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  1. 1
    103545

    Psychosexual aspects of natural family planning as revealed in the World Health Organization multicenter trial of the ovulation method and the New Zealand Continuation Study.

    France MM

    In: Natural family planning: current knowledge and new strategies for the 1990s. Proceedings of a conference, Part II, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, December 10-14, 1990, edited by John T. Queenan, Victoria H. Jennings, Jeffrey M. Spieler, Helena von Hertzen. Washington, D.C., Georgetown University, Institute for International Studies in Natural Family Planning, [1991]. 118-20.

    Successful natural family planning (NFP) use depends upon the day-to-day sexual decision making of users. Given the important role of psychosexual factors in this decision making, they are an important influence in both the effectiveness of natural methods as well as in their acceptability as a means of family planning. The World Health Organization (WHO) Multicenter Study of the ovulation method was conducted in Auckland, New Zealand; Bangalore, India; Dublin, Ireland; Manila, the Philippines; and San Miguel, El Salvador with the secondary objective of obtaining psychosexual information to identify factors leading to the successful use of NFP. Findings were reported in 1987. This paper reviews some of the WHO findings and compares them with some preliminary findings of the current study in New Zealand on continuation rates of NFP users following the symptothermal method with the goal of determining rates of continuation and reasons for acceptability. The WHO study found that the more satisfied people were with NFP and the less difficulty they reported with abstinence, the more likely they were to be successful users, as measured by their avoidance of pregnancy. The New Zealand Study, however, indicates that for many couples abstinence may not be the main difficulty in using NFP, and that long-term acceptance is not necessarily influenced by pregnancy. The authors notes that the two studies involved different NFP methods. The challenge for the future of NFP services is to learn more about what leads to acceptability in different countries and cultures, remembering that for a natural method of family planning, success depends very much upon the decisions, attitudes, and resulting behavior of the couple involved.
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  2. 2
    067601

    Survey report: Eastern Caribbean.

    Yinger N

    POPULATION TODAY. 1991 Jul-Aug; 19(7-8):4.

    Over 1 million people live on 8 small islands in the Eastern Caribbean: St. Kitts-Nevis, Montserrat, Grenada, St. Vincent, Antigua, Barbados, St. Lucia, and Dominica. Starting in 1985 the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region has carried out a series of contraceptive prevalence surveys in these countries. Current information is provided by these surveys in the areas of fertility levels and preferences, contraceptive knowledge and use. Also, socioeconomic, historical and demographic background and analysis such as fertility patterns, desire for additional children, and breastfeeding data; contraceptive awareness including family planning methods and sources; contraceptive use by method, source, and timing, satisfaction, and male attitudes are provided in the surveys, but not in the report abstracted here. The total fertility rate (TFR) and the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) for the 8 islands are as follows: St. Kitts-Nevis (1984) 2.9 TFR, 40.6 CPR; St. Vincent (1988) 2.9 TFR, 58.3 CPR; Antigua (1988) 1.8 TFR, 52.6 CPR; Barbados (1988) not given, 55.0 CPR; St. Lucia (1988) 3.2 TFR, 47.3 CPR; Dominica (1987) 3.2 TFR, 49.8 CPR. The islands have unusual demographic patterns related to extensive out-migration.
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  3. 3
    069268

    The demand for family planning in Indonesia 1976 to 1987: a supply-demand analysis.

    Dwiyanto A

    [Unpublished] 1991. Presented at the Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, Washington, D.C., August 5-7, 1991. 22 p.

    A supply-demand approach is used to estimate total and unmet demand for family planning in Indonesia over the last decade. The 1976 Indonesia Fertility Survey, the 1983 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, and the 1987 National Contraceptive Prevalence Survey form the database used in the study. Women under consideration have been married once, are aged 35-44, have husbands who are still alive, have had at least 2 live births, and had no births before marrying. High demand was found for family planning services, with the proportion of current users and women with unmet demand accounting for over 85% of the population. Marked improvement in contraceptive practice may be achieved by targeting programs to these 2 groups. Attention to unmotivated women is not of immediate concern. Women in need of these services are largely rural and uneducated. Programs will, therefore, require subsidization. The government should gradually and selectively further introduce self-sufficient family planning programs. User fees and private employer service provision to employees are program options to consider. Reducing the contraceptive use drop-out rate from its level of 47% is yet another approach to increase contraceptive prevalence in Indonesia. 33% drop out due to pregnancy, 26% from health problems, 10% because of method failure, 10% from inconveniences and access, and 21% from other causes. Improving service quality could dramatically reduce the degree of drop-outs.
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