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  1. 1

    Adolescence education. Sex roles. Module three.

    UNESCO. Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific

    Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1991. [2], 40 p. (Population Education Programme Service)

    The revised UNESCO Adolescent Education package serves secondary school teachers in providing 4 Modules on family life education. This volume, Module 3, deals with Sex Roles. Module 1 covers Physical Aspects; Module 2, Social Aspects; and Module 4, Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Materials are based on resources from the Population Education Clearing House and are adapted for use in Asian and Pacific areas, even though there is a wide diversity of attitudes. Module 3, Sex Roles, deals with role expectations, male and female roles, and sex stereotyping. The 1st chapter provides a description of family life education. Module 3, Sex Roles, has 4 lessons ranging in required time from 30-180 minutes. Lesson 3.1 pertains to role expectations. The objectives are to examine attitudes towards sex, men, women, and youth; to identify and discuss the role expectations of men, women, and youth in the family and society; and to be aware of child rearing practices in the family and in society as they affect sex role development. It includes objectives, time required, materials (Film), synopsis of the film, and information sheet. Lesson 3.2 covers male and female roles by providing objectives, time required, materials, procedures, information sheets, and suggested activities. Lesson 3.3 includes being masculine or feminine and provides objectives, time required, materials, procedures, information sheets, and suggested activities. Lesson 3.4 is on stereotype voting and includes objectives, time required, materials, procedures, and comments and considerations. An example of information included in the Procedures for learning about Male and Female Roles in Lesson 3.2 is outlined in 4 points. The 1st is to lecture on how cultures differ in the roles of men and women based on the information sheet. Then explain that experts agree that there is much pressure and anxiety surrounding sexuality issues. There is male pressure to perform and female pressure to bear children and so on. Finally, teachers conduct lectures and discussion based on recent studies and cross cultural comparisons on roles and stereotypes. Encourage discussion about how male and female roles can influence data and sexual patterns. Be aware of peer pressure and conformity. Suggested activities follow the lecture and discussion.
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  2. 2

    The Tbilisi Declaration.

    International Conference, "From Abortion to Contraception; Public Health Approaches to Reducing Unwanted Pregnancy and Abortion through Improved Family Planning Services" (1990: Tbilisi)

    PLANNED PARENTHOOD IN EUROPE. 1991 May; 20(1):27-8.

    The Tbilisi Declaration of 13 October 1990 approved by participants at an international conference supported by UNFPA, WHO/Europe, PPF/Europe, and the Zhordania Institute is printed in its entirety. The original conference document was altered inspite of IPPF Europe Regions' protestations and final approval that the conference document remain intact. In dispute was the last sentence in the "contraception reduces abortion" section, which originally left out the modifiers and stated that with appropriate backup, simple safe inexpensive ... procedures exist for use in PHC settings. ILPPF urged government agencies to change participant's views; a position expressed and agreed with in Tbilisi. The document itself is concerned with the right to reproductive health, a major public health problem, contraception reduces abortion, and the impact of legislation. The UNFPA formal position on abortion is stated as "not a means of family planning;" government support does not imply endorsement of national policy. UNFPA is concerned with increases in the availability of family planning. Participants agreed that couples and individuals have the right to decide freely, responsibly and without coercion the number and spacing of children, the right to reproductive health, self-determination, and that every child should be a wanted child. Recognition was given to unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion as major public health and social problems. Also, it was recognized that abortion rates are highest in countries with weak education in FP and sexuality and constraints on women. Criminal sanctions have no impact on the abortion or birth rates, but are associated with unsafe abortion. Abortion can be reduced through family planning. There is need for 1) high quality reproductive health services that respect women's autonomy and dignity; 2) early sex education; 3) lifestyle changes to place responsibility also on men for contraception, family formation, and rearing; 4) increased government funding for service and training. Central and East Europe are in greatest need. The goal of the document was to insure life which contributes to one which is rich and joyful.
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