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In: African research studies in population information, education and communication, compiled and edited by Tony Johnston, Aart de Zeeuw, and Waithira Gikonyo. Nairobi, Kenya, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1991. 83-100.Researchers studied 62 pregnant women intending to not terminate their pregnancy and to continue their studies and 27 nonpregnant women to learn about female student fertility related behavior. They were all enrolled at the University of Zambia either during the 1987-1988 or 1989-1990 academic years. Methodology consisted of interviews, questionnaires, and focus group discussions. 68% of all women were single with 40% of them having at least 1 child. 75% of the women were sexually active. 42.7% knew traditional family planning methods with friends, grandmothers, and social aunts telling 25.9% of all the women about such methods. Yet mass media provided most women (49.4%) with knowledge about modern methods. 50.6% thought the pill to be the most effective method. >65% considered the 24-26 as the ideal age at marriage. The mean ideal family size was 3.5, somewhat less than family size for urban women in Zambia. 71.9% considered children to be assets since children are a means to social security (33%), self fulfillment (8%), and companionship (7%). 94.4% approved of family planning mainly for purposes of child spacing (29.2%), limiting (23.6), and spacing and limiting (32.6%). Even though they knew about and approved of family planning and claimed modern attitudes concerning ideal age at marriage and ideal family size, 62% of single pregnant students and 59% of married pregnant students did not use or regularly use contraception. This suggested that they considered early childbearing to be an asset. The leading reasons for contraception nonuse included perception of low pregnancy risk (40%) and desire for a child (28%). Only 3.2% claimed method failure. 64% of all women said partners did not approve of contraceptive use. Access to family planning and cost were not a problem. Only 22% of pregnant students said pregnancy would reduce their chances of marriage. In conclusion, many women became pregnant surreptitiously.
Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1991. , 73 p. (Population Education Programme Service)The revised UNESCO secondary school teaching manual provides lessons on family life education. Materials are based on the those available from the Population Education Clearing House. 4 Modules cover various aspects of adolescence education: Module 1, Physical Aspects; Module 2, Social Aspects; Module 3, Sex Roles; and Module 4, Sexually Transmitted Diseases. This report on the Social Aspects begins with a general discussion of the program and conceptual framework for the adolescence education package. 6 lessons are included in this module. Lesson 2.1 is devoted to adolescent sexuality or sexual behavior. Each lesson has a set of objectives, time required, and materials, and usually has procedures, information sheet, and suggested activities outlines. Lesson 2.2 is concerned with sexuality in childhood and adolescence. Lesson 2.3 deals with love. Lesson 2.4 consists of dating and relationships. Lesson 2.5 provides information on adolescent pregnancy in terms of the growing number and the consequences of adolescent pregnancy and parenting in the premarital and marital states. The other objective is to explore individual feelings and attitudes about adolescent pregnancy and sexual behavior. Lesson 2.6 is on a moral code of ethics, their roles and function. An example of the information sheet on love is as follows: several paragraphs describe various aspects of love as sharing, caring, action, time and sacrifice, not always agreement, a relationship, the glue to hold families together, and so on. There are different types of love: love for parents, love among siblings, love for friends, conjugal love. Mature love is differentiated from immature love by the degree of caring about the other person as more important to you than having the other person care for you. Immature love is the reverse where one is more concerned with having the other person care about you and involves more taking than giving. Communication is sometimes blocked in order to avoid hurting the other's feelings, is directed to another instead of directly to one's partner, or is misdirected to a small action instead of focusing on the larger concern. Partners must conscientiously work on getting through to each other. Spontaneity and mutual confidence will develop as each becomes more comfortable with the other.