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  1. 1

    Rights of older persons backed by Economic and Social Council. Acts on human rights, women, drugs, and other social issues.

    UN Chronicle. 1991 Sep; 28(3):[3] p..

    Older persons have the right to make decisions about their care and quality of life, and should be able to reside at home as long as possible and remain integrated in society, according to a draft set of Principles for Older Persons, recommended for adoption by the General Assembly. In a resolution adopted by the Economic and Social Council at its first regular session of 1991, Governments will be asked to incorporate the Principles to their national programmes. The Principles are based on the International Plan of Action on Ageing, adopted by the World Assembly on Ageing convened by the UN in Vienna in 1982. The Council adopted 109 texts 49 resolutions and 60 decisions-at the session. Many had been recommended by its subsidiary bodies, including the Commission on Human Rights, the Commission for Social Development, the Commission on the Status of Women and the Commission on Narcotic Drugs. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    UN commission proposes action to prohibit violence against women; China offers to host fourth women's conference - United Nations Commission on the Status of Women.

    UN Chronicle. 1991 Jun; 28(2):[4] p..

    Action to prohibit violence against women, ensure equal opportunities for disabled women and give priority to international protection of refugee and displaced women and children was recommended by the Commission on the Status of Women at its thirty-fifth session (27 February-8 March, Vienna). The 43-member body also launched preparations for the Fourth World Conference on Women: Action for Equality, Development and Peace. Fifteen resolutions, which also focused on women in vulnerable situations--including migrants, prostitutes and battered women--and the integration of women in development, were approved by the Commission. Most texts will go to the Economic and Social Council and the General Assembly for final adoption later this year. The Commission asked that discussions start on the possibility of preparing an international instrument that explicitly addresses the issue of violence against women. The first step should be to develop a framework for that instrument, in consultation with the Committee for the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). An expert meeting on this issue should be convened in 1991 or 1992, with the participation of CEDAW and the Committee on Crime Prevention and Control, the Commission specified. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Population conference set for 1994; ageing, international migration examined - International Conference on Population and Development.

    UN Chronicle. 1991 Jun; 28(2):[4] p..

    Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UN Population Fund and Secretary-General of the Conference, said preparations for the event reflected the enormous needs and challenges of the future, as well as the notable advances that had been made in the population field, particularly by developing countries in implementing policies and programmes. Egypt and Tunisia both have offered to host the Conference, scheduled for August 1994. Further preparatory meetings are planned in August 1993 and early 1994. It would be the fifth international population conference convened by the UN. Conferences held in Rome in 1954 and in Belgrade in 1965 were purely technical meetings, limited to scientific discussions on population topics. Subsequent intergovernmental conferences in Bucharest in 1974 and in Mexico City in 1984 were concerned with establishing objectives, principles and goals, and making recommendations in the population field. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Exploitation of women workers in family enterprises decried - United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women.

    UN Chronicle. 1991 Jun; 28(2):[1] p..

    Women who work in family enterprises without payment are being exploited, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) declared, calling for guaranteed payment, social security and social benefits for them. As it concluded its tenth annual session (21 January-1 February, New York), the Committee also recommended that the value of women's domestic work be added to countries' gross national products. Nations should provide information on disabled women and on measures taken to ensure equal access for them to education, employment, health services and social security. The 23-member watchdog body monitors how countries implement the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    UNICEF pushes efforts to cut child deaths, hunger - United Nations Children's Fund.

    UN Chronicle. 1991 Jun; 28(2):[3] p..

    The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) has made a "promise to children"--to try to end child deaths and child malnutrition on today's scale by the year 2000. The Fund estimates that a quarter of a million children die every week from common illnesses and one in three in the world are stunted by malnutrition. That broad goal, declared on 30 September 1990 by 71 Presidents and Prime Ministers attending the first World Summit for Children, includes 20 specific targets detailed in the Plan of Action for implementing the World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children in the 1990s, adopted at the Summit. Among them are: one-third reduction in under-five death rates; halving maternal mortality rates; halving of severe and moderate malnutrition among the world's under-fives; safe water and sanitation for all families; and measures covering protection for women and girls, nutrition, child health and education. Other goals include making family planning available to all couples and cutting deaths from diarrhoeal diseases--which kill approximately 4 million young children annually--by one half, and pneumonia--which kills another 4 million a year--by one third. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Staff appraisal report: Bangladesh, Fourth Population and Health Project.

    World Bank. Population and Human Resources Division

    [Unpublished] 1991 May 20. [4], ix, 145, [2] p. (Report No. 9400-BD)

    This staff appraisal report was based on the findings of a mission visiting Bangladesh in November 1990, representatives from a number of developed countries and international organizations. An overview was provided of past development activities in health and family planning, followed by a detailed description of the Fourth National Population and Health Program (1992-96): objectives, activities, environmental considerations, costs and financing, and implementation. The benefits of the plan were identified as improved welfare of women and children through greater spacing of births and improved health status. Family planning and health services were expected to be enhanced by integration of services, reorientation of medicine to community services, and improvement in quality of services. The main risk identified was the inability to fully implement the extensive reform in the health subsector and the potential weakness of management of the health subsector. The plan incorporated features to address the risks. Agreements were reached that the Bangladesh government would hire at least 4500 qualified women as health assistants by March 31, 1992, provide transportation for family planning and health workers to attend satellite clinics, and implement the following surveys: a fertility survey in 1994, a contraceptive prevalence survey by March 31, 1993, a facilities utilization survey by September 30, 1992, a feasibility study of storage requirements for family planning and health supplies by December 31, 1992, a comprehensive baseline survey of maternal and neonatal health care in the districts of Kushtia, Tangail, Feni, and Sirajganj/Pabna. 25 other recommendations were listed. The reason for low levels of human resource development has been inadequate past and present expenditures. In order to increase the contraceptive prevalence rate government and donors must expand programs for primary health care, family planning, and primary education as quickly as possible. Long-term sustainability will depend on government and donor resources, the role of nongovernmental organizations, and cost-sharing arrangements. The failures of the past have been in the government's concern with short-term political concerns rather than long-term development. Remediation will involve sector self-reliance and not individual project initiatives.
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  7. 7

    Strengthening maternal and child health programmes through primary health care. Guidelines for countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Based on the deliberations of the Intercountry Meeting on the Integration of MCH into Primary Health Care, Amman, Jordan, 11-15 December 1988.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean [EMRO]

    Alexandria, Egypt, WHO, EMRO, 1991. 75 p. (WHO EMRO Technical Publication No. 18)

    All countries in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMRO) have had maternal and child health (MCH) programs for many years, yet maternal mortality and morbidity and infant mortality remain high. The EMRO office in Jordan, recognizing this dilemma, convened a meeting of national managers from the 22 EMRO member states to discuss how to integrate MCH programs with primary health care (PHC). The meeting resulted in the publication of guidelines and goals to help each country integrate MCH into PHC which would strengthen MCH services and improve MCH status. The managers noted the need to switch from a pregnancy-oriented approach to a holistic approach in which MCH/PHC programs and society consider women as more than childbearers. MCH/PHC programs and society need to be concerned about the well-being of females beginning with infancy and should place considerable health promotion for girls during the pubertal spurt and adolescence. They should also promote prevention of iron deficiency anemia in women. Since maternal mortality is especially high is EMRO, the national managers clearly laid out approaches for health services to reduce maternal mortality caused by obstetrical complications. They also recognized the need for a practical alternative to obstetric care provided by health workers--training traditional birth attendants in each village. They also provided guidance on improving prenatal care to reduce perinatal and neonatal mortality such as vaccination of every pregnant woman with the tetanus toxoid. Since the causes of death in the postneonatal period, MCH/PHC programs need to take action to reduce malnutrition and infection. For example, they must promote breast feeding for at least the first 6 months of life. The managers suggested the implementation of the Child Survival and Development Strategy which includes growth monitoring.
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  8. 8

    Climate change: the IPCC response strategies.

    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC]

    Washington, D.C., Island Press, 1991. lxii, 272 p.

    In 1988, the World Meteorological Organization and the UN Environment Program established the Intergovernmental Panel on climate Change (IPCC) to consider scientific data on various factors of the climate change issue, e.g., emissions of major greenhouse gases, and to draw up realistic response strategies to manage this issue. Its members have agreed that emissions from human activities are indeed increasing sizably the levels of carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere. The major conclusions are that effective responses need a global effort and both developed and developing countries must take responsibility to implement these responses. Industrialized countries must modify their economies to limit emissions because most emissions into the atmosphere come from these countries. They should cooperate with and also provide financial and technical assistance to developing countries to raise their living standards while preventing and managing environmental problems. Concurrently, developing countries must adopt measures to also limit emissions as their economies expand. Environmental protection must be the base for continuing economic development. There must be an education campaign to inform the public about the issue and the needed changes. Strategies and measures to confront rapid population growth must be included in a flexible and progressive approach to sustainable development. Specific short-term actions include improved energy efficiency, cleaner energy sources and technologies, phasing out CFCs, improved forest management and expansion of forests, improved livestock waste management, modified use and formulation of fertilizers, and changes in agricultural land use. Longer term efforts are accelerated and coordinated research programs, development of new technologies, behavioral and structural changes (e.g., transportation), and expansion of global ocean observing and monitoring systems.
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  9. 9

    Report of WHO Consultation on Maternal and Perinatal Infections, 28 November - 2 December 1988.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health. Programme of Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Division of Family Health, Programme of Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning, 1991 Dec. [3], 122 p. (WHO/MCH/91.10)

    This WHO consultation on maternal and perinatal infections reviews the epidemiology of these infections, examines the effectiveness of known intervention strategies to prevent and treat these infections, notes gaps in current knowledge, and develops recommendations for implementation of appropriate control strategies. The report is geared toward maternal and child health professionals in developing countries where maternal and perinatal infections cause considerable morbidity and death. These countries have limited resources for health care (e.g., US $5-10/person), largely due to the worsening economic situation. The report centers on the feasibility, effectiveness, and cost of interventions to prevent, treat, and control the infections. It has summary cost-effective analyses of maternal and perinatal infections and proposed interventions using 3 different hypothetical country situations to help policymakers decide on priorities and policies on prevention, treatment, and control of these infections. The report dedicates a chapter to each infection (syphilis, neonatal tetanus, malaria, hepatitis, HIV infections, chlamydial infections, herpes simplex infection, Group B Streptococcal infections, and maternal genital infection causing premature birth and low birth weight). Each chapter addresses their clinical and public health significance; prevalence in pregnant women and transmission from mother to fetus/infant; clinical effects; prevention, treatment, and control; and cost effectiveness and feasibility of various interventions. Based on public health importance, feasibility, and affordability, the consultants agreed that national and international programs should place the highest priority on these perinatal infections: gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum, maternal and congenital syphilis, neonatal tetanus, hepatitis B, and maternal puerperal infections.
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  10. 10

    Review and evaluation of national action taken to give effect to the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes: report of a technical meeting, The Hague, 30 September - 3 October 1991.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health. Programme of Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning

    [Unpublished] 1991. 24 p. (WHO/MCH/NUT/91.2)

    The report of the national actions in marketing breast-milk substitutes includes a review and evaluation summarized in the accompanying annex and the results of a meeting. Participants found the evaluation helpful, that progress had been made, and that the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes must be viewed in a broad context. Lessons learned and recommendations are given for the development and implementation of national measures, as well as the training and education in the health sector, the information to the general public and mothers, monitoring and enforcement, and manufacturers and distributors of products within the scope of the Code. Successful implementation depends on a clear international perspective, on all concerned parties' involvement in development and monitoring, and a continuing commitment to a complex process. Difficulties encountered were lack of 1) political commitment, 2) integration of sectors, and 3) recognition that the Code applied to all counties; there were also questions about the scope of products included in the Code. There is no limit to age group. Partial adoption is not sufficient and has a negative impact. The Code was being ignored in countries moving toward a market economy. Health professionals were unaware of new developments in infant feeding practices. The Code assumes a compatible relationship between manufacturers and health personnel, which is not the case. Manufacturers used mass media and formal and informal educational sectors to disseminate information about their products with the approval of authorities who considered the use consistent with the Code. The expanding international telecommunications systems have proved to be a crippling challenge to some countries without the tools to know how to regulate programming. The feeding bottle is an inappropriate child care symbol for breast feeding, which is frequently found in public places. Monitoring has been uneven. Enforcement is hampered by an absence of, inadequacy in, and inability to apply sanctions. Joint health and industry provisions are weaker than the Code, and marketing strategies do not conform to the Code. Manufacturers apply the Code differently in developed and developing countries. Not enough attention has been paid to feeding or pacifier products. Retail stores sell infant formula next to other infant food products which is misleading.
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  11. 11

    Strengthening of management of maternal and child health and family planning programmes. Report of an intercountry workshop, New Delhi, 27-31 August 1990.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. South-East Asia Region

    [Unpublished] 1991 Feb 14. [2], 20 p. (SEA/MCH/FP/99; Project No. ICP MCH 011)

    >20 participants from UNFPA/UNICEF/USAID and 23 participants from 10 countries from the WHO Southeast Asia Region attended the Workshop on Strengthening of Management of Maternal and Child Health (MCH) and Family Planning (FP) Programmes in New Delhi, India in August 1990. The workshop consisted of presentations and discussions of country reports, technical papers, dynamic work groups, and plenary consensus. The WHO/SEARO technical officer for family health presented a thorough overview on strengthening MCH/FP services in a primary health care setting. Issues addressed included regional status on population growth, urban migration and development. MCH status, management of MCH/FP services, strategic planning, and management information. In Bangladesh, the government integrated MCH services with FP services, but other child programs including immunization, control of diarrheal disease program, nutrition, acute respiratory infection remained with the health division. Obstacles of the MCH/FP program in the Maldives were shortage of trained human resources, preference of health providers to work in urban areas, inadequate logistics, and insufficient supervision in peripheral health centers. A nomadic way of life among the rural peoples posed special problems for the delivery of MCH services in Mongolia where large family size was encouraged. Other country reports included Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. A case study of the model mother program in Thailand and the local area monitoring technique in Indonesia were shared with participants. District team work groups identified key MCH/FP management problems including organization, planning, and management; finance and resource allocation; intersectoral action; community participation; and human resource development. The workshop revealed the national health leaders with hopes for WHO technical assistance were developing a rapid evaluation methodology.
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  12. 12
    Peer Reviewed

    Research priorities for diarrhoeal disease vaccines: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for the Control of Diarrhoeal Disease; WHO/UNDP Programme for Vaccine Development [PVD]


    WHO's Programme for Control of Diarrheal Diseases (CDD) promoted and supported research the purpose of which is to develop and evaluate vaccines against diarrheal diseases, but it focused on diarrhea control. In 1991, the WHO/UNDP Programme for Vaccine Development (PVD) began coordinating diarrheal disease vaccine research, yet CDD remained actively involved in vaccine trials. In March 1991, CDD and PVD cosponsored a meeting to specify new research priorities toward vaccines against rotaviruses, Shigella, cholera, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections. Synopses of clinical trials on vaccines that have undergone clinical trials are presented. Different methods of developing vaccines against rotavirus included heterologous rotavirus adapted to tissue cultures, incorporating the VP7 surface protein of human rotaviruses into an animal rotavirus, and naturally attenuated. Live oral vaccines, different ways to immunize with oral encapsulated antigens, and a gycoconjugate approach comprised the Shigella vaccine research. There were many candidate Shigella vaccines which the meeting participants found to be promising and challenging. Cholera vaccines included killed and live oral vaccines. The results of a large field trial of cholera vaccines (killed whole cell/B subunit and whole cell culture) in Bangladesh revealed marked improvements over injected vaccines. A study of children in Indonesia showed promise for strain CVD-103HgR as a 1 dose, live oral vaccine against cholera. Adult volunteers who received milk immunoglobulin concentrate with antibodies against several colonization factor fimbriae (LT and O antigens) and then challenged experimentally with ETEC were 100% protected. WHO emphasized the need to develop both living and nonliving oral ETEC vaccines which will grant broad spectrum immunity to young children. Specific recommendations follow each section on the various vaccines and general recommendations are included.
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  13. 13

    A call for action: promoting health in developing countries.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Working Group on Health Promotion in Developing Countries

    HEALTH EDUCATION QUARTERLY. 1991 Spring; 18(1):5-15.

    This article contains the findings and recommendations of a Working Group convened by the World Health Organizations (WHO) in 1989 in order to explore the application of health promotion concepts and strategies in developing countries. As the article's preamble explains, goal of health promotion is to foster health development by advocating policies, developing social support systems, and empowering people with the knowledge and skills needed to address health problems. The WHO Working Group, which included 26 representatives from around the world, focused on the following concerns: 1) how to mobilize the public and policy- makers in favor of health, and how to obtain an appropriate share of national resources; 2) how to encourage health planners to allocate resources to health promotion and disease prevention; and 3) how to intensify health education in developing countries. The article presents the highlights of the Working Group's discussions on the following 4 themes: 1) the issues facing health promotion in developing countries; 2) the formulation of health supportive public policies; 3) the empowerment of people for health action; and 4) the strengthening of nations' capability for health promotion. The article also issues a call for action around health promotion. Although the specific initiatives of individual countries invariably vary, the Working Group provides some of the high priority actions that developing nations need to take in order to move health promotion from concept to reality.
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  14. 14
    Peer Reviewed

    Diagnosis of human herpesviruses: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    World Health Organization Meeting on Diagnosis of Human Herpesvirus Infections (1990: Berlin)


    The frequent reactivation of disease in immunosuppressed patients represents a serious health complication for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with herpesviruses. Since the herpesviruses are often associated with the development of complication such as pneumonia and lymphoma, an emphasis is being placed on the rapid laboratory diagnosis of herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, varicella- zoster, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus. Diagnostic methods that utilize monoclonal antibodies to detect viral antigens in clinical specimens are now within the scope of general laboratories and detection methods for viral DNA in clinical specimens are being advanced. Each of the viruses requires its own diagnostic procedures, however, and consideration should be given to practical and economic issues. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that developing countries use rapid diagnostic techniques that do not require expensive, labor-intensive virus replication. Serological diagnosis can facilitate disease surveillance of the herpesviruses in different population groups in countries with little information on this infection's epidemiology. Who is recommending that regional or national reference laboratories establish confirmatory testing facilities to support the routing virological or microbiological services offered by local laboratories. Other WHO recommendations include the development of international standard preparations and reference reagents, compilation of a list of monoclonal antibodies available for collaborative diagnostic studies, and promotion of studies on the rapid diagnosis of herpesvirus-promoted encephalitides.
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  15. 15

    Report: Albania.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Technical and Evaluation Division; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Division for Arab States and Europe

    New York, New York, UNFPA, [1991]. [6], 33 p.

    A United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) mission to Albania in 1989 attempted to identify the country's priority population issues and goals. Albania, a socialist country, has made many accomplishments, including an administrative structure that extends down to the village level, no foreign debt, universal literacy, a low death rate (5.4/1000), and involvement of women in development. At the same time, the country has the highest birth rate in Europe (25.5/1000), a high incidence of illegal abortion, lack of access to modern methods of contraception, and inadequate technology in areas such as medical equipment and data collection. Albania's population policy is aimed at maintaining the birth rate at its current level, reducing morality, and lowering the abortion rate by 50% by 1995. Goals for the health sector include increasing life expectancy, reducing infant and maternal mortality, improving the quality of health services, and decreasing the gap between the standard of living in rural and urban areas. Family planning is not allowed except for health reasons. Depending on trends in the total fertility rate, Albania's population in the year 2025 could be as low as 4.6 million or as high as 5.4 million. Albania has expressed an interest in collaborating with UN agencies in technical cooperation projects. The UNFPA mission recommended that support should be provided for the creation of a population database and analysis system for the Government's 1991-95 development plan. Also recommended was support to the Enver Hoxha University's program of strengthening the teaching of population dynamics and demographic research. Other recommendations included activities to strengthen maternal care/child spacing activities, IEC projects, and to raise the status of women.
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  16. 16

    Community involvement in health development: challenging health services. Report of a WHO Study Group.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Study Group on Community Involvement in Health Development: Challenging Health Services


    In order to make community involvement in health development (CIH) a reality, countries need to go beyond endorsement of the idea and take concrete steps, reports a WHO study group examining the issue. While the idea of community involvement has gained widespread acceptance, most health services have been slow in making the necessary institutional and organizational changes, and in providing the necessary money and staff time. Furthermore, most CIH efforts have concentrated on the community side of involvement, neglecting the health development aspects and the context in which the involvement takes place. The Study Group, which met in Geneva on December 1989, was concerned with identifying specific obstacles to CIH implementation and providing recommendations. The report discusses such issues as the political, social, and economic contexts of CIH; the methodology of CIH; the training of health personnel; the strengthening of communities for CIH; and the monitoring and evaluation of such programs. Among the report's major findings: most countries have yet to truly commit to CIH; CIH programs lack the necessary support and resources; effective coordination at all levels is imperative; health personnel must be adequately educated on the principles and practices of CIH; and some health ministries promote too narrow an understanding of health. The report contains recommendations for both countries and for WHO. The recommendations for countries include several measures directed at the ministries of health, including a provision that the ministries develop guidelines for the implementation of CIH at the district level.
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  17. 17

    Third draft report, April 28. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Working Group, April 22-24, 1991.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Working Group

    [Unpublished] 1991. Presented at the 1st International Course on Planning and Managing STD Control Activities in Developing Countries, Antwerp, Belgium, September 9-21, 1991. [15] p.

    Comprised of an interdisciplinary group of scientists from both developed and developing countries, a sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) research working group met April 22-24, 1991, in Geneva to develop recommendations for the WHO/STD program on global STD research needs and priorities. The group took direction from a September 1989 meeting of a WHO consultative group to the WHO STD program, and a meeting of the research sub-committee of the WHO AIDS/STD Task Force held in July 1990, to consider global strategies of coordination for AIDS and STD control programs. Recommendations for the WHO/STD program on global STD research needs and priorities would stress the needs of developing countries in the areas of cost-effective prevention, case detection and management, surveillance, and program evaluation. The relevancy of potential projects to practical, operational issues was stressed throughout the meeting, and the unique global role played by the WHO STD program in encouraging and coordinating STD research and control efforts, as well as in working with donor agencies, were central themes of the meeting. The working group determined that it should prioritize research needs based upon selected factors, and consider how potential plans addressing such needs could be accomplished and funded. Program support, case management, behavior, epidemiology, and interventions were identified as broad areas of research need.
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  18. 18

    [Resolution No.] 46/98. Implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women [16 December 1991].

    United Nations. General Assembly

    GENERAL ASSEMBLY OFFICIAL RECORDS. 1991; (Suppl 49):168-70.

    This document contains the text of a 1989 UN resolution on implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women. The resolution recalls previous relevant resolutions; reaffirms the UN's goal of encouraging the full participation of women in economic, social, cultural, civil, and political affairs; and expresses regret that a high-level interregional consultation on women in public life scheduled for 1991 failed to occur. The resolution proceeds to 1) urge governments, international organizations, and nongovernmental organizations to implement the recommendations arising from the first review and appraisal of the strategies, 2) call for improvements in female literacy and empowerment, and 3) reaffirm the central role of the Commission on the Status of Women in implementing the strategies. Additionally, the resolution makes several specific requests of the Commission and of the Secretary-General for actions that will further the implementation of the strategies.
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  19. 19

    [Resolution No.] 1991/92. Work programme in the field of population [26 July 1991].

    United Nations. Economic and Social Council


    This document contains the text of a 1991 UN resolution on the UN's work program in the field of population. After reviewing previous UN action on this issue and stressing the relationship between population and development, the resolution notes with satisfaction the progress made in implementing the population work program to date and makes the following specific requests of the Secretary-General: 1) to continue to give monitoring world population trends and policies high priority; 2) to continue working on specified issues; 3) to give priority to strengthening multilateral technical cooperation in specified areas; and 4) subject to the availability of funds, to study the needs of developing countries for skilled human resources in the field of population. In addition, the resolution reemphasizes the importance of maintaining the population program and strengthening coordination among various UN agencies and departments and among member states and appropriate intergovernmental, nongovernmental, and national organizations.
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  20. 20

    [Resolution No.] 1991/93. International Conference on Population and Development [26 July 1991].

    United Nations. Economic and Social Council


    This document contains a 1991 UN resolution on the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). After reviewing previous UN action on this issue, the resolution 1) names the conference; 2) makes recommendations about preparatory activities; 3) identifies six broad objectives for the ICPD; 4) identifies population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development as the overall theme of the conference and identifies six issues which require attention (population growth and structure; population policies and programs; the interrelationships between population policies, development, the environment, and related matters; changes in the distribution of population; linkages between the status of women and population dynamics; and family planning programs, health, and family well-being); 5) stresses the need to take the circumstances of developing countries into consideration; 6) authorizes the UN to convene expert meetings on each issue; 7) requests that appropriate UN agencies guide the preparatory activities and that UN resources be devoted to this task; 8) asks regional commissions to meet to review population policies and programs; 9) sets up a mechanisms to receive progress reports; 10) sets dates for the second and third sessions of the Preparatory Committee; and 11) makes funding recommendations.
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  21. 21

    [Resolution No.] 1991/23. Refugee and displaced women and children [30 May 1991].

    United Nations. Economic and Social Council


    This document contains the text of a 1991 UN resolution on refugee and displaced women and children. After reviewing previous UN action on this issue, the resolution recommends that: 1) member states cooperate with UN agencies and nongovernmental organizations to address the root cases of refugee migrations; 2) women and children be protected from violence and abuse; 3) the specific needs of refugee women and children be considered in planning; 4) refugee women be given sufficient information to make decisions on their own future; 5) women and, when possible, children, be given access to individual identification documents; 6) refugee women participate fully in the assessment of their needs and in the planning and implementation of programs; 7) the UN Secretary-General review the ability of its organizations to address the situation of refugee women and children; and 8) international organizations increase their capacity to respond to the needs of refugee women and children through greater coordination of efforts. The resolution commends member states which receive large numbers of refugees and asks the international community to share the resulting burden and further recommends that all pertinent organizations adopt an appropriate policy on refugee women and children, female field staff be recruited, staff be trained to increase awareness of the issues related to refugee of women and children and skills for planning appropriate actions, and the collection of refugee statistics be disaggregated by age and gender.
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  22. 22

    [Resolution No.] 1991/18. Violence against women in all its forms [30 May 1991].

    United Nations. Economic and Social Council


    This document contains the text of a 1991 UN Resolution on violence against women. After reviewing previous UN action on this issue and noting that the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women fails to explicitly address violence, the resolution recommends that member states 1) recognize that violence against women can be countered by a variety of measures, 2) remember that violence against women results from male-female power imbalances, 3) prohibit violence against women, and 4) protect women from all forms of mental or physical violence and that 1) an international instrument be developed to address this issue explicitly, 2) the UN Secretary-General convene a meeting of experts on this issue, 3) governments train criminal justice and health care personnel to ensure justice in equality issues, and 4) researchers investigate the causes of violence against women.
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  23. 23

    [Resolution No.] 1991/22. National, regional and international machinery for the advancement of women [30 May 1991].

    United Nations. Economic and Social Council


    This document contains the text of a 1991 UN resolution on the establishment of national, regional and international machinery to promote the advancement of women. After reviewing previous UN action on this issue, the resolution recommended that: 1) all countries establish appropriate machinery for the advancement of women by 1995; 2) governments provide adequate resources to ensure the effective functioning of national machinery; 3) the UN provide technical assistance; 4) countries exchange information on this topic; 5) the UN support such an exchange of information; 6) a UN interregional advisor assist in these and related efforts; 7) technical help be provided to facilitate the preparation of reports for the 1995 World Conference on Women; 8) the UN Secretary-General report on UN activities in this regard to the 36th session of the Commission on the Status of Women; 9) the Secretary-General invite governments to publish pertinent case studies; 10) appropriate sections of the Secretariat be strengthened; 11) governments make accurate information on their national machinery available; 12) governments ensure proper training of staff and include gender-analysis training and information; and 13) the UN report on the effectiveness of these efforts to the World Conference on Women.
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  24. 24

    Social and cultural issues in human resources development for maternal health and safe motherhood. Report of a working group meeting, Stockholm 30-31 May 1991.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health. Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme

    [Unpublished] 1991. [2], 11 p. (WHO/MCH/MSM/91.4)

    A small working group of the Task Force on Human Resources Development for Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood met in Stockholm during May 30-31, 1991, with the goal of examining training needs for safe motherhood in the context of social and cultural issues which may sometimes conflict with the overall goal of reducing maternal mortality by half by the year 2000. It was recommended to the program of Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood that someone with ethnographic skills be included on the needs assessment teams in each country selected for accelerated action, those skills should be developed in a number of individuals through an ethnographic skills workshop, guidelines on ethnographic considerations should be developed for use by countries in planning national maternal health programs, a library of scenarios from around the world should be compiled as a source book of ideas for overcoming social and cultural obstacles between the official biomedical system and the community which it serves, outlines for new chapters should be written for the TBA Trainers' Kit to facilitate its adaptation to the social and cultural context of the community in which it will be used, and models for evaluating training in psychosocial skills and sensitivity to psychosocial issues should be developed.
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  25. 25

    [Resolution No.] 46/203. Prevention and control of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), 20 December 1991.

    United Nations. General Assembly

    GENERAL ASSEMBLY OFFICIAL RECORDS. 1991; (Suppl 49):139-40.

    This UN Resolution on prevention and control of AIDS was adopted on December 20, 1991. The resolution notes that the World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that 30-40 million individuals (90% in developing countries) will be infected with HIV by the year 2000 and that the epidemic will have produced 10-15 million AIDS orphans by that time. The UN expresses concern that the epidemic is increasing rapidly in urban areas and developing countries. The UN recognizes that the epidemic demands a multisectoral response and that discriminatory measures against people with AIDS not only force the epidemic underground where it is more difficult to combat but also infringe upon the human rights of the victims. The resolution stresses the need to promote safer sex behavior and to detect and treat other sexually transmitted diseases as early as possible. It also notes the importance of supplying young people in particular with sex and health education and counseling. All means of transmission should be targeted, including IV drug use and unsafe medical practices, and the status of women should be improved so they can protect themselves from unsafe sex. It is also important that scientific technologies and pharmaceuticals be made available quickly and affordably. The resolution urges Member States to give the AIDS pandemic top priority; to continue to develop national AIDS programs; to develop information, education, and counseling services; to adopt a multisectoral response to the socioeconomic consequences of AIDS; to encourage private sector, community group, and nongovernmental organization involvement; and to protect the human rights of infected individuals. The scientific community is asked to continue research into means of prevention and therapy. The WHO is asked to strengthen information exchange among Member States and to help countries develop plans to deal with the socioeconomic consequences of AIDS to women and children in particular. The Secretary-General is asked to use the capacities of the UN system to plan multisectoral activities and to earmark funds for requested assistance. The information capacity of the UN should be used to intensify public information activities. A report on the implementation of this resolution is to be made to the 47th session of the General Assembly.
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