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  1. 1
    074690

    Strengthening maternal and child health programmes through primary health care. Guidelines for countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Based on the deliberations of the Intercountry Meeting on the Integration of MCH into Primary Health Care, Amman, Jordan, 11-15 December 1988.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean [EMRO]

    Alexandria, Egypt, WHO, EMRO, 1991. 75 p. (WHO EMRO Technical Publication No. 18)

    All countries in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMRO) have had maternal and child health (MCH) programs for many years, yet maternal mortality and morbidity and infant mortality remain high. The EMRO office in Jordan, recognizing this dilemma, convened a meeting of national managers from the 22 EMRO member states to discuss how to integrate MCH programs with primary health care (PHC). The meeting resulted in the publication of guidelines and goals to help each country integrate MCH into PHC which would strengthen MCH services and improve MCH status. The managers noted the need to switch from a pregnancy-oriented approach to a holistic approach in which MCH/PHC programs and society consider women as more than childbearers. MCH/PHC programs and society need to be concerned about the well-being of females beginning with infancy and should place considerable health promotion for girls during the pubertal spurt and adolescence. They should also promote prevention of iron deficiency anemia in women. Since maternal mortality is especially high is EMRO, the national managers clearly laid out approaches for health services to reduce maternal mortality caused by obstetrical complications. They also recognized the need for a practical alternative to obstetric care provided by health workers--training traditional birth attendants in each village. They also provided guidance on improving prenatal care to reduce perinatal and neonatal mortality such as vaccination of every pregnant woman with the tetanus toxoid. Since the causes of death in the postneonatal period, MCH/PHC programs need to take action to reduce malnutrition and infection. For example, they must promote breast feeding for at least the first 6 months of life. The managers suggested the implementation of the Child Survival and Development Strategy which includes growth monitoring.
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  2. 2
    068518
    Peer Reviewed

    [Reproductive health in a global perspective] Reproduktiv helse i globalt perspektiv.

    Bergsjo P

    TIDSSKRIFT FOR DEN NORSKE LAEGEFORENING. 1991 May 30; 111(14):1729-33.

    The 4 cornerstones of reproductive health according to the WHO are family maternal care neonatal and infant care, and the control of sexually transmitted diseases. In recent years, the AIDS epidemic has caused concern in the world. The world's population doubled to 4 billion from 1927 to 1974, and it will reach 6 billion by the year 2000. The rate of growth is 1.4% in China and 2% in India vs. .3% in Europe. Contraceptive prevalence is 15-20% in Africa, 30% in South Asia, and 75% in East Asia. Shortage of contraceptives leads to abortion in eastern Europe. In 1985 in the USSR, there were 115.7 abortions/1000 women (mostly married) aged 15-44; and 6.4 million abortions for 5.5 million births in 1989. RU-486 or mifepristone combined with prostaglandin has produced abortion in 90% of first trimester pregnancies. After approval in France in 1987, it was used in 40,000 abortions in the following year. 90% of the estimated annual 500,000 maternal deaths occur in developing countries. In Norway, the rate is fewer than 10/100,000 births vs. 100/100,000 in Jamaica. In the mid-1980s, 26% of rural women in Thailand, 49% in Brazil, 54% in Senegal, and 87% in Morocco went without maternal care. In Norway, infant mortality is 6-8/1000 live births vs. 75-150/1000 in developing countries. A WHO investigation on causes of infertility in 25 countries found a 31% rate of tubal pathology in 5800 couples. In Africa, over 85% f infertility in women was infection related. Venereal diseases and infertility are associated with premarital sexual activity in young people. Various donor agencies and the WHO Special Program of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction are providing help and resources including AIDS research.
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  3. 3
    076548

    1991 ESCAP population data sheet.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]. Population Division

    Bangkok, Thailand, ESCAP, Population Division, 1991. [1] p.

    The 1991 Population Data Sheet produced by the UN Economic and social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) provides a large chart by country and region for Asia and the Pacific for the following variables: mid-1991 population, average annual growth rate, crude birth rate, crude death rate, total fertility rate, infant mortality rate, male life expectancy at birth, female life expectancy at birth, % aged 0-14 years, % aged 65 and over, dependency ratios, density, % urban, and population projection at 2010. 3 charts also display urban and rural population trends between 1980 and 2025, the crude birth and death rates and rate of natural increase by region, and dependency ratios for 27 countries.
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  4. 4
    072005

    A strategy for reducing numbers? Response.

    Rohde JE

    HEALTH FOR THE MILLIONS. 1991 Dec; 17(5):24-5.

    While there may be no documented evidence that mortality decline is a causative factor in demographic transition, there is a close association between reductions in mortality and fertility. The Indian experience of more than 40 years shows that consistent efforts in the promotion of family planning will be rewarded with demographic transition. In the Indian state of Kerala, population 30 million, improving child survival, female literacy, strict child labor laws, and effective high coverage primary health care reduced mortality and fertility. Its infant mortality rate is 22/100 births, which is 25% of the national average. Its birth rate is 20/1000 and is continuing to fall. In the past decade population growth was only 14% compared to 25% nationally and 28% in the northern states. If Kerala's figures were applied to all of India, there would be 2 million less infant deaths and 8 million less births. The impact of reducing infant mortality on population growth in raw numbers in insignificant. With a mortality rate of 150/1000 there are 850 survivors. If the mortality rate is cut in half there will be only a .18% increase in population, but with a 50% reduction in infant suffering and death. Historically such mortality declines are associated with a 25% or more decline in fertility. This is the reason that UNICEF has been a long-time advocate of child survival programs as an integral part of population control measures. Euthanasia is surely not the solution to the population problem. The daily loss of 40,000 childhood lives is a tragic part of the human experience. However, helping these children to become and stay healthy is the best method of reducing population.
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  5. 5
    072007

    A strategy for reducing numbers? Response.

    Banerji D

    HEALTH FOR THE MILLIONS. 1991 Dec; 17(5):25-7.

    The article on human entrapment in India by Maurice King is just another example of the dogmatic, simplistic and reckless way in which the white scholars of the North formulate their ideas. It is these people who are responsible for the opium wars, programs against Jews, and carpet bombing, defoliation, and massacres in Vietnam. King's idea os using UNICEF and the WHO to kill the non white children of the South is just another example of this kind of racist brutality. It is based only upon the written opinions of other white scholars. In 1991 King produced no data about human entrapment in India. King ignores the writing of non whites like Ashish Bose who presided over the International Population Conference in 1989. Other mistakes that King makes include a failure to understand the applications of immunization (EPI) and oral rehydration programs (ORT). The EPI was implemented without ever taking baseline data, so that its effectiveness is impossible to determine with any accuracy. And nowhere in the world has ORT worked as well as UNICEF claimed it would. Further proof that King advocates genocide is his labeling of the insecticide-impregnated bednets as a dangerous technology in increasing entrapment. King fails to acknowledge the overwhelming influence of white consultants on the policies and planning strategies of family planning programs in India. Their list of failures includes: the clinic and extension approach, popularization of the IUD, mass communication, target orientation, sterilization camps, and giving primacy to generalists administrators. They should be held accountable for the 406 million people added to the base population between 1961-91 It should also be noted that India had the ability absorb this large number people while still maintaining a democratic structure, gather a substantial buffer stock of food grains, consistently increasing its per capita income while decreasing its infant mortality and crude death rates, increase its life expectancy at birth and improve the level of literacy, especially for females.
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  6. 6
    071987

    Child's right to special care.

    Sharma A; Gupta S

    ICCW NEWS BULLETIN. 1991 Jul-Dec; 39(3-4):12-5.

    In 1924, the League of Nations adopted the 1st international law recognizing that children have inalienable rights and are not the property of their father. The UN Declaration on the Rights of the Child emerged in 1959. 1979 was the International Year of the Child. In 1990 there was the World Summit on Children and the UN General Assembly adopted the Global Convention on the Rights of the Child. The convention included civil, economic, social, cultural, and political rights of children all of which covered survival, development, protection, and participation. At the end of 1990, 60 countries had ratified the convention, thus including it into their national legislation. Even though India had not yet endorsed the Convention by the end of 1991, it expressed its support during the 1st workshop on the Rights of the Child which focused on girls. India has a history of supporting children as evidenced by 250 central and state laws on their welfare such as child labor and child marriage laws. In 1974, India adopted the National Policy for Children followed by the establishment of the National Children's Board in 1975. The Board's activities resulted in the Integrated Child Development Services Program which continues to include nutrition, immunization, health care, preschool education, maternal education, family planning, and referral services. Despite these laws and actions, however, the Indian government has not been able to improve the status of children. For example, between 1947-88, infant mortality fell only from 100/1000 to 93/1000 live births and child mortality remained high at 33.3 in 1988 compared with 51.9 in 1971. Population growth poses the biggest problem to improving their welfare. Poverty also exacerbates their already low status.
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  7. 7
    070806

    The influence of maternal health on child survival.

    Tinker AG; Post MT

    [Unpublished] 1991. Presented at the 119th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association [APHA], Atlanta, Georgia, November 11-14, 1991. 7, [2] p.

    Maternal health affects child survival in many ways. For example, and infant in Bangladesh whose mother has died during childbirth has a 95% chance of dying in the 1st year. Further children <10 years old in Bangladesh, especially girls, who have lost their mother are 4 times as likely to also die. In addition, there is a relationship between protein energy malnutrition in mothers and low prepregnancy weight and meager wait gain during pregnancy which retards fetal growth resulting in a low birth weight (LBW) infant, LBW infants die at a rate 30 times that of adequate weight infants. In fact, child survival depends on maternal health even before the mother is able to conceive. Daughter as well as mothers in developing countries often eat last and smaller amounts of food than male family members. Females who remain poorly nourished often experience obstructed labor which causes several complications for the infant such as respiratory failure. Maternal infections such as malaria and sexually transmitted diseases are also closely linked to LBW. Some can also bring about preterm birth and congenital infections. Pregnancy and labor complications are responsible for about 500,000 maternal deaths annually. Hemorrhage, sepsis, eclampsia, and obstructed labor cause most of these deaths. A woman's fertility pattern also contributes to child survival. The high risk birth categories include too young, too old, too many children, and too closely spaced. In fact, the median mortality rate for infants born <2 years after the older sibling is 71% greater than that for those born 2-3 years apart. The World Bank recommends improved community based health care, improved referral facilities, and an alarm and transport system to improve maternal health. The World Bank, UNDP, UNFPA, UNICEF, WHO, IPPF, and the Population Council support the Safe Motherhood Initiative which aims to reduce maternal morbidity and death by 50% by 2000.
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  8. 8
    068563

    Meeting the future. Where will the resources for the USSR's family planning programs come from?

    Laskin M

    INTEGRATION. 1991 Sep; (29):6-7.

    Providing resources for family planning programs in the USSR, where an extremely high rate of abortions threatens the lives of women, will require a multi-sectoral approach involving the government, international agencies, and the private sector. Every year, some 10-13 million of the USSR's 70 million women of fertile age undergo an abortion (only 7 million of the abortions every year are considered legal). A recent report indicates that only 15-18% of Soviet women have not had at least one abortion in their lifetimes. A result of the high rate of illegal abortions, morbidity and mortality affects many Soviet mothers. Additionally, infant mortality rates is as high as 58.5% in some areas of the USSR, a figure similar to that found in developing countries. Knowledge of modern contraception is high, but use remains low. This is due primarily to the lack of contraceptive availability. IUD's injectables, implants, and oral contraceptives are scarce. And even when oral contraceptives are available, few women opt for this method, due to the rampant misinformation and exaggeration concerning its side-effects. While the USSR does produce condoms, their quality is poor. Part of the solution to the lack of available contraception rests in the transition to a market economy. As the demand for these services increases, the market will begin meeting this demand. The government also has a important role to play, which includes the provision of information, medical and paramedical education, sex education, and service delivery. And international agencies will need to provide the necessary technical assistance.
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  9. 9
    067796

    Population and vital statistics report. Data available as of 1 April 1991.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Statistical Office

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. 19 p. (Statistical Papers Series A. Vol. 43, No. 2)

    The Statistical Office of the UN Department of International and Social Affairs compiled a population and vital statistics report with data that it had received by April 1, 1991. The report divided the world into 7 regions: Africa, North America, South America, Asia, Europe, Oceania, and the USSR. It listed population size for each country or area within a region based on the latest population census, latest official estimate, and midyear 1989 estimate. The report used registered data to list crude birth rate (CBR), crude death rate (CDR), and infant mortality rate (IMR) for each country or area. It also gave estimated rates for some countries. China had the largest population in Asia and the world (1.12 billion). Afghanistan ranked the highest in CBR (48.1), CDR (22.3), and IMR (181.6) in Asia and the world. Italy had the lowest CBR (9.7) in the world followed by Japan (9.9). Samoa had the lowest CDR (1.10) in Oceania and the world. Iceland had the lowest IMR (4). The population of the USSR stood at 287.6 million. Its CBR was 17.6, CDR 10.1, and IMR 23. Nigeria had by far the greatest estimated midyear 1989 population (105 million) in Africa. The United States had the most people in the Americas in mid 1989 (247.35 million). The report concluded with 90 footnotes that qualified much of the data. For example, the CDR and IMR for Japan were based on only Japanese people actually living in Japan. On the other hand, some countries data included nationals temporarily living outside the country.
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  10. 10
    069275

    Priorities for maternal and child health for the 1990s.

    Belsey M

    [Unpublished] 1991. Presented at the Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, Washington, D.C., August 5-7, 1991. 8 p.

    The maternal and child health/family planning (MCH/FP) program at WHO specifies the priorities for MCH/FP in the 1990s. Results of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in many, but not all, developing countries have shown overall improvement in fertility and maternal and child health, especially in the family planning and child survival movements. Maternal mortality did not change, however. Moreover, maternal mortality in some countries exceeded natural maternal mortality. These elevations sparked a 3rd movement in the late 1980s, safe motherhood. These results confirm that the public health community cannot become complacent. Indeed it must strengthen the infrastructure, management, and performance of the health system to maintain gains. This involves identifying a novel strategy to priority setting and program development which are adapted to the changing needs and circumstances of each country, and even within each country. In fact, firm program strategies and policies need to concentrate on maternal health and morbidity, newborn care, breast feeding, perinatal infections, and HIV/AIDS. Based on DHS data and on evaluations of MCH/FP programs, WHO lists crucial principles for successful programs. The 1st principle includes equity in access and use of social resources which includes disaggregating data according to geographic and population subgroups to find appropriate strategies to close the widening gap within and between countries. The next principle is community and health care provider participation and ownership. Indeed successful MCH/FP programs are those where the community identifies problems and needs and evaluates the program. The 3rd principle encompasses quality data collection to assess quality of care and program effectiveness. WHO has proposed 5 priorities for organization and management of MCH/FP programs. 1 priority which WHO suspects will generate the most debate is integration of family planning, child survival, and safe motherhood programs.
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  11. 11
    068771

    Socio-economic development and fertility decline: an application of the Easterlin synthesis approach to data from the World Fertility Survey: Colombia, Costa Rica, Sri Lanka and Tunisia.

    McHenry JP

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. ix, 115 p. (ST/ESA/SER.R/101)

    The relationship between fertility decline and development is explored for Colombia, Costa Rica, Sri Lanka, and Tunisia. The study applies Richard Easterlin and Eileen Crimmins; theoretical and empirical approach to analyzing World Fertility Survey (WFS) data in a comparative context. The paper specifically questions the strengths and weaknesses of the Easterlin-Crimmins framework when applied to developing country data, and what the framework implies about comparative fertility in these countries. 3 stages in all, an analyst 1st decomposes a couple's final number of children ever born through an intermediate variables framework. Stage 2 emphasized understanding the determinants of contraceptive use, while stage 3 explains the remaining stage-1 and stage-2 variables. A model linking the supply of children, the demand for children, and the cost of contraceptive regulation results. Stage 1 results were promising, stage 2 results were less encouraging, while stage 3 revealed a theoretically incomplete approach employing empirically weak WFS data. While the Easterlin-Crimmins approach may be promising, econometric, theoretical, and data quality and collection improvements are necessary. Among stage-3 variables open to manipulation, higher socioeconomic status was associated with delayed age at 1st marriage, lower infant and child death rates, lower numbers of children desired, increased knowledge of contraception, and reduced levels of breastfeeding. Apart from regional differences, the educational and occupational roles of women in the countries studied were of primary importance in understanding differential fertility.
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  12. 12
    069152

    Indonesia lowers infant mortality.

    Bain S

    FRONT LINES. 1991 Nov; 16.

    Indonesia's success in reaching World Health Organization (WHO) universal immunization coverage standards is described as the result of a strong national program with timely, targeted donor support. USAID/Indonesia's Expanded Program for Immunization (EPI) and other USAID bilateral cooperation helped the government of Indonesia in its goal to immunize children against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, and measles by age 1. The initial project was to identify target areas and deliver vaccines against the diseases, strengthen the national immunization organization and infrastructure, and develop the Ministry of Health's capacity to conduct studies and development activities. This EPI project spanned the period 1979-90, and set the stage for continued expansion of Indonesia's immunization program to comply with the full international schedule and range of immunizations of 3 DPT, 3 polio, 1 BCG, and 1 measles inoculation. The number of immunization sites has increased from 55 to include over 5,000 health centers in all provinces, with additional services provided by visiting vaccinators and nurses in most of the 215,000 community-supported integrated health posts. While other contributory factors were at play, program success is at least partially responsible for the 1990 infant mortality rate of 58/1,000 live births compared to 72/1,000 in 1985. Strong national leadership, dedicated health workers and volunteers, and cooperation and funding from UNICEF, the World Bank, Rotary International, and WHO also played crucially positive roles in improving immunization practice in Indonesia.
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  13. 13
    066424

    Population growth can prevent the development that would slow population growth.

    Keyfitz N

    In: Preserving the global environment: the challenge of shared leadership, edited by Jessica T. Mathews. New York, New York/London, England, W. W. Norton, 1991. 39-77.

    The thesis that human population growth will eventually destroy the equilibrium of the world ecosystem, because environmental strain is a nonlinear effect of the linear growth, is embellished with discussions of technology and resulting pollution, population dynamics, birth and death rates, effects of expanded education, causes of urbanization, time constraints and destabilizing effects of partial development and the debt crisis. It is suggested that the terms renewable and nonrenewable resources are paradoxical, since the nonrenewable resoureces such as minerals will always exist, while renewable ecosystems and species are limited. The competitive economy actually accelerates destruction of biological resoureces because it overvalues rare species when they have crossed the equilibrium threshold and are in decline. Technological outputs are proportional to population numbers: therefore adverse effects of population should be considered in billions, not percent increase even though it is declining. Even the United Nations does not have predictions of the effects of added billions, taking into account improved survival and decreased infant mortality. Rapid urbanization of developing countries and their debt crisis have resulted from political necessity from the point of view of governments in power, rather than mere demographics. Recommendations are suggested for U.S. policy based on these points such as enlightened political leadership, foreign aid, and scientific investment with the health of the world ecosystem in mind rather than spectacle and local political ideology.
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