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  1. 1
    079594

    Essential elements of obstetric care at first referral level.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1991. vii, 72 p.

    Members of WHO's Technical Working Group on Essential Obstetric Functions at First Referral Level have prepared a book geared towards district, provincial, regional, national, and international decision makers, particularly those in developing countries, whose areas of expertise include planning, financing, and organization and management of obstetric services. The guidelines should allow them to improve referral services' standards at the district level. They should also help them decide how far and by what means they may possibly expand some of these services to more peripheral levels, e.g., renovating facilities and improving staff. When developing these guidelines, WHO took in consideration that many countries confront serious economic obstacles. The book's introduction briefly discusses maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries and maternity care in district health systems. The second chapter, which makes up the bulk of the book, addresses primary components of obstetric care related to causes of maternal death. This chapter's section on surgical obstetrics examines cesarean section and repair of high vaginal and cervical tears among others. Its other sections include anesthesia, medical treatment, blood replacement, manual procedures and monitoring labor, family planning support, management of women at high risk, and neonatal special care. The third section provides guidelines for implementation of these services, including cost and financial considerations. It emphasizes the need at the first referral level to have the least trained personnel perform as many health care procedures as possible, as long as they can do so safely and effectively. Other implementation issues are facilities, equipment, supplies, drugs, supervision, evaluation, and research. Annexes list the required surgical and delivery equipment, materials for side ward laboratory tests and blood transfusions, essential drugs, and maternity center facilities and equipment.
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  2. 2
    067400

    The promotion of family planning by financial payments: the case of Bangladesh.

    Cleland J; Mauldin WP

    STUDIES IN FAMILY PLANNING. 1991 Jan-Feb; 22(1):1-18.

    A study investigative the pros and cons of financial payments for sterilizations to clients, medical personnel, and agents who motivate and refer clients was conducted by the government of Bangladesh in conjunction with the World Bank. Results indicate that Bangladeshi men and women opt to be sterilized both voluntarily and after consideration of the nature and implications of the procedure. Clients were also said to be knowledgeable of alternate methods of controlling fertility. A high degree of client satisfaction was noted overall with, however, 25% regret among those clients with less than 3 children. Money is a contributing factor in a large majority of cases, though dominating as motivation for a small minority. Financial payments to referrers have sparked a proliferation of many unofficial, self-employed agents, especially men recruiting male sterilization. Targeting especially poor potential clients, these agents focus upon sterilization at the expense of other fertility regulating methods, and tend to minimize the cons of the process. Examples of client cases and agents are included in the text along with discussion of implications from study findings.
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