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UN commission proposes action to prohibit violence against women; China offers to host fourth women's conference - United Nations Commission on the Status of Women.
UN Chronicle. 1991 Jun; 28(2): p..Action to prohibit violence against women, ensure equal opportunities for disabled women and give priority to international protection of refugee and displaced women and children was recommended by the Commission on the Status of Women at its thirty-fifth session (27 February-8 March, Vienna). The 43-member body also launched preparations for the Fourth World Conference on Women: Action for Equality, Development and Peace. Fifteen resolutions, which also focused on women in vulnerable situations--including migrants, prostitutes and battered women--and the integration of women in development, were approved by the Commission. Most texts will go to the Economic and Social Council and the General Assembly for final adoption later this year. The Commission asked that discussions start on the possibility of preparing an international instrument that explicitly addresses the issue of violence against women. The first step should be to develop a framework for that instrument, in consultation with the Committee for the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). An expert meeting on this issue should be convened in 1991 or 1992, with the participation of CEDAW and the Committee on Crime Prevention and Control, the Commission specified. (excerpt)
In: African research studies in population information, education and communication, compiled and edited by Tony Johnston, Aart de Zeeuw, and Waithira Gikonyo. Nairobi, Kenya, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1991. 1-12.40 couples participated in separate focus group discussions each with 10 single sex individuals either in the city of Harare, Zimbabwe or at a rural center. Researchers also conducted indepth interviews with 25 couples. The wanted to examine husband-wife communication concerning fertility management. Only younger married women, especially those in Harare, included family planning issues as topics of occasional communication. Urban young married women tended to be more educated than older and rural women. Older rural women tended to avoid discussions concerning marital interpersonal relationships. Men believed that women had much opportunity to talk and to make decisions about family welfare such as household management and child care. Yet women did not feel that they had the opportunity to discuss issues. In fact, they believed that the men made fertility decisions while the men believed these decisions were mainly up to the women. Some men did mention, like urban young married women, that ideally these decisions should be made jointly, however. Men were uncomfortable talking to the researchers about fertility management decisions. Both men and women were reluctant to discuss who initiates discussions on family planning. Basically women do not because they are afraid and men only initiate discussion when things go wrong. Women did have a tendency to use inference or indirect inference to initiate family planning discussions. For example, the neighbors' children have new school uniforms actually means they have a small family and can afford them. Women also used repetitional offhand reminders and bargaining or negotiating position. Men's fear that the male command structure within the family (the status quo) will not be maintained and women's fear that making fertility management decisions would threaten their marriage were barriers to husband-wife communication concerning family planning.
CONSCIENCE. 1991 Sep-Oct; 12(5):6.When IPPF was formed in 1952, its driving force was concern for women, for women's health and women's reproductive rights. 40 years on, those same issues are still at the heart of IPPF's policies and programs. Marge Berer has made a plea for a feminist approach within international family planning, and IPPF is in complete agreement that women's needs and choices should be paramount. All individuals and couples must have the basic human right to decide freely and responsible the number and spacing of their children. Women must also have the right to receive full information and counselling to choose their contraceptive method. Our secretary general, Dr. Halfdan Mahler, stresses that if family planning is to be effective, it must always begin with the individual, taking the whole issue of reproductive health into consideration. Men must share the responsibility for sexual behavior and family planning, and real equality will only be attained when women are empowered to regulate their own fertility. As nongovernmental health care organizations, IPPF's member associations offering services in 133 countries are able to work towards the principles of informed choice and voluntary family planning--even where governments may not be giving women the choices they deserve. (full text)
Management information systems in maternal and child health / family planning programs: a multi-country analysis.
STUDIES IN FAMILY PLANNING. 1991 Jan-Feb; 22(1):19-30.Management and information systems (MIS) in maternal and child health were surveyed in 40 developing countries by trained consultants using a diagnostic instrument developed by UNFPA and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). The instrument covered indicators of input (physical infrastructure, personnel, training, finances, equipment, logistics), output (recipients of services, coverage, efficiency), quality, and impact, as well as frequency, timeliness and reliability of information. The consultants visited national and 2 provincial level administrative and service points of public and private agencies. Information on input was often lacking on numbers and locations of populations with access to services. In 15 countries data were lacking on personnel posts filled and training status. Logistics systems for equipment and supplies were inadequate in most areas except Asia, resulting in shortfalls of all types of materials and vehicles coinciding with idle supplies in warehouses. Financial reporting systems were present in only 13 countries. Service outputs were reported in terms of current users in 13 countries, but the proportion of couples covered was unknown in 25 countries. 2 countries had cost-effectiveness figures. Redundant forms duplicated efforts in half of the countries, while data were not broken down at the usable level of analysis for decision-making in most. Few African countries had either manual or computer capacity to handle all needed data. Family planning data especially was not available to draw the total picture. Often information was available too late to be useful, except in Portuguese speaking countries. Even when quality data existed, managers were frequently unaware of it. It is recommended that training and consultancies be provided for managers and that these types of surveys be repeated periodically.