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In: Gender analysis in development planning: a case book, edited by Aruna Rao, Mary B. Anderson, Catherine A. Overholt. West Hartford, Connecticut, Kumarian Press, 1991. 23-31, 101-2. (Kumarian Press Library of Management for Development)This monograph chapter describes the Chandpur Irrigation Project (CIP), which benefits a population of about 700,000 along the east bank of the Meghna River. A circular embankment was constructed to create arable land for agriculture. Pump houses regulate flows of the Dakatia River for irrigation and flood control and drainage into the Meghna River. CIP was begun in 1963 and completed in 1977. CIP aims to improve agricultural production, agricultural employment, and living conditions. A Bangladesh Water Development Board is in charge of operations. Villagers are organized into irrigation groups to facilitate water distribution, operation of pumps, and collection of user fees. CIP allows farmers to grow rice during the summer and winter. Farmers grow two summer rice crops of high yielding varieties. Vegetable gardens were shifted after the irrigation project to home gardens or to outside the irrigation areas. Winter crops include a high yielding variety of rice, vegetables, wheat, spices, pulses, and oil seeds. Households include landless tenants and small, mid-size, and large landowners. All families invest in their children's education. Male labor is in high demand during transplanting, weeding, and harvesting. Female labor is in high demand post-harvest. Male farmers receive 25 takas per day, while females earn 1 kg of rice per day. Diet varies with the wealth of the household; all families had higher food intake after CIP. CIP increased crop yields. Employment of family labor increased by 25% after CIP. Income increased for all types of families. Patterns of food distribution within families did not change.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1991. x, 51 p. (World Bank Technical Paper No. 159)A World Bank report outlines the results of an empirical study. It lists institutional characteristics connected with successful tropical disease control programs, describes their importance, and extracts useful lessons for disease control specialists and managers. The study covers and compares 7 successful tropical disease control programs: the endemic disease program in Brazil; schistosomiasis control programs in China, Egypt, and Zimbabwe; and the malaria, schistosomiasis, and tuberculosis programs in the Philippines. All of these successful programs, as defined by reaching goals over a 10-15 year period, are technology driven. Specifically they establish a relevant technological strategy and package, and use operational research to appropriately adapt it to local conditions. Further they are campaign oriented. The 7 programs steer all features of organization and management to applying technology in the field. Moreover groups of expert staff, rather than administrators, have the authority to decide on technical matters. These programs operate both vertically and horizontally. Further when it comes to planning strategy they are centralized, but when it comes to actual operations and tasks, they are decentralized. Besides they match themselves to the task and not the task to the organization. Successful disease control programs have a realistic idea of what extension activities, e.g., surveillance and health education, is possible in the field. In addition, they work with households rather than the community. All employees are well trained. Program managers use informal and professional means to motivate then which makes the programs productive. The organizational structure of these programs mixes standardization of technical procedures with flexibility in applying rules and regulations, nonmonetary rewards to encourage experience based use of technological packages, a strong sense of public service, and a strong commitment to personal and professional development.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. x, 58 p. (ST/ESA/SER.R/113)With approximately 12% of its 1980 population over age 60, Argentina's elderly constitute a higher-than-average proportion of the total population when compared to other developing countries. Governments are increasingly assuming greater responsibility for the care and support of the elderly. Accordingly, this paper describes the social and economic aspects of population ageing in Argentina, with the aim of providing planners with a better understanding of the social and economic implications of these demographic changes. Better understanding should result in the development of appropriate plans and policies targeted to the elderly. While the ageing process in Argentina is comparatively advanced when compared to other developing countries, ageing presently proceeds at a slower pace when compared to past trends. Slow ageing is also projected into the future. The elderly, themselves, have been ageing, and tend to live to a greater extent in urban areas. Elderly women when compared to men are more likely to live alone and in urban settings. Despite a stagnating economy, social gains and improvements in living conditions for the elderly have been largely sustained. The working-age population grew more slowly, however, over recent decades than the total population. The number of retirement system beneficiaries also grew over the period, with retirement benefits reported as the leading sources of income among the elderly. The health care system remains strained by the country's present economic situation, with care failing to reach all of the elderly. Wide societal agreement exists that the family should be a major care provider. With more than 1/2 of all persons aged 65 and over living in extended or mixed households, the family plans an important care and support function.