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  1. 1

    1991 ESCAP population data sheet.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]. Population Division

    Bangkok, Thailand, ESCAP, Population Division, 1991. [1] p.

    The 1991 Population Data Sheet produced by the UN Economic and social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) provides a large chart by country and region for Asia and the Pacific for the following variables: mid-1991 population, average annual growth rate, crude birth rate, crude death rate, total fertility rate, infant mortality rate, male life expectancy at birth, female life expectancy at birth, % aged 0-14 years, % aged 65 and over, dependency ratios, density, % urban, and population projection at 2010. 3 charts also display urban and rural population trends between 1980 and 2025, the crude birth and death rates and rate of natural increase by region, and dependency ratios for 27 countries.
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  2. 2

    A strategy for reducing numbers? Response.

    Rohde JE

    HEALTH FOR THE MILLIONS. 1991 Dec; 17(5):24-5.

    While there may be no documented evidence that mortality decline is a causative factor in demographic transition, there is a close association between reductions in mortality and fertility. The Indian experience of more than 40 years shows that consistent efforts in the promotion of family planning will be rewarded with demographic transition. In the Indian state of Kerala, population 30 million, improving child survival, female literacy, strict child labor laws, and effective high coverage primary health care reduced mortality and fertility. Its infant mortality rate is 22/100 births, which is 25% of the national average. Its birth rate is 20/1000 and is continuing to fall. In the past decade population growth was only 14% compared to 25% nationally and 28% in the northern states. If Kerala's figures were applied to all of India, there would be 2 million less infant deaths and 8 million less births. The impact of reducing infant mortality on population growth in raw numbers in insignificant. With a mortality rate of 150/1000 there are 850 survivors. If the mortality rate is cut in half there will be only a .18% increase in population, but with a 50% reduction in infant suffering and death. Historically such mortality declines are associated with a 25% or more decline in fertility. This is the reason that UNICEF has been a long-time advocate of child survival programs as an integral part of population control measures. Euthanasia is surely not the solution to the population problem. The daily loss of 40,000 childhood lives is a tragic part of the human experience. However, helping these children to become and stay healthy is the best method of reducing population.
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  3. 3

    Population and vital statistics report. Data available as of 1 April 1991.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Statistical Office

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. 19 p. (Statistical Papers Series A. Vol. 43, No. 2)

    The Statistical Office of the UN Department of International and Social Affairs compiled a population and vital statistics report with data that it had received by April 1, 1991. The report divided the world into 7 regions: Africa, North America, South America, Asia, Europe, Oceania, and the USSR. It listed population size for each country or area within a region based on the latest population census, latest official estimate, and midyear 1989 estimate. The report used registered data to list crude birth rate (CBR), crude death rate (CDR), and infant mortality rate (IMR) for each country or area. It also gave estimated rates for some countries. China had the largest population in Asia and the world (1.12 billion). Afghanistan ranked the highest in CBR (48.1), CDR (22.3), and IMR (181.6) in Asia and the world. Italy had the lowest CBR (9.7) in the world followed by Japan (9.9). Samoa had the lowest CDR (1.10) in Oceania and the world. Iceland had the lowest IMR (4). The population of the USSR stood at 287.6 million. Its CBR was 17.6, CDR 10.1, and IMR 23. Nigeria had by far the greatest estimated midyear 1989 population (105 million) in Africa. The United States had the most people in the Americas in mid 1989 (247.35 million). The report concluded with 90 footnotes that qualified much of the data. For example, the CDR and IMR for Japan were based on only Japanese people actually living in Japan. On the other hand, some countries data included nationals temporarily living outside the country.
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