in planned resettlement. India is in a race to implement development projects needed to support the growth of its population, which increased from 361 million in 1951 to 840 million in 1990. Through the 1960s and 1970s about 1/4 of these oustees were minimally resettled and the rest had to find their own way to get reestablished. There is no international consensus on the rights of internally displaced persons, but most countries compensate people. Agricultural labor and construction labor are the most common types of work of the landless oustees. 1,589 large dams built since independence ousted the largest number of people. Dams, reservoirs, and canals displaced 11,000,000 people; 2,750,000 were rehabilitated and 8,250,000 found their own way. Mines displaced 1,700,000; 450,000 were rehabilitated and 1,250,000 found their own way. Industries displaced 1,000,000; 300,000 were rehabilitated and 700,000 found their own way. Parks and sanctuaries displaced 600,000; 150,000 were rehabilitated and 450,000 relocated on their own. Other projects displacing people are forest preserves, wildlife sanctuaries, military installations, weapons testing grounds, nuclear installations, and railroads and roads. The World Bank requires compensation for people displaced by 12 dam projects it is funding in India: the underestimated count is 610,500 persons. The Pong Dam, a 130 m high gravel dam, under the western Himalayas ousted 30,330 families, about 167,000 people, but only 16,001 families were found eligible for compensation. The Subarnarekha Project in southern Bihar is displacing 10,000 families, about 55,000 people. The state government estimates that 35% of these will not settle in suggested relocation sites because land is not available.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. xiv, 120 p. (Social Statistics and Indicators Series K No. 8; ST/ESA/STAT/SER.K/8)5 UN agencies worked together to develop this statistical source book to generate awareness of women's status, to guide policy, to stimulate action, and to monitor progress toward improvements. The data clearly show that obvious differences between the worlds of men and women are women's role as childbearer and their almost complete responsibility for family care and household management. Overall, women have gained more control over their reproduction, but their responsibility to their family's survival and their own increased. Women tend to be the providers of last resort for families and themselves, often in hostile conditions. Women have more access to economic opportunities and accept greater economic roles, yet their economic employment often consists of subsistence agriculture and services with low productivity, is separate from men's work, and unequal to men's work. Economists do not consider much of the work women do as having any economic value so they do not even measure it. The beginning of each chapter states the core messages in 4-5 sentences. Each chapter consists of text accompanied by charts, tables, and/or regional stories. The 1st chapter covers women, families, and households. The 2nd chapter addresses the public life and leadership of women. Education and training dominate chapter 3. Health and childbearing are the topics of chapter 4 while housing, settlements, and the environment comprise chapter 5. The book concludes with a chapter on women's employment and the economy. The annexes include strategies for the advancement of women decided upon in Nairobi, Kenya in 1985, the text of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, and geographical groupings of countries and areas. During the 1990s, we must invest in women to realize equitable and sustainable development.
POPULATION. 1991 Dec; 17(12):2.Although recent political developments offer hope that a large number of Southeast Asian refugees will soon be able to return to their homelands, the repatriation process still faces many difficulties. Since 1975, armed conflict, political upheaval, and poverty has displaced millions of Southeast Asians. More than 1.5 million Indochinese have settled in foreign countries. As of mid-1991, UN-supervised camps--primarily in Hong Kong and Thailand--provided refuge to 196,000 Cambodians, Laotians, and Vietnamese. An additional 340,700 Cambodians resided in camps just inside the Thai border. But many of the Cambodian refugees may soon return be repatriated, following a comprehensive peace agreement signed in Paris on October 23. Coordinated by the UN, the repatriation is scheduled to begin in early 1992. The repatriation, however, faces serious obstacles: up to a million land-mines are believed to be left in Cambodia, banditry along the Thai-Cambodian border is on the rise, and Cambodia still lacks the infrastructure necessary to provide its people even the basic goods. A repatriation of Vietnamese boat people may also take place soon. In October, Great Britain and View Nam agreed to return the boat people in Hong Kong who fail to qualify for refugee status. While very few of the boat people have been screened, only 15% of those screened have qualified as refugees. And very few of those who fail to qualify have opted to return voluntarily. The UN has instituted a way for emigration to take place in an organized fashion. The Orderly Department Programme (ODP) allows people to apply in Viet Nam for emigration, and in 1990, more Vietnamese left through ODP than by boat.