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Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1991. x, 51 p. (World Bank Technical Paper No. 159)A World Bank report outlines the results of an empirical study. It lists institutional characteristics connected with successful tropical disease control programs, describes their importance, and extracts useful lessons for disease control specialists and managers. The study covers and compares 7 successful tropical disease control programs: the endemic disease program in Brazil; schistosomiasis control programs in China, Egypt, and Zimbabwe; and the malaria, schistosomiasis, and tuberculosis programs in the Philippines. All of these successful programs, as defined by reaching goals over a 10-15 year period, are technology driven. Specifically they establish a relevant technological strategy and package, and use operational research to appropriately adapt it to local conditions. Further they are campaign oriented. The 7 programs steer all features of organization and management to applying technology in the field. Moreover groups of expert staff, rather than administrators, have the authority to decide on technical matters. These programs operate both vertically and horizontally. Further when it comes to planning strategy they are centralized, but when it comes to actual operations and tasks, they are decentralized. Besides they match themselves to the task and not the task to the organization. Successful disease control programs have a realistic idea of what extension activities, e.g., surveillance and health education, is possible in the field. In addition, they work with households rather than the community. All employees are well trained. Program managers use informal and professional means to motivate then which makes the programs productive. The organizational structure of these programs mixes standardization of technical procedures with flexibility in applying rules and regulations, nonmonetary rewards to encourage experience based use of technological packages, a strong sense of public service, and a strong commitment to personal and professional development.
Guatemala City, Guatemala, INCAP, .  p.This publication reports the activities and accomplishments of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) during 1990. Established in 1949, INCAP seeks to solve the food and nutrition problems of the region by helping develop nutritional sciences, encouraging their practical applications, and strengthening technical capacities. In the report's introduction, Director Hernan L. Delgado explains that during a September meeting held in Belize, INCAP's Directing Council approved the Institutional Strategic Plan for 1991-2000. Among other things, the plan calls for decentralization and strengthening of actions at the country level. The report then analyzes the current food an nutrition situation of the region, noting the damaging effects of economic crisis and social conflict and the increase in food aid to Central America. This section of the report identifies INCAP's priority areas. The report goes on to describe in detail the activities that fall under INCAP's basic functions: 1) research in the areas of agriculture and food sciences, nutrition and health, and food and nutrition planning; 2) training and development of human resources; 3) technical cooperation between member countries and between INCAP and national and multilateral institutions; and 4) information and communication. The later section provides a list of works published in 1990. Finally, the publication reports on the developments concerning general coordination, which include developments in planning, administration, finances, personnel, and equipment and infrastructure.