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In: Earth summit. Conversations with architects of an ecologically sustainable future, by Steve Lerner. Bolinas, California, Commonweal, 1991. 237-48.The former secretary of the Brundtland Commission, now the executive director of the Center for Our Common Future, presents a historical overview of the international environment efforts since the formation of the independent Brundtland Commission. The 21-member commission held public hearings in Brazil, Canada, China, Europe, Indonesia, Kenya, and the USSR to get the common people's perspective. In fact, the commission used their quotes in the report, Our Common Future. The members organized regional presentations of the report to nongovernmental organizations and to governments. The UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) emerged from the debate, which occurred on the day of the 1987 stock market crash, so it did not get much media coverage. The Center for Our Common Future was created to promote the messages of the commission's report and to increase the dialogue on sustainable development. The Center has set up a global network of 160 working partners in 70 countries. A key message of the report is forging a path from confrontation to cooperation. We all must accept part of the responsibility of working toward sustainable development. Participants in a 1990 meeting in Vancouver agreed that the UNCED process needs broad participation. 26 issues are on the UNCED agenda, including water, toxics, biodiversity, biotechnology, land management, ocean management, and acid rain, which are too numerous to manage at the UNCED. A North/South issue is no longer relevant because we are a global community and we must cooperate. The only way the North is going to advance is if it considers its economic self-interest. Much of the world is waiting for the US to lead, but it is not budging. Many suggest that Europe take the lead, e.g., Norway's climate fund. Grass roots groups need to organize and empower themselves to effect change.
[Social preconditions of founding and developing the family planning movement] Drustveni preduslovi osnivanja i razvoja pokreta planiranja porodice u svetu.
STANOVNISTVO. 1991 Jan-Jun; 18-19(1-2):245-67.Family planning, as a broader social movement, is of a recent date, although biological reproduction, as part of social reproduction, has been in the focus of human interest since the beginning of the human race. The great thinkers of the past have endeavored to find a connection between social trends and the population movement. Thus, they shaped population theories which, in the earlier stages of social development, were primarily an integral part of the economic approach towards social development. Contrary to the belief that population problems have received attention only in recent research, it has been demonstrated historically that these have attracted the attention of the great thinkers in the course of the development of human thought. Development of family planning, in its modern sense, shows that it had usually been considered as a remedy for overpopulation until the UN proclaimed it one of the basic human rights in 1966. Primary accumulation in England, implying accelerated growth of an army of the unemployed, is part of the core of the current family planning concept, the cradle of family planning in its modern sense. The Malthusian League which accepted Malthus's economic doctrine on population was founded in 1877. Reaction to their activities came at the very beginning from an ever-increasing revolutionary stream of the socialist movement. Socialist-oriented working class leaders pronounced an anathema on the Malthusian League's doctrine segments of the English society. The Neo-Malthusian leagues were founded in some European countries, but they were particularly strong in Denmark and Holland; later on, they emerged in the Far East as well. The Malthusian League held its last conference on its 50th anniversary in 1927. The First International Conference on Planned Parenthood was held in Stockholm in August 1946. "Each child has the right to be wanted by both parents and all parents have the right to decide on the number of children to be born..." is the basic message of this Conference. At this Conference, the First International Committee was established. The International Conference on Family Planning prepared by the International Committee for Family Planning, together with the National Organization for Family Planning in India, was held in Bombay in 1952. Thus, the International Planned Parenthood Federation was "born". (author's modified) (summaries in SCR. ENG)
In: Vaccines for fertility regulation: the assessment of their safety and efficacy. Proceedings of a Symposium on Assessing the Safety and Efficacy of Vaccines to Regulate Fertility, convened by the WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, Geneva, June 1989, edited by G.L. Ada, P.D. Griffin. Cambridge, England, Cambridge University Press, 1991. 5-11. (Scientific Basis of Fertility Regulation)The predecessor of the WHO Task Force on Vaccines for Fertility Regulation chose to commit most of its resources to research and development of a vaccine directed against human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Task force members made this choice in 1978 because scientists tended to already know the amino acid sequence and general structure of hCG and a vaccine against hCG would prevent implantation of the fertilized ovum. Specifically they focused on the unique sequence of C-terminal 37 amino acid peptide of the beta chain of hCG because this method would not allow production of antibodies cross reacting with human luteinizing hormone and would reduce the risk of autoimmune pathology and other effects of cross reactivity of antibodies. They also defined the various parameters and the methodology to assess the safety of the approach which still is a useful guide to development of hCG and other antifertility vaccines. The Task Force strongly recommended that target antigens should be temporary and in relatively low amounts and limited to gametes and/or early products of fertilization. A Phase I clinical trial in sterilized women has already been conducted and a limited efficacy trial in fertile women is planned. In June 1989, WHO hosted a symposium in Geneva, Switzerland to review the safety and efficacy of antifertility vaccines based on past and current research and development. This symposium focused much attention on immunological and endocrine considerations. WHO forecasted that recommendations coming from the symposium would not only guide future research on vaccines against self-antigens but maybe even antitumor vaccines.