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[Unpublished] 1991. Presented at the 1st International Course on Planning and Managing STD Control Activities in Developing Countries, Antwerp, Belgium, September 9-21, 1991.  p.Comprised of an interdisciplinary group of scientists from both developed and developing countries, a sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) research working group met April 22-24, 1991, in Geneva to develop recommendations for the WHO/STD program on global STD research needs and priorities. The group took direction from a September 1989 meeting of a WHO consultative group to the WHO STD program, and a meeting of the research sub-committee of the WHO AIDS/STD Task Force held in July 1990, to consider global strategies of coordination for AIDS and STD control programs. Recommendations for the WHO/STD program on global STD research needs and priorities would stress the needs of developing countries in the areas of cost-effective prevention, case detection and management, surveillance, and program evaluation. The relevancy of potential projects to practical, operational issues was stressed throughout the meeting, and the unique global role played by the WHO STD program in encouraging and coordinating STD research and control efforts, as well as in working with donor agencies, were central themes of the meeting. The working group determined that it should prioritize research needs based upon selected factors, and consider how potential plans addressing such needs could be accomplished and funded. Program support, case management, behavior, epidemiology, and interventions were identified as broad areas of research need.
Sexually transmitted diseases research needs: report of a WHO consultative group, Copenhagen, 13-14 September 1989.
[Unpublished] 1991. Presented at the 1st International Course on Planning and Managing STD Control Activities in Developing Countries, Antwerp, Belgium, September 9-21, 1991. 31 p.In response to the growing needs for research into sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), the STD Program of the World Health Organization (WHO) in September 1989 convened a small interdisciplinary consultative group of scientists from both developing and more developed countries to review STD research priorities. The consultation was organized based upon the belief that a joint consideration of global STD research priorities and local research capabilities would increase overall research capacity by coordinating the efforts of scientists from around the world to get the job done. Participants considered the areas of biomedical research, clinical and epidemiological research, behavioral research, and operations research. However, research needs directly related to HIV were not considered except where they interfaced with research on other STDs. The above areas of research, as well as the expansion of interregional and interdisciplinary collaborations, the strengthening of research institutions, developing and strengthening research training, and facilitating technology transfer and the use of marketing systems are discussed.
[WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP). A summary] WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP). Eine zusammenfassende Darstellung.
GEBURTSHILFE UND FRAUENHEILKUNDE. 1991 Jan; 51(1):9-14.The WHO's Special Program of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP) has been involved in a global research and development program since 1972 in the are of human reproduction with special regard to the needs of developing countries. HRP set up a worldwide network of cooperating institutes and organized task forces for carrying out priority research objectives/assignments. The goals of HRP include reducing population growth in developing countries by improving health care and by increasing the availability of contraceptives. HRP training and research activities have encompassed workshops, seminars, and training courses. Research and development have been concerned with contraceptive prevalence and use; risks of contraceptives (carcinogenicity, cardiovascular effects, and subdermal implants' side effects); the development of new and safe methods (1-2 month depot preparations; and the levonorgestrel-releasing vaginal ring); and efficacy of contraceptive methods (lactation for birth spacing and natural family planning). A multicentric study in 25 countries has examined infertility caused by infections and sexually transmitted diseases. The extension of research capacity in developing countries was enabled by long-term institutional development grants, capital grants, labor cost financing, training of scientists, and improvement of management. The social and individual determinants of family planning aims at increasing contraceptive prevalence from 11% in Africa, 24% in Southeast Asia, and 43% in Latin America to the level of industrial countries 68%. The structure and management, goal setting and priorities, international cooperation, and finances of HRP are further detailed.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1991. 33 p. (UNFPA Report)The United Nations Population Fund recognizes the importance of paying attention to sociocultural factors in developing appropriate and effective population policies and strenthening the operational aspects of family planning programs. To that end, the Fund hosted a 2-day meeting of 22 experts in the field. The Expert Group Meeting on Research on Sociocultural Factors Affecting Family Planning Programmes in Developing Countries brought together an international and diverse group of social scientists and research specialists to discuss what is known in the field, what needs to be known, and what needs to be done to improve the effectiveness of family planning programs. Participants concurred on the universal relevance of sociocultural factors in population programs and that programs could be more effective if sociocultural considerations were more fully taken into account. Social and cultural setting influenced how the idea of population control could be broached with policy makers, how they affected resource deployment, and the working styles of involved institutions. Shortfalls in program performance therefore often reflect the failure to adequately consider local cultural and social settings. Greater program effectiveness could be had if such factors were recognized and program modifications made at the start of programs. A need was also expressed to broaden the scope and reach of population regulation efforts in all programs. This would involve extending program efforts beyond the target group of ever-married women who have reached their desired family size to reach adolescents and members of cultural minorities. Abstracts of major papers presented are included.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health, Technologies for Primary Health Care [PRITECH], 1991 Jun.  p. (Occasional Operations Papers; USAID Contract No. DPE-5969-Z-00-7064-00)The paper presents results from diarrheal disease control (CDD) activities in Kenya. A World Health Organization Diarrheal Diseases Household Case Management Survey of 23,884 children under 5 years of age indicates a high use of recommended fluids before and during episodes of diarrheal illness. ORT use was high, while ORS use and volume were low, with better diarrheal management practiced in Western Kenya. Children with diarrhea in districts with CDD communication program are more likely to receive proper care. For home treatment of diarrhea, the Kenyan Food and Fluids Panel recommends mothers to use uji, a locally available porridge, liberal quantities of plain water, fresh fruit juices, fermented milk, and coconut water; exclusive breastfeeding for the 1st 4 months of life; continued feeding of at least 5 times/day during diarrhea; and improved, targeted communication for behavior change especially among mothers of at-risk children. Additional research on food, feeding, communications, and marketing ORS was also recommended. Principal research findings of the survey are discussed in detail. Messages most effective in improving the management of diarrhea include emphasizing feeding during diarrhea, stressing the use of nutritional fluids, continued hesitation of ORS promotion until 1.2- liter packets become generally available through the health system, and emphasizing the rare need for drug therapy of diarrhea. Recognizing signs suggesting the need for health facility treatment should be reinforced.
Report of the Meeting on Research Priorities Relating to Women and HIV / AIDS, Geneva, 19-20 November 1990.
[Unpublished] 1991. 13 p. (GPA/DIR/91.2)A meeting of international experts was held to identify gaps in knowledge essential to design and implement AIDS prevention and control programs as they relate to women. Fundamental to successful research efforts are the need for increased access of women to training and participation in research, new consideration of the neglect of gender specificity in existing research, and the need for such research to contribute to the empowerment of women. Specific research needs in epidemiology, behavioral research, and social and economic aspects of HIV/AIDS were identified, ranked according to their potential for contributing to the prevention and control of AIDS, relevance for developing countries, and feasibility. 12 specific research questions are posed in the report, and cover issues such as the determinants of HIV transmission, contraceptive method impact, diagnosis and treatment of STDs in women, social and economic support, women's empowerment, and the risks of female health care provider HIV infection. Additionally, HIV infection natural history differences between men and women are compared, followed by consideration of psychosocial stress, monitoring, HIV and pregnancy, and research protocol development. Background, key issues, reports of the working groups, and recommendations are included in the report.
An agenda for action in sub-Saharan Africa. A collaborative initiative of the World Bank, UNFPA and IPPF.
INTEGRATION. 1991 Mar; (27):10-7.An Agenda for Action to Improve the Implementation of Population Programs in Sub-Saharan African in the 1990s is a joint project of the World Bank, the UN Population Fund, the IPPF, the WHO and the African Development Bank. The goals of the agenda are to build public consensus and commitment to population activities, to bring together beneficiaries, implementors and policy makers with these groups to improve population program implementation, to share country program experiences, to make African institutions responsible for ("Africanize") the Agenda, or ultimately to include demographic factors in development. 20 African countries are the focus of the Agenda, grouped by region and language. Major issues include socio-cultural and economic roadblocks, poor transportation infrastructure, lack of community participation, no alternatives to early marriage for women, poor political commitment by decision-making or health ministries. Family planning programs can be improved by better contraceptive technology, program design, and human and financial resources for implementing programs. The methods by which the Agenda proposes to reach its goals are to do literature searches of action strategies, in-depth country analyses, inter-country sharing of experiences, analysis of implementation capability based on case studies, and analysis of contraceptive technology assisted by WHO's Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction and the Population Council. The Agenda will be managed by a Population Advisor Committee, which is an African "think tank," and regional Country Group Task Forces, coordinated by the World Bank's Africa Technical Department.