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New York, New York, UNFPA, . v, 36 p. (Report)The former government of Romania sought to maintain existing population and accelerate population growth by restricting migration, increasing fertility, and reducing mortality. The provision and use of family planning (FP) were subject to restrictions and penalties beginning in 1986, the legal marriage age for females was lowered to 15 years, and incentives were provided to bolster fertility. These and other government policies have contributed to existing environmental pollution, poor housing, insufficient food, and major health problems in the country. To progress against population-related problems, Romania most urgently needs to gather reliable population and socioeconomic data for planning purposes, establish the ability to formulate population policy and undertake related activities, rehabilitate the health system and introduce modern FP methods, education health personnel and the public about FP methods, promote awareness of the need for population education, and establish that women's interests are served in government policy and action. These topics, recommendations, and the role of foreign assistance are discussed in turn.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. xiv, 120 p. (Social Statistics and Indicators Series K No. 8; ST/ESA/STAT/SER.K/8)5 UN agencies worked together to develop this statistical source book to generate awareness of women's status, to guide policy, to stimulate action, and to monitor progress toward improvements. The data clearly show that obvious differences between the worlds of men and women are women's role as childbearer and their almost complete responsibility for family care and household management. Overall, women have gained more control over their reproduction, but their responsibility to their family's survival and their own increased. Women tend to be the providers of last resort for families and themselves, often in hostile conditions. Women have more access to economic opportunities and accept greater economic roles, yet their economic employment often consists of subsistence agriculture and services with low productivity, is separate from men's work, and unequal to men's work. Economists do not consider much of the work women do as having any economic value so they do not even measure it. The beginning of each chapter states the core messages in 4-5 sentences. Each chapter consists of text accompanied by charts, tables, and/or regional stories. The 1st chapter covers women, families, and households. The 2nd chapter addresses the public life and leadership of women. Education and training dominate chapter 3. Health and childbearing are the topics of chapter 4 while housing, settlements, and the environment comprise chapter 5. The book concludes with a chapter on women's employment and the economy. The annexes include strategies for the advancement of women decided upon in Nairobi, Kenya in 1985, the text of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, and geographical groupings of countries and areas. During the 1990s, we must invest in women to realize equitable and sustainable development.
New York, New York, UNFPA, . 31 p.The UN Population Fund (UNFPA) knows the linkages between women's status and execution of sustainable development initiatives. This booklet has taken the next step and explains how to include women in development, especially population initiatives. Women specific projects are 1 primary approach to realize women's participation. They include projects designed to improve their situation (education, skill development, training, or economic activities) or those designed to increase awareness of women's issues among policy makers, the media, and the public. These projects are often successful in motivating women to use family planning services. The 2nd approach involves mainstreaming women into development projects in all work plan categories. This approach provides women opportunities to work with men, to draft policy, and to take part in national development and is pivotal to the long term success of population efforts. One must 1st recognize obstacles to designing projects and programs that include women, however. 1 such obstacle is few discussions with women to learn their perceptions of national priorities and needs. The booklet features how one can be an advocate for maternal-child health/family planning (MCH/FP) and information, education, and communication (IEC) programs, research, policy, planning, special programs (e.g., those that train women in environmental management), and basic data collection and analysis. For example, statistics that prove that demand for family planning services exceed supply of those services allows an advocate to promote MCH/FP programs. UNFPA also recommends a gender impact statement be prepared for all development projects. For IEC programs, it may include questions about specific cultural, legal, financial and time constraints for females in having full access to education and how a project may change these traditional obstacles.