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  1. 1
    073420

    African women. A review of UNFPA-supported women, population and development projects in Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Zaire, and Zambia.

    de Cruz AM; Ngumbu L; Siedlecky S; Fapohunda ER

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1991 Jan. 45 p.

    In the late 1980s, UNFPA-supported women, population, and development projects in 4 African countries were reviewed during their early stages of implementation. The Gabon project aimed to identify pressing needs of rural women who worked in agroindustries or participated in agricultural cooperatives so the government could know how to integrate rural women into national development and in developing programs benefiting women. It realized that providing women with information about family health and sanitation did not meet their needs unless they first had a minimum income with which to implement what they learned. The Guinea-Bissau project chose and trained 22 female rural extension workers to inform women about sanitation and maternal and child health, nutrition, and birth spacing to improve the standard of living. It also hoped to strengthen the administrative, planning, and operational capacity of the women's group of a national political party to improve maternal and child health. Yet the women's group did not have the needed knowledge and experience in project development to operate a successful extension-based program. Further, it was unrealistic to expect women to train to become extension works when the government would not hire them permanently. In Zaire, women at local multiservice women's centers in 3 rural regions imparted information and education to modify traditional beliefs and behavior norms to increase women's role in development. In Zambia, Family Health Programme workers provided integrated maternal and child health care and family planning services through local health centers countrywide. The projects used scientific field surveys and/or interviews with villagers, local leaders, and organizations to conduct needs assessments. They did not assess the institution's strengths and weaknesses to determine its ability to be a development agency. The scope of all the projects as too limited. The duties of the consultant in 2 projects were not delineated, causing some confusion.
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  2. 2
    072007

    A strategy for reducing numbers? Response.

    Banerji D

    HEALTH FOR THE MILLIONS. 1991 Dec; 17(5):25-7.

    The article on human entrapment in India by Maurice King is just another example of the dogmatic, simplistic and reckless way in which the white scholars of the North formulate their ideas. It is these people who are responsible for the opium wars, programs against Jews, and carpet bombing, defoliation, and massacres in Vietnam. King's idea os using UNICEF and the WHO to kill the non white children of the South is just another example of this kind of racist brutality. It is based only upon the written opinions of other white scholars. In 1991 King produced no data about human entrapment in India. King ignores the writing of non whites like Ashish Bose who presided over the International Population Conference in 1989. Other mistakes that King makes include a failure to understand the applications of immunization (EPI) and oral rehydration programs (ORT). The EPI was implemented without ever taking baseline data, so that its effectiveness is impossible to determine with any accuracy. And nowhere in the world has ORT worked as well as UNICEF claimed it would. Further proof that King advocates genocide is his labeling of the insecticide-impregnated bednets as a dangerous technology in increasing entrapment. King fails to acknowledge the overwhelming influence of white consultants on the policies and planning strategies of family planning programs in India. Their list of failures includes: the clinic and extension approach, popularization of the IUD, mass communication, target orientation, sterilization camps, and giving primacy to generalists administrators. They should be held accountable for the 406 million people added to the base population between 1961-91 It should also be noted that India had the ability absorb this large number people while still maintaining a democratic structure, gather a substantial buffer stock of food grains, consistently increasing its per capita income while decreasing its infant mortality and crude death rates, increase its life expectancy at birth and improve the level of literacy, especially for females.
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  3. 3
    069228

    IPPF firm reconciles money with mission.

    FAMILY PLANNING WORLD. 1991 Nov-Dec; 1(2):13.

    Despite its seemingly conflicting goals, the Family Health Management Service (FHMS) has become an important middleman agency for contraceptives. A for-profit subsidiary of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), FHMS has established itself by helping fill the funding gap left by large international donor agencies. FHMS acts as consulting and procurement firm of contraceptives for smaller family planning programs around the world. These organizations, whether government or private, are generally too small to qualify extensive assistance from major donor groups. Although FHMS is a for-profit organization, its leadership stresses that its main goal is to make family planning knowledge and skills available to everyone. FHMS makes a determination whether the organization seeking contraceptives is a charitable or commercial enterprise. If the organization is charitable, FHMS charges only a handling fee. If the organization is commercial, FHMS adds a percentage to make the cost of the contraceptive reflect the market value. Since it begun operating in 1988, FHMS has assisted hundreds of customers. When Action Aid needed 6000 contraceptive products (a figure too small to attract funding from large donor organizations but too large to buy in the open market) for its rural development program in sierra Leone, FHMS procured them at an affordable cost. Last year, the organization spent about $1 million in procuring, shipping, and managing contraceptive sales, and netted a profit of about $45,000. All profits are channeled back to IPPF's altruistic programs.
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