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WORLD HEALTH. 1991 Mar-Apr; 14-5.Less developed countries are undergoing rapid, unplanned, and uncontrolled urbanization at the expense of their populations' health. Physical expansion of cities has outpaced the abilities of city planners and management and has contributed to the spread of tuberculosis, pneumonia, influenza, threadworm, cholera, dysentery, and other diarrheal diseases. Overcrowding, lack of access roads, dangerous roads, drinking water scarcity, frequently collapsing buildings, uncollected garbage, lack of sewers, inadequate air space, and houses littered with human feces are common conditions contributing to high mortality rates especially among children. In this context, the World Health Organization's Environmental Health in Rural and Urban Development Program, which is designed to promote awareness about the association between health and planning, is noted. Guidelines for change are also a component of the program, and are encouraged for adoption by planners of less developed countries, especially Africa. Urban rehabilitation and upgrading are recommended in the guidelines while maintaining central focus upon promoting the population's health. While examples of rampant urbanization are drawn primarily from Nigeria, ancient Greek and Roman societies as well as the UK are mentioned in the context of urban planning with a view to health.
New York, New York, UNFPA, . ix, 81 p.Rapid population growth is an obstacle to Vietnam's socioeconomic development. Accordingly, the Government of Vietnam has adopted a population policy aimed at reducing the population growth rate through family planning programs encouraging increased age at 1st birth, birthspacing of 3-5 years, and a family norm of 1-2 children. TFR presently holds at 4, despite declines over the past 2 decades. Current mortality rates are also high, yet expected to continue declining in the years ahead. A resettlement policy also exists, and is aimed at reconfiguring present spatial distribution imbalances. Again, the main thrust of the population program is family planning. The government hopes to lower the annual population growth rate to under 1.8% by the year 2000. Achieving this goal will demand comprehensive population and development efforts targeted to significantly increase the contraceptive prevalence rate. Issues, steps, and recommendations for action are presented and discussed for institutional development strategy; program management and coordination and external assistance; population data collection and analysis; population dynamics and policy formulation; maternal and child health/family planning; information, education and communication; and women, population, and development. Support from UNFPA's 1992-1995 program of assistance should continue and build upon the current program. The present focus upon women, children, grass-roots, and rural areas is encouraged, while more attention is suggested to motivating men and mobilizing communities. Finally, the program is relevant and applicable at both local and national levels.