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Bethesda, Maryland, University Research Corporation, 1991 Apr. ix, 77,  p. (BAN-14; USAID Contract No. DPE-3030-C-00-5043-00; TvT No. BAN-SAS-04-10)Save the Children has a women's savings program (SAVE), which is an integral part of its comprehensive integrated rural development program. Women's savings groups were introduced in Bangladesh on an experimental basis in 1982. Over the years, these indigenous small groups have evolved from simple "savings" groups to dynamic forums to improve women's economic and social horizons and enable them to gain greater control over their lives and those of their children. An operations research study was undertaken, at a cost of US $35,874, to examine and document the impact of womens' savings groups on contraceptive use. The study was undertaken in 8 villages in Nasirnagar Upazila where SAVE programs were in operation: 5 villages where programs were initiated in 1982 (old villages) and 3 villages (new villages) where programs were begun in 1989. 2 comparison villages (without SAVE programs) were also selected at random from among the villages in the same geographic area. The experimental and comparison villages were similar in terms of household size, age, parity, and total fertility of the married women of reproductive age. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. Data were collected using a baseline survey and a mini-contraceptive prevalence survey conducted in both experimental and comparison villages as well as 2 rounds of individual and group interviews with selected savings group members and nonmembers in the experimental villages. Relevant cost data were obtained from SAVE/Dhaka. Selected variables from the SAVE project management information systems (PMIS) were also used for comparison with similar variables obtained in the baseline survey. Womens' savings groups, combined with family planning (FP) motivation, supplies, and services can be an effective strategy of raising contraceptive prevalence in rural Bangladesh. Contraceptive use, both ever and current, was higher in the experimental than in comparison villages and was higher in the old than in the new villages. Contraceptive use was higher among savings group members than among nonmembers, and contraceptive use was higher among the latter group than in the comparison villages, suggesting that the SAVE program helped raise contraceptive use among both members and nonmembers in the project villages. Current use at the baseline among members was 30.9 and 16.9% among members in old and new villages, respectively, and 7.3% in the comparison villages. Among nonmembers, current use was 17.9% in the old villages and 12.9% in the new villages. Current contraceptive use declined from 30.9 to 25.4% in the old villages over the life of the project. One of the main reasons reported for discontinuation was nonavailability of FP methods.
In: Earth summit. Conversations with architects of an ecologically sustainable future, by Steve Lerner. Bolinas, California, Commonweal, 1991. 189-204.Frances Spivy-Weber is director of the International Program of the National Audubon Society. She is also chairperson of the executive committee of the US Citizens Network on the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). She responds to questions on the following: the origins of UNCED; the role nongovernmental organizations (NGO) play in UNCED negotiations; the position of the State Department on including NGOs in UNCED negotiations; the US Citizens Network and why it was created; activities of the Citizens Network; national energy policy; intended international functions of the Network; developing country NGOs; the US National Report to be submitted to UNCED; the Citizens Report; the Network's role in promoting UNCED; UNCED success in stimulating the initiation and passage of legislation in the US related to environment and development issues; the Network's role in shaping the resolution on forestry; the US Network's potential for pressuring Congress and the President to promote sustainable development; the most effective way to lobby the UNCED preparatory committee negotiations; the US position for UNCED and its evolution; and whether UNCED negotiations will culminate with any significant international agreements.
In: Earth summit. Conversations with architects of an ecologically sustainable future, by Steve Lerner. Bolinas, California, Commonweal, 1991. 157-73.Brent Blackwelder is acting president of Friends of the Earth, an international network of nongovernmental organizations working on environmental and development issues in 42 countries. He responds to questions on the following: the role of the World Bank in international environmental issues; the World Bank's bid for the Green Fund; the World Resources Institute's role in shaping the Tropical forestry Action Plan; his view on who should administer the Green Fund; whether the president of the World Bank is empowered to change its lending practices; US say in World Bank decisions; the difficulties encountered in getting international organizations to do the right thing on tropical deforestation and other international environmental issues; the loan policies of global banks; the IMF and the role of other agencies in the UN; the potential for and nature of a global economy; the potential for the creation of a global environmental protection agency; North-South relations and comparative negotiating power among countries; the scale of the environmental effort; grassroots organizations; poverty in developing countries; the continuance of regime-building around single issues or the evolution of some form of World Government; sustainable development and the general public; sustainable development and the US Democrats; US policy and leadership; and US President George Bush's mixed stance and policy record on the environment.
In: Earth summit. Conversations with architects of an ecologically sustainable future, by Steve Lerner. Bolinas, California, Commonweal, 1991. 131-56.Bruce M. Rich is Senior Attorney at the Environmental Defense Fund and Director of its International Program. He has focused over the past 8 years upon reforming the lending practices of the multilateral development banks and the International Monetary Fund. His book, Battle for the Biosphere, on international development and the global green movement is under development. He responds to questions on the following: the potential for entering a new era of environmental diplomacy; the Multilateral Development Bank campaign to reform the lending practices of these banks; World Bank criticism and the US Congress; sustainable development and institutional reform; the need to limit the rate of economic growth; regime building for negotiating solutions to global environmental problems; the potential for becoming a state-controlled economy in the interest of protecting the environment; environmental taxes on resources and incentives for sustainable development; implications of adopting a steady-state economic model; reducing population growth; the role of the United Nations; and North-South relations.
In: Earth summit. Conversations with architects of an ecologically sustainable future, by Steve Lerner. Bolinas, California, Commonweal, 1991. 25-38.The public debate on the environment leading to the 1992 Earth Summit in Brazil has been restricted to global climate change instead of global change. The Summit should be part of an ongoing process and not a framework convention followed by protocols. Separate conventions for biodiversity and deforestation are likely to emerge, even though one convention integrating both biodiversity and deforestation is needed. Many environmental and development issues overlap, suggesting a need for an international group to coordinate these issues. Negotiating separate conventions for the various issues is costly for developing countries. Rapid population growth contributes to environmental degradation, but no coordinated effort exists to reduce it. The US continues to not support the UN Population Fund which, along with threats of US boycotts and disapproval, curbs initiatives to reduce population. At present population and economic growth rates, an environmental disaster will likely happen in the early 2000s. Developing countries, which also contribute greatly to global warming, will not take actions if industrialized nations do not initiate reductions of greenhouse gases. Developed countries emit the most greenhouse gases, have been responsible for most past emissions, and have the means to initiate reductions. Of industrialized nations, the US stands alone in setting targets to reduce carbon dioxide. Unlike some European nations, the US does not have an energy policy. The US abandoned public transportation for the automobile while Europe has a strong public transportation system. The World Bank has improved greatly in addressing global environmental issues, but only 1% of its energy lending is for energy efficiency. The Bank knows that projects implemented by nongovernmental organizations are more successful than those implemented by governments, yet it continues to lend money to governments. Humans need to redesign existing linear systems to be like nature's circular systems in which by-products are starting products for another reaction.
Rapid anthropologic assessment: applications to the measurement of maternal and child mortality, morbidity and health care.
[Unpublished] 1991. Presented at the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP] Committee on Population and Health and Cairo University Institute of Statistical Studies and Research, Center for Applied Demography Seminar on Measurement of Maternal and Child Mortality, Morbidity and Health Care: Interdisciplinary Approaches, Cairo, Egypt, November 4-7, 1991. 14 p.University Nations University (UNU) leaders requested rapid anthropological assessment procedures (RAP) guidelines in the early 1980s to examine health-seeking behavior in 16 developing countries. They were not content with the expense, time, and poor accuracy of standard survey techniques to study health care. UNU project researchers studies 42 communities in these countries. They used triangulation to assess the validity of their data and found the data to be accurate. RAP involves applied medical anthropologists and other social scientists with appropriate training to pass about 6 weeks in a community where a supposed effective primary health care (PHC) programs operates to learn the household and community perspective on PHC services. 6 weeks constitute a long time for health planners and policymakers, but for anthropologists this time period tends to be too. Yet the required time hinges on the amount and complexity of data needed. It is important that the anthropologists and/or other social scientists already know the language and the culture because they interview biomedical and indigenous health providers. RAP depends on limited objectives and on existing data and prior research. Research designers should modify the limited objectives or data collection guidelines to fit each culture and each project. RAP data collection techniques include formal and informal interviews, conversations, observation, participant observation, focus groups, and data collection from secondary sources. Indeed researchers should be able to adapt these various techniques during the project. Obstacles which RAP research designers must consider are: some anthropologists do not feel at ease with RAP; not all cultures are comfortable with an outsider coming into their community asking questions, thus highlighting the importance of using an anthropologist already known and trusted in the community; and the topic may not be appropriate for discussion in a community.
In: African research studies in population information, education and communication, compiled and edited by Tony Johnston, Aart de Zeeuw, and Waithira Gikonyo. Nairobi, Kenya, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1991. 1-12.40 couples participated in separate focus group discussions each with 10 single sex individuals either in the city of Harare, Zimbabwe or at a rural center. Researchers also conducted indepth interviews with 25 couples. The wanted to examine husband-wife communication concerning fertility management. Only younger married women, especially those in Harare, included family planning issues as topics of occasional communication. Urban young married women tended to be more educated than older and rural women. Older rural women tended to avoid discussions concerning marital interpersonal relationships. Men believed that women had much opportunity to talk and to make decisions about family welfare such as household management and child care. Yet women did not feel that they had the opportunity to discuss issues. In fact, they believed that the men made fertility decisions while the men believed these decisions were mainly up to the women. Some men did mention, like urban young married women, that ideally these decisions should be made jointly, however. Men were uncomfortable talking to the researchers about fertility management decisions. Both men and women were reluctant to discuss who initiates discussions on family planning. Basically women do not because they are afraid and men only initiate discussion when things go wrong. Women did have a tendency to use inference or indirect inference to initiate family planning discussions. For example, the neighbors' children have new school uniforms actually means they have a small family and can afford them. Women also used repetitional offhand reminders and bargaining or negotiating position. Men's fear that the male command structure within the family (the status quo) will not be maintained and women's fear that making fertility management decisions would threaten their marriage were barriers to husband-wife communication concerning family planning.
In: African research studies in population information, education and communication, compiled and edited by Tony Johnston, Aart de Zeeuw, and Waithira Gikonyo. Nairobi, Kenya, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1991. 54-72.Researchers arranged for interviews with 300 female discontinuing clients at 2 maternal and child health/family planning (MCH/FP) clinics in Mauritius and followed 230 of them to explain what happens to women who discontinue coming to the MCH/FP clinic. 26% of all women in the sample stopped using MCH/FP clinic services for fertility related reasons. The 2 leading reasons were desire for pregnancy (15.2% of all women) followed by husband absent or sexually inactive (5.2%). Further 30.1% switched to a competing contraceptive provider, especially a factory based provider (11.3%). They tended to switch providers because the new provider was more accessible or they were either dissatisfied with the quality of services at the MCH/FP clinic or the new clinic had an advantage over the MCH/FP clinic. 43.9% switched from scientific family planning methods to either natural or traditional family planning methods. These women tended no to wander out of the house and to be poorly educated, of an ethnic minority group, and >35 years old. In fact, 26.1% used natural family planning because of dissatisfaction with either the contraceptive methods themselves or the quality of services provided. Much attendance discontinuity was determined by misperceptions about ongoing or long term contraceptive use. This indicated that clinic counselors should become more sensitive to and fully address the problems and side effects of contraceptive method use. In conclusion, the MCH/FP clinics should focus their information, education, and communication efforts on the women who switched to unscientific or natural methods.
In: African research studies in population information, education and communication, compiled and edited by Tony Johnston, Aart de Zeeuw, and Waithira Gikonyo. Nairobi, Kenya, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1991. 83-100.Researchers studied 62 pregnant women intending to not terminate their pregnancy and to continue their studies and 27 nonpregnant women to learn about female student fertility related behavior. They were all enrolled at the University of Zambia either during the 1987-1988 or 1989-1990 academic years. Methodology consisted of interviews, questionnaires, and focus group discussions. 68% of all women were single with 40% of them having at least 1 child. 75% of the women were sexually active. 42.7% knew traditional family planning methods with friends, grandmothers, and social aunts telling 25.9% of all the women about such methods. Yet mass media provided most women (49.4%) with knowledge about modern methods. 50.6% thought the pill to be the most effective method. >65% considered the 24-26 as the ideal age at marriage. The mean ideal family size was 3.5, somewhat less than family size for urban women in Zambia. 71.9% considered children to be assets since children are a means to social security (33%), self fulfillment (8%), and companionship (7%). 94.4% approved of family planning mainly for purposes of child spacing (29.2%), limiting (23.6), and spacing and limiting (32.6%). Even though they knew about and approved of family planning and claimed modern attitudes concerning ideal age at marriage and ideal family size, 62% of single pregnant students and 59% of married pregnant students did not use or regularly use contraception. This suggested that they considered early childbearing to be an asset. The leading reasons for contraception nonuse included perception of low pregnancy risk (40%) and desire for a child (28%). Only 3.2% claimed method failure. 64% of all women said partners did not approve of contraceptive use. Access to family planning and cost were not a problem. Only 22% of pregnant students said pregnancy would reduce their chances of marriage. In conclusion, many women became pregnant surreptitiously.
ASIA-PACIFIC POPIN BULLETIN. 1991 Jun; 3(2):7-11.George Walmsley, UNFPA country director for the Philippines, discusses demographic and economic conditions in the Philippines, and present plans to revitalize the national population program after 20 years of only modest achievements. The Philippines is a rapidly growing country with much poverty, unemployment and underemployment, uneven population distribution, and a large, highly dependent segment of children and youths under age 15. Initial thrusts of the population program were in favor of fertility reduction, ultimately changing to adopt a perspective more attuned to promoting overall family welfare. Concurrent with this change also came a shift from a clinic-based to community-based approach. Fertility declines have nonetheless grown weaker over the past 8-10 years. A large gap exists between family planning knowledge and practice, with contraceptive prevalence rates declining from 45% in 1986 to 36% in 1988. Behind this lackluster performance are a lack of consistent political support, discontinuities in program implementation, a lack of coordination among participating agencies, and obstacles to program implementation at the field level. The present government considers the revitalization of this program a priority concern. Mr. Walmsley discusses UNFPA's definition of a priority country, and what that means for the Philippines in terms of resources nd future activities. He further responds to questions about the expected effect of the Catholic church upon program implementation and success, non-governmental organization involvement, the role of information and information systems in the program, the relationship between population, environment and sustainable development, and the status of women and its effect on population.
Technical assistance in research and evaluation, national and state (Benue, Rivers, Niger, Kwara) level projects.
[Unpublished] 1991. , 25 p.Johns Hopkins University/Population Communications Services (JHU/PCS) Research and Evaluation Officer Karungari Kiragu visited Nigeria October 7-November 7, 1991, to orient new Lagos-based research and evaluation officers to the JHU/PCS evaluation unit and procedures; assist JHU/Lagos and the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria evaluate national music and logo campaigns with a household survey, clinic service statistics, and exit interviews; assist JHU/Lagos staff and Research and Marketing Services with an audience research project, and review focus group discussions and in-depth interview results; assist JHU/Lagos staff with evaluation plans for ongoing activities in Benue, Rivers, and Niger; and assist JHU/Lagos and the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council evaluate Family Life Education activities. All of these objectives were accomplished. While project proposals were originally to be reviewed for Kwara, Kano, Akwa Ibom, and Cross Rivers, priorities were realigned to allow greater focus upon the national music and logo campaigns, as well as the incorporation of new evaluation activities in Benue, Rivers, Niger, and Kwara. Consultants were hired to conduct the music and logo evaluations, several meetings were held to organize the 2 surveys, tentative dates were set for data collection, data collection instrument development commenced, early arrangement for state level evaluation in Benue and Niger was undertaken, and plans were finalized to begin audience research. Specific activities for participating parties are recommended in the report, followed by a comprehensive list of persons contacted during the visit.