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  1. 1

    UNDP guiding principles on HIV and AIDS.

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]. HIV and Development Programme

    [New York, New York], UNDP, HIV and Development Programme, [1991]. [1] p.

    An integrated and comprehensive approach to this epidemic must be based upon an understanding of the way it affects personal, social and economic development. The coping strategies of communities must be central to the national response and community-based organizations will be instrumental in ensuring human survival, human rights and human development. Policies relating to HIV and AIDS must encompass and be accepted by all sectors in a society. Those affected by the epidemic should be involved in the policy dialogue. A proper balance must be found, over the course of the epidemic, among programs for prevention, social support, research and development. Collaboration and coordination among all participants is essential for an effective national response. Programs to succeed must take into account and explore each culture's ability to evolve and change in response to the challenge of the epidemic. The power imbalances in interpersonal relationships and in society which create women's subordination must change if women are to be able to protect themselves from HIV infection and its consequences. Each individual has the responsibility to protect himself or herself from HIV infection and to minimize further spread of the epidemic; The means of reducing the risk of HIV transmission must be affordable by and accessible to everyone. HIV testing must be carried out with the specific, informed consent of those being tested, with pre-counseling and post-counseling and with the guarantee of confidentiality. Confidentiality in relation to a person's HIV and AIDS status must be maintained. The rights of people with HIV and AIDS must be respected and those affected, including survivors, must remain an integral part of the community. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Annual report of the administrator for 1990 and programme-level activities. Role of UNDP in combating HIV / AIDS: policy framework for the response of UNDP to HIV / AIDS.

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]. Governing Council

    [Unpublished] 1991 May 9. 9 p. (DP/1991/57)

    The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) HIV//AIDS policy framework outlined builds upon and strengthens existing UNDP HIV/AIDS policies derived from Governing Council decisions, the WHO/UNDP Alliance to Combat AIDS, UNDP documents and directives, and the resolutions and decisions of the General Assembly, the World Health Assembly, and other organs, agencies, and institutions of the UN system. It is supplemented by a more extensive policy document outlining strategies, strategic options, and implementation arrangements for the guidance of the UNDP. The HIV/AIDS policy framework also attempts to communicate and clarify UNDP responsibilities with regard to the HIV/AIDS pandemic within the framework of the Global AIDS Strategy. This framework will facilitate UNDP working relationships with other UN organizations, multilateral and bilateral donor organizations, national governments, community-based organizations, and nongovernmental organizations. It will ensure that UNDP resources and efforts effectively reach people, communities, and governments. Sections describe the HIV/AIDS policy setting, long- and short-term policy goals, priorities, HIV/AIDS program delivery mechanisms, collaboration, institutional development, guiding principles for policy development, and monitoring and evaluation.
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  3. 3

    A call for action: promoting health in developing countries.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Working Group on Health Promotion in Developing Countries

    HEALTH EDUCATION QUARTERLY. 1991 Spring; 18(1):5-15.

    This article contains the findings and recommendations of a Working Group convened by the World Health Organizations (WHO) in 1989 in order to explore the application of health promotion concepts and strategies in developing countries. As the article's preamble explains, goal of health promotion is to foster health development by advocating policies, developing social support systems, and empowering people with the knowledge and skills needed to address health problems. The WHO Working Group, which included 26 representatives from around the world, focused on the following concerns: 1) how to mobilize the public and policy- makers in favor of health, and how to obtain an appropriate share of national resources; 2) how to encourage health planners to allocate resources to health promotion and disease prevention; and 3) how to intensify health education in developing countries. The article presents the highlights of the Working Group's discussions on the following 4 themes: 1) the issues facing health promotion in developing countries; 2) the formulation of health supportive public policies; 3) the empowerment of people for health action; and 4) the strengthening of nations' capability for health promotion. The article also issues a call for action around health promotion. Although the specific initiatives of individual countries invariably vary, the Working Group provides some of the high priority actions that developing nations need to take in order to move health promotion from concept to reality.
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  4. 4

    Economic and social aspects of population ageing in Argentina.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. x, 58 p. (ST/ESA/SER.R/113)

    With approximately 12% of its 1980 population over age 60, Argentina's elderly constitute a higher-than-average proportion of the total population when compared to other developing countries. Governments are increasingly assuming greater responsibility for the care and support of the elderly. Accordingly, this paper describes the social and economic aspects of population ageing in Argentina, with the aim of providing planners with a better understanding of the social and economic implications of these demographic changes. Better understanding should result in the development of appropriate plans and policies targeted to the elderly. While the ageing process in Argentina is comparatively advanced when compared to other developing countries, ageing presently proceeds at a slower pace when compared to past trends. Slow ageing is also projected into the future. The elderly, themselves, have been ageing, and tend to live to a greater extent in urban areas. Elderly women when compared to men are more likely to live alone and in urban settings. Despite a stagnating economy, social gains and improvements in living conditions for the elderly have been largely sustained. The working-age population grew more slowly, however, over recent decades than the total population. The number of retirement system beneficiaries also grew over the period, with retirement benefits reported as the leading sources of income among the elderly. The health care system remains strained by the country's present economic situation, with care failing to reach all of the elderly. Wide societal agreement exists that the family should be a major care provider. With more than 1/2 of all persons aged 65 and over living in extended or mixed households, the family plans an important care and support function.
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  5. 5

    USAID steps up anti-AIDS program.

    USAID HIGHLIGHTS. 1991 Fall; 8(3):1-4.

    This article considers the epidemic proportion of AIDS in developing countries, and discusses the U.S. Agency for International Development's (USAID) reworked and intensified strategy for HIV infection and AIDS prevention and control over the next 5 years. Developing and launching over 650 HIV and AIDS activities in 74 developing countries since 1986, USAID is the world's largest supporter of anti-AIDS programs. Over $91 million in bilateral assistance for HIV and AIDS prevention and control have been committed. USAID has also been the largest supporter of the World Health Organization's Global Program on AIDS since 1986. Interventions have included training peer educators, working to change the norms of sex behavior, and condom promotion. Recognizing that the developing world will increasingly account for an ever larger share of the world's HIV-infected population, USAID announced an intensified program of estimated investment increasing to approximately $400 million over a 5-year period. Strategy include funding for long-term, intensive interventions in 10-15 priority countries, emphasizing the treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases which facilitate the spread of HIV, making AIDS-related policy dialogue an explicit component of the Agency's AIDS program, and augmenting funding to community-based programs aimed at reducing high-risk sexual behaviors. The effect of AIDS upon child survival, adult mortality, urban populations, and socioeconomic development in developing countries is discussed. Program examples are also presented.
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  6. 6

    International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children: technical statements and selected presentations. Jointly organized by the Government of France and the World Health Organization, Paris, 27-30 November 1989.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1991. [2], 64 p.

    The International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children was organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in cooperation with the French Government. Co-sponsors included the United Nations organizations UNDP, UNICEF, and UNESCO, along with the International Labor Organization (ILO), the World Bank, and the Council of Europe. Following assorted introductory addresses, statements by chairmen of the conference's technical working groups are presented in the paper. Working group discussion topics include virology; immunology; epidemiology; clinical management; HIV and pregnancy; diagnoses; implications for health, education, community, and social welfare systems; and economic and demographic impact. Chairman statements include an introduction, discussion of the state of current knowledge, research priorities, implications for policies and programs, and recommendations. The Paris Declaration on Women, Children and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome concluded the conference.
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