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  1. 1

    [Annual report: Interamerican Foundation: October 1, 1990 - September 30, 1991] Anuario 1991: Fundacion Interamericana: 1o de octubre de 1990 - 30 de septiembre de 1991.

    Interamerican Foundation

    Arlington, Virginia, Interamerican Foundation, 1991. [2], 52, [1] p.

    The annual report lists the executive council and the staff of the Interamerican Foundation, provides the letter of the president of the executive council, and a message of the president. In the promotion of national resources, cooperation was established with the Venezuelan state-owned oil company with the objective of assisting local and nongovernmental organizations in development along with a contribution of $200,000 annually for projects. The HOCOL foundation of Shell Oil Co. in Colombia also established a fund for small project development that amounted to apportionment of $100,000/year for a period of 3 years. In July 1991 representatives from the Andean region also took part in the American Folklore Festival of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., exhibiting traditional agriculture, textiles, artisans, dances, music, and ritual ceremonies. In 1991, financing reached the highest level in the Foundation's history with the approval of $29.2 million in donations. About 89% of the funds were assigned to food and agriculture, small business development, and education and training. The rest were allocated to assist community service programs in terms of housing, health care, legal assistance, ecological development, and culture. In-country funds were established in Belize, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, and Nicaragua. The office of training and promotion carried out exchanges of information with various development organizations by means of conferences, group studies, and video tapes, e.g., one that focused on preserving the access of poor people to the natural resources of the Gulf of Fonseca. The number of readers of the Foundation's publications increased by 20%. The offices were consolidated into 4 units for more effective operation. The plan for the 1990 decade, envisioned increasing development capacity and reducing the dependency on external help.
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  2. 2

    Bangladesh: the Chandpur irrigation project.

    Tuttle LW; Anderson MB

    In: Gender analysis in development planning: a case book, edited by Aruna Rao, Mary B. Anderson, Catherine A. Overholt. West Hartford, Connecticut, Kumarian Press, 1991. 23-31, 101-2. (Kumarian Press Library of Management for Development)

    This monograph chapter describes the Chandpur Irrigation Project (CIP), which benefits a population of about 700,000 along the east bank of the Meghna River. A circular embankment was constructed to create arable land for agriculture. Pump houses regulate flows of the Dakatia River for irrigation and flood control and drainage into the Meghna River. CIP was begun in 1963 and completed in 1977. CIP aims to improve agricultural production, agricultural employment, and living conditions. A Bangladesh Water Development Board is in charge of operations. Villagers are organized into irrigation groups to facilitate water distribution, operation of pumps, and collection of user fees. CIP allows farmers to grow rice during the summer and winter. Farmers grow two summer rice crops of high yielding varieties. Vegetable gardens were shifted after the irrigation project to home gardens or to outside the irrigation areas. Winter crops include a high yielding variety of rice, vegetables, wheat, spices, pulses, and oil seeds. Households include landless tenants and small, mid-size, and large landowners. All families invest in their children's education. Male labor is in high demand during transplanting, weeding, and harvesting. Female labor is in high demand post-harvest. Male farmers receive 25 takas per day, while females earn 1 kg of rice per day. Diet varies with the wealth of the household; all families had higher food intake after CIP. CIP increased crop yields. Employment of family labor increased by 25% after CIP. Income increased for all types of families. Patterns of food distribution within families did not change.
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  3. 3

    Improving food security at household level; government, aid and post-drought development in Kordofan and Red Sea Hills.

    Shepherd A

    In: To cure all hunger. Food policy and food security in Sudan, edited by Simon Maxwell. London, England, Intermediate Technology Publications, 1991. 218-31.

    The question whether government, assisted by aid, is capable of targeting interventions to those lacking food security is examined. Food security is a general concept which includes security against seasonal fluctuations, long-term declines in the natural resource base, and economic conditions which lead to destitution. Food security is analyzed at individual, household, community, regional, national, and international levels. Household interventions are also concerned with intra-household distribution and the level of community security. Food-insecure rural women and children in marginal drought-prone areas were the focus of programs funded by UNICEF in Sudan: the Joint Nutrition Support Project (JNSP) in Red Sea Hills (1983-88) and the Integrated Women's Development Program (IWDP) in Kordofan (1987-91). These multi-sectoral programs were carried out by departments of regional and provincial government along with the reactions to famine. In both Kordofan and Red Sea Hills extreme poverty is widespread, with high vulnerability to food insecurity which is even higher in Red Sea Hills. In Red Sea Hills, UNICEF/WHO had negotiated the 5-year JNSP to cover the province just as the famine broke in 1983/84. In Kordofan, UNICEF collected baseline data on such indicators and then returned after a two-year period to communities originally surveyed for monitoring. In Red Sea Hills, JNSP's target population were the food-insecure nomads. The Department of Health structure became sufficiently strong, at least partly due to 5 years of investment and development of primary health care personnel under JNSP. The department represents the best administrative mechanism in the province for the development of famine early-warning systems. Many food-security measures in Red Sea Hills are experimental and wrought with difficulty, thus the existence of a relatively strong administration will favor a food security strategy based on primary health care interventions.
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  4. 4

    African women. A review of UNFPA-supported women, population and development projects in Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Zaire, and Zambia.

    de Cruz AM; Ngumbu L; Siedlecky S; Fapohunda ER

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1991 Jan. 45 p.

    In the late 1980s, UNFPA-supported women, population, and development projects in 4 African countries were reviewed during their early stages of implementation. The Gabon project aimed to identify pressing needs of rural women who worked in agroindustries or participated in agricultural cooperatives so the government could know how to integrate rural women into national development and in developing programs benefiting women. It realized that providing women with information about family health and sanitation did not meet their needs unless they first had a minimum income with which to implement what they learned. The Guinea-Bissau project chose and trained 22 female rural extension workers to inform women about sanitation and maternal and child health, nutrition, and birth spacing to improve the standard of living. It also hoped to strengthen the administrative, planning, and operational capacity of the women's group of a national political party to improve maternal and child health. Yet the women's group did not have the needed knowledge and experience in project development to operate a successful extension-based program. Further, it was unrealistic to expect women to train to become extension works when the government would not hire them permanently. In Zaire, women at local multiservice women's centers in 3 rural regions imparted information and education to modify traditional beliefs and behavior norms to increase women's role in development. In Zambia, Family Health Programme workers provided integrated maternal and child health care and family planning services through local health centers countrywide. The projects used scientific field surveys and/or interviews with villagers, local leaders, and organizations to conduct needs assessments. They did not assess the institution's strengths and weaknesses to determine its ability to be a development agency. The scope of all the projects as too limited. The duties of the consultant in 2 projects were not delineated, causing some confusion.
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  5. 5

    Different strategies for different situations.

    Trigg P

    WORLD HEALTH. 1991 Sep-Oct; 10-2.

    The number of malaria cases is rising very rapidly in undeveloped, politically, and economically unstable areas. The magnitude of malaria varies within these prone areas, however. There are several species of anopheles mosquito that transmit different malaria species to a variety of human populations in different climates and physical environments. So no single prevention and control strategy works for all situations. Different strategies include at least 1 of the following control measures: early diagnosis and early treatment, impregnated bednets, close surveillance, insecticide spraying, developing health services, and personal protection measures. Malaria specialists have recommended different control strategies depending on the malaria situation. They have identified 8 such situations: African savanna malaria, desert fringe and highland fringe malaria, malaria associated with traditional agriculture in plains and river valleys outside Africa, forest related malaria, malaria associated with extensive agricultural development, urban malaria and malaria in planned human settlements, coastal and marshlands malaria, and malaria in war zones and areas with sociopolitical disturbances. African savanna malaria represents the most serious situation since it occurs in Sub-Saharan Africa where 80% of malaria cases in the world and 90% of malaria mortality cases occur. It also has highly efficient mosquitoes which transmit malaria to almost everyone early in life. In terms of agricultural development, the crops most associated with malaria are rice, sugar cane, and bananas because of irrigation and cotton because of seasonal labor and massive use of insecticides. The health community does have the technical means to bring about a substantial fall in the effect of malaria, all that is needed is political will, well-managed resources, malaria specialists, health workers, and active community participation.
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