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Guatemala City, Guatemala, INCAP, 1991 Aug.  p.The executive summary of the 42nd council meeting of the Nutrition Institute of Central America and Panama (INCAP) contains a list of topics covered at the meeting and resulting reports and documentation. The executive summary of the 1990 annual report contains a brief statement identifying INCAP program priorities for the year and descriptions of activities emphasized in each of the program components: general coordination, human resources training and development, technical cooperation, and research. Another report assesses progress in institutional processes developed during 1990-91 to strengthen INCAP management capacity. The processes described include decentralization of the administration of technical cooperation; strengthening administration and strategic planning, technology and technology transfer, and development of financial resources; reinforcing scientific-technical communication networks; restructuring the INCAP postgraduate studies program; establishing a human resources data bank; and assessing the current status of documentation centers. The financial report for 1990 follows, including the report of an external audit during 1990. The next section examines follow-up to the eight resolutions of the previous meeting of the INCAP council. The report of the preparatory meeting of the directors general of health and INCAP program and budget proposals for 1992, and statements of policy regarding research and information and communications complete the work.
Guatemala City, Guatemala, INCAP, 1991. 117 p.The annual report of the Nutrition Institute of Central America and Panama (INCAP) for 1991 begins with an overview of the status of food and nutrition in Central America and INCAP s program priorities for 1992-95. INCAP estimates that approximately 22% of Central American children are moderately or severely malnourished. The next chapter provides an overview of INCAP research activity, followed by more detailed descriptions of studies underway in the areas of agriculture and food science, nutrition and health, and food and nutrition planning. Training and human resource development at the headquarters level and in individual countries are then examined. A chapter on technical cooperation describes the principal achievements in 1991 in transfer of technology, methodologies, and knowledge. A table lists collaborative activities with a regional focus, after which activities in each country are briefly described. INCAP s information and communication policy was revised in 1991, and the activities related to scientific and technical information and communication are described in terms of the new policy. General information concerning administration and finance and lists of INCAP professional personnel are included. A list of works published during 1991 in presented in an annex.
DIALOGUE ON DIARRHOEA. 1991 Sep; (46):4.Artificial feeds constituted with contaminated water and unclean bottles are the leading cause of diarrhea in infants. Companies market artificial feeds globally as infant formula (a substitute for breast milk) and follow-up formula (a complement to breast milk). Breast milk is best for all 0-12 month old infants. Breast-fed infants do not need any formula even follow-up formula. Indeed >6-month old infants require solid healthful foods and breast milk. Like infant formulas, follow-up formula made with contaminated water or bottles can cause the infant to become ill with an infection, and offering follow-up formulas to infants impedes weaning and is costly. Follow-up formulas do not complement breast milk, but instead tend to replace it. The 1986 WHO World Health Assembly has even declared that, in some countries, provision of follow-up formula is not necessary. WHO fears mothers could use follow-up formula instead of infant formula because it has a higher protein and mineral content thus increasing the risk of dehydration during diarrhea. Follow-up formula can result in an unbalanced diet. Since the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes does not address formulas marketed as a complement to breast milk, formula companies market follow-up formulas in both developed and developing countries. Most mothers do not know the risks of using follow-up formulas, however. Governments have several alternatives to stop the marketing of these formulas. They can design and implement a code that defines breast-milk substitutes as any formula perceived and used as a breast milk option even if promoted as a breast-milk complement. They can also amend an existing code. WHO offers technical assistance to any member government who wishes to design, implement, and monitor such a code.