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NETWORK. 1991 Sep; 12(2):14-7, 27.Many unwanted births and pregnancies could be avoided by improving instructions for and comprehension of the use of oral contraceptives. Employed less than only the IUD, the oral contraceptive pill is the 2nd- most widely used reversible form of contraception, used by 8% of all married women of reproductive age. 6-20% of pill users, however, fall pregnant due to improper pill use. Improving instructions in the pill pack, ensuring that instructions are correct, and working to facilitate user understanding and motivation have been identified as priorities in maximizing the overall potential effectiveness of the pill against pregnancy. Since packets in developing countries may consist of pills in cycles of 21, 22, 28, or 35 days, providers must also be trained to instruct users in a manner consistent with the written instructions. Pictorial information should be available especially for semi-literate and illiterate audiences. The essay describes recommendation for instruction standardization and simplification put forth by Family Health International, and endorsed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. International Planned Parenthood Federation efforts to increase awareness of this issues are discussed.
[Unpublished] 1991 May. iii, 61 p.This WHO Specifications for Latex Rubber Condoms is appropriate for photocopy as an attachment to the Invitation to Bid and Purchase Order. Section 6 provides a place to indicate size or other specifications. The standard provided is the minimum for use and storage and delivery. Procurement needs to take into account 1) quality of design, and 2) conformance to specifications. Essential criteria are uniform high strength and elasticity and the absence of holes. Chapters include: 1) reason for specification and guidelines, 2) choice of design features, 3) alternative design specifications. The specifications include: 1) scope and definitions, 2) international standards and other publications, 3) requirements for materials, construction, lubrication, tensile properties, freedom from holes, bursting volume and pressure, colorfastness, individual packages, identification marking on individual packages, workmanship, 4) quality assurance provisions for compliance, objective evidence, inspection by purchaser, sampling procedures, examinations and tests for specific properties, inspection of packaging and marking, 5) packaging for delivery (inner boxes, consumer packs, exterior shipping cartons, markings for lot traceability) 6) ordering data. The WHO guidelines for condom procurement reports on 1) testing to insure conformance to specifications, 2) qualifying condom suppliers, 3) invitation to bid, 4) purchase order, 5) predelivery quality check. Additional support documents include: 1) essential performance criteria (limiting condoms that will break during use, that may leak during use, that may deteriorate on the shelf), 2) choosing from available design options (length, width, thickness, shape, lubrication, color, packaging), 3) manufacturers list, 4) invitation to bid, 5) WHO forms: Request for offer and request for sealed bids, 6) purchase order, 7) aggregate analysis criteria for shipments or orders. The recommended condom is parallel sided, reservoir end, 49 2 mm flat width or 53 2 mm flat width, 170 to 180 mm length, .05-.08 mm single wall thickness, smooth surface, no color, translucent, silicone fluid (plain) lubricant, and packaged in square plastic-aluminum foil laminate in 100 units per inner box.