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Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1990. 21 p. (Social Dimensions of Adjustment in Sub-Saharan Africa Working Paper No. 9)This paper starts with a look at the pattern of public expenditure in Africa during the adjustment decade, paying particular attention to the social sectors. It concludes that the poverty focus and the poverty reduction impact of public spending in Africa is very low. The reasons for this include a lack of funds for nonwage recurrent expenditures in core economic and social services, inadequate intrasectoral resource allocation from a poverty reduction point of view, and public expenditure management inefficiencies. Absolute levels of expenditure on essential services are low in Sub-Saharan Africa compared with richer countries. It is therefore concluded that increases in financial resources to support anti-poverty programs are needed in Africa. But raising the poverty focus of governmental expenditures also requires changes in the within sector and the functional composition of public spending, as well as improvements in the factors which hamper the effectiveness of program delivery. (author's)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1990. 49 p. (World Bank Discussion Papers No. 71)Little is known about the overall impact of adjustment programs on poverty. To a large extent, this is because it is difficult to distinguish the effects of externally induced recession from the effects of the policies and programs designed to offset them. Nevertheless, one clear lesson from experience has been that an orderly adjustment process designed to establish a new equilibrium growth path is indispensable for improving the longer-term position of the poor. Some adjustment measures can affect the poor adversely. This adverse impact may result from reductions in public expenditures, increases in prices of goods and services consumed by the poor, and declines in employment or real wages in sectors in which they work. Appropriate social and economic measures can help to reduce the adverse impact on the poor and create opportunities for stronger poverty reduction in the future. The most common way of addressing the adverse impact of adjustment has been the implementation of targeted compensatory programs. Such programs can compensate those affected directly by adjustment (for example laid-off public sector employees) or provide temporary employment of relief to the chronically poor. But these programs have often been too complex and have faced serious shortcomings such as insufficient political commitment, institutional weaknesses, shortages of funding and poorly trained staff. Greater attention should be given in the future to identifying the most appropriate interventions as well as to their design and implementation. Changes in the design of adjustment programs can promote the longer-run interests of the poor, but have received relatively little attention. Appropriate design changes can help to foster pro-poor growth by, for example, removing biases that favor capital-intensive production or other impediments to employment growth. They can also enable reallocations of public expenditures in ways that support, or improve the efficiency of, programs that help the poor to take advantage of the emerging economic opportunities (by developing skills or providing the necessary complementary infrastructure). Finally, appropriate design changes can help mitigate the possible adverse impact on the poor, for example, by targeting subsidies more effectively. Subsidies that have a large impact on the income of the poor (even if only a small proportion of the subsidy reaches them), should not be reduced or eliminated unless alternative means of reaching the poor are introduced. (author's)
Poverty may lessen by 2000, except in Africa - according to World Bank's 'World Development Report 1990' - Special Section - Future of the Global Economy: Challenges of the 90s. [La pobreza puede reducirse para el año 2000, salvo en África, de acuerdo con el Informe sobre Desarrollo Mundial de 1990 del Banco Mundial. Sección especial. El futuro de la economía global: desafíos de la década del 90.]
UN Chronicle. 1990 Sep; 27(3): p..Sub-Saharan Africa is the only region where poverty is not likely to decline by the year 2000, the World Bank says. While 400 million people elsewhere could rise from poverty by the beginning of the twenty-first century if the Bank's two-pronged strategy is adopted, high fertility rates in Africa would still make the number of the poor swell by nearly 100 million. The Bank's World Development Report 1990 states that family planning services are vital for poverty reduction, especially where a high population growth rate--such as the 3 to 4 per cent in sub-Saharan Africa-- depresses per capita income which results in low wages and growing poverty. The Report forecasts that some 265 million people, or 43.1 per cent of the population of Africa, south of the Sahara, would live in poverty in the year 2000. In 1985, the figure was 180 million (46.8 per cent). "By the end of the century, sub-Saharan Africa will account for more than 30 per cent of the developing world's poor, as against 16 per cent in 1685." (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1990 Sep; 27(3): p..All programmers of the United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF) and strategies in the 1990s will address explicitly the status of the girl child and her needs, particularly in nutrition, health and education, with a view to eliminating gender disparities. The recommendation was made by the UNICEF Executive Board at its 1990 regular session. Endorsing the priority focus given to the girl child, the Board also asked UNICEF to implement gender-sensitive monitoring and evaluation mechanisms to assess progress made in reducing disparities between girls and boys in health care and primary education programmes. The Board also requested UNICEF Executive Director James P. Grant to highlight the girl child in the annual report on women in development and to submit to the 1992 Board session and every second year thereafter, a full report on progress made on the situation of the girl child. (excerpt)
Female circumcision, AIDS discrimination to be monitored - Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women.
UN Chronicle. 1990 Jun; 27(2): p..The eradication of female circumcision and avoidance of discrimination against women victims of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were the subjects of two general recommendations adopted at the ninth annual session of States Parties to the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. The 100 States Parties were asked to report to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women-the 23-member body which monitors compliance with the instrument-on measures taken to eliminate female circumcision which, it stated, has "serious health and other consequences for women and children". (excerpt)
Poverty - World Bank's 'World Development Report - 1990' - Special Section - Future of the Global Economy: Challenges of the 90s.
UN Chronicle. 1990 Sep; 27(3): p..The World Bank has dedicated its thirteenth annual global development study to an exhaustive examination of the "poorest of the world's poor", analysing programmes which have successfully eliminated poverty. The 260-page analysis--World Development Report 1990--first measures poverty, qualitatively as well as quantitatively, and then draws lessons from the experience of countries which have successfully reduced poverty. The burden of poverty is spreading unevenly among countries, the Bank states. Nearly half of the world's poor live in South Asia, a region that accounts for roughly 30 per cent of the world's population. Sub-Saharan Africa has a smaller, but "still highly disproportionate, share of global poverty", the Report says. Within countries and regions, there are also disparate concentrations of poverty. The weight of poverty falls most heavily on women and children. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1990 Jun; 27(2): p..Dedicated to the advancement of women, a 15-foot tall marble statue Woman Free" stands high above a reflecting pool and a lovely rose garden at the UN Centre in Vienna. The work, created by British sculptor Edwina Sandys, started as a simple doodle on a paper napkin in the Russian Tea Room in New York City. "My inspiration usually comes from a deep well inside me", she says. The slim, attractive artist is the granddaughter of the late Prime Minister of Great Britain Winston Churchill. She is the eldest child of Diana Churchill and Lord Duncan Sandys, a former British cabinet minister. Among her internationally recognized works is one entitled "Child", created in commemoration of the International Year of the Child in 1979, and now on permanent display in front of the UN International School in Manhattan. Others include "Generations" and "Family", respectively ensconced at the UN Vienna Centre and at UN headquarters in Geneva. Ms. Sandys almost single handedly raised the money for the "Woman Free" statue by creating a gold pendant, an exact replica of the sculpture, and selling it to interested donors. (excerpt)
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights now also speaks to children - children's book. [La Declaración Universal de Derechos Humanos ahora al alcance de los niños en un libro infantil]
UN Chronicle. 1990 Jun; 27(2): p..The historic document, celebrated as a major UN achievement, was adopted by the UN General Assembly on 10 December 1948. It declares that all human beings "are born free and equal in dignity and rights" and goes on to specify in its 30 articles specific areas of freedom. In December 1989, the Assembly went on to adopt a 54-article Convention on the Rights of the Child. Mr. Roth has worked long and hard to help spread the message of the Declaration around the world. First inspired to work on the document when he was an art student in London in 1977, it took him two years to complete a set of 60 x 80 centimetre prints, derived from woodcuts which the artist carved in reverse images on wooden blocks. The linocut prints of these works, embossed on handmade paper, were purchased by the United Nations and subsequently exhibited in the UN Headquarters lobby in New York beginning in December 1982. Additional sets were acquired for both the UN Centre in Vienna and Geneva Headquarters. (excerpt)
Equality for women highlighted at Economic and Social Council; ninety-nine texts adopted on a wide spectrum of issues - includes details of Council action.
UN Chronicle. 1990 Sep; 27(3): p..A wide range of texts aimed at promoting women's rights throughout the world was adopted by the Economic and Social Council at its first regular session of 1990, held from 1 to 25 May in New York. Prominent among them was a set of recommendations and conclusions resulting from a recent UN evaluation, five years after the adoption of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women at the World Conference held in Kenya in 1985. Its general conclusion: progress in achieving equality for women had either slowed down or stopped. Declaring that "immediate steps should be taken to remove the most serious obstacles" to the Strategies and that the pace of its implementation should be improved in the crucial last decade of the twentieth century, the Council unanimously adopted resolution 1990/15 setting out recommendations and conclusions. (excerpt)
Debt: an issue of responsibility - Special section - Future of the global economy: challenges of the 90s. [La deuda: una cuestión de responsabilidad. Sección especial. El futuro de la economía global: desafíos de la década del 90.]
UN Chronicle. 1990 Sep; 27(3): p..In August 1982, the Mexican Government made a dramatic announcement: the country did not have enough money to make its next foreign debt payment. News of an imminent default by that nation rocked Wall Street. With the United States banking system threatened, Washington hastily arranged a bail-out for Mexico. But the problem refused to go away; Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Peru and 12 other big debtors all hovered on the brink. The "debt crisis" had been born. But the crisis had not started in Mexico City on that sweltering summer weekend; its roots were global and could be traced back to the 1970s. Then eager to grow fast and goaded by commercial banks on Wall Street and other developed money meccas, a number of developing nations, mostly in Latin America and the Caribbean, started to borrow heavily abroad. (excerpt)
How the world sees the 1980s - excerpts from General Assembly Declaration - Special section - future of the global economy: challenges of the 90s.
UN Chronicle. 1990 Sep; 27(3): p..Reaching a common view of the 1980s that all countries could live with was as crucial as the formulation of possible remedial action in the 1990s, it was generally felt. The following are excerpts from the Declaration which resulted from this process: In the 1980s, progress in developed and developing countries has been uneven. The decade was marked by an increasing gap between those groups of countries, as well as by relatively slow growth and large global financial and trade imbalances. Developed market-oriented countries have succeeded to a large extent in controlling inflation and in maintaining sustained, though modest, growth. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1990 Mar; 27(1): p..The Year will highlight global awareness of family issues and the improvement of national mechanisms directed at tackling serious family-related problems. Also on 8 December, the Assembly commemorated (44/57) the 20th anniversary of the proclamation in 1969 of the Declaration on Social Progress and Development. The Assembly asked (44/70) for increased international co-operation to implement the World Programme of Action for the UN Decade of Disabled Persons 1983-1992. Margaret J. Anstee, Director-General of the UN Office at Vienna, warned that by the end of the century, the number of disabled people would have risen to 30 to 40 per cent of the population of some countries. (excerpt)
Women: a UN priority; world conference may be held in 1995 - includes related information on women's role in development.
UN Chronicle. 1990 Mar; 27(1): p..The first UN world conference on women was held in Mexico City in 1975, the second in Copenhagen in 1980, and the third in Nairobi in 1985. Adopted in Kenya at the end of the UN Decade for Women (1976-1985), the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women set goals to the year 2000 in such areas as literacy, health, population, and environment. Economic policies would be more effective and sensitive to human needs", Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar told the Assembly, if women were involved. The advancement of women is not "an impossible dream" dreamt by women, stated Margaret Anstee, Director- General of the United Nations Office at Vienna, "but a component in the enhancement of life for all". She introduced on 18 October issues related to women to the Assembly's Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural). (excerpt)
Human Rights Commission: effects of irregular armed forces, drug traffickers, child abuse, protection of minorities - United Nations Commission on Human Rights.
UN Chronicle. 1990 Jun; 27(2): p..The Commission on Human Rights, at its forty-sixth session, covered a wide range of topics, including the consequences of actions by irregular armed forces and drug traffickers, child abuse, the rights of victims of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and the protection of rights of many minorities, including indigenous populations and migrant workers. It also reviewed specific human rights situations in 14 countries and territories, including reports on initial missions to Iran and Romania by Special Representatives. UN Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar was asked to report in 1991 on the results of his ongoing contacts with Cuba regarding the human rights situation there. The 43 member body also dealt with alleged human rights violations in southern Africa, the Middle East and other regions. No action was taken on proposed drafts related to China and Iraq. A report on the situation in Myamnar (formerly Burma) was received. (excerpt)
Target: 30 percent of leadership positions to women by 1995 - United Nations Commission on the Status of Women.
UN Chronicle. 1990 Jun; 27(2): p..A target of 30 per cent of leadership positions to be held by women by 1995 in Governments, political parties, trade unions, professional and other representative groups was recommended by the Commission on the Status of Women at its 34th session. On average, only 3.5 per cent of national ministerial posts were held by women in 1987, according to a UN study. The recommendation was among 22 texts adopted by the body, many of them aimed at accelerating the implementation of the 1985 Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women. Thirteen drafts recommended action by the Commission's parent body, the UN Economic and Social Council. (excerpt)
Closing the gender gap: literacy for women and girls - includes related information on UNESCO in Nepal and Burkina Faso. [Combler le fossé entre les sexes : l'alphabétisation des femmes et des filles - sont également fournies des informations sur l'UNESCO au Népal et au Burkina Faso]
UN Chronicle. 1990 Mar; 27(1): p..Thirty-three-year-old Binta Badji felt an urgent "need" to learn to read and write after being unable to take notes or read class handouts during a three-day training course for village women on food processing. This motivated the Senegalese mother of two to join 60 other women in a literacy class. They were taught how to read and write in their native languages and to do simple arithmetic. Sajjeda Begum is one of the few female administrators of a ration shop in the Dakshinpuri section of New Delhi. The 49-year-old mother of five, whose husband is unemployed due to ill health, was functionally illiterate until the age of 35 when she enrolled in a yearlong literacy course which also taught her basic accounting. Not only was she able to obtain her present job, she and other newly-literate friends became social activists, lobbying for clean drinking water, sanitation, drainage, hygiene and garbage collection in their working-class suburb. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1990 Dec; 27(4): p..The World Summit for Children, held on 29 and 30 September in New York, provided a historic forum for discarding myths about development and proposing new ideas for redressing the story plight of children worldwide. Seventy-one Heads of State and Government--the largest such gathering ever--assembled at UN Headquarters to throw their country's weight and commitment behind this remarkable effort to save the lives of at least third of the 14 million children under the age of five who die each year. The Summit, proposed last year by six leaders--Prime Minister Brian Mulroney of Canada, President Mohammed Hosni Mubarak of Egypt, President Moussa Traore of Mali, President Carlos Salinas de Gortari of Mexico, then prime Minister Benazir Bhutto of Pakistan and Prime Minister Ingvar Carlsson of Sweden--desired "to bring attention and promote commitment, at the highest political level, to goals and strategies for ensuring the survival, protection and development of children as key elements in the socio-economic development of all countries and human society". (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1990 Dec; 27(4): p..A new Programme of Action aimed at advancing the world's poorest countries offers a "menu approach" for donors to increase their official aid to the least developed countries (LDCs), stressing bilateral assistance in the form of grants or highly concessional loans and calling on donors to help reduce LDC debt. The Programme was adopted by consensus at the conclusion of the Second United Nations Conference on the LDCs (Paris, 3- 14 September). The UN recognizes more than 40 developing countries as "least developed". Although individual nation's indicators vary, in general LDCs have a per capita gross domestic product (GDP) of approximately $200 a year, a low life expectancy, literacy rates under 20 per cent and a low contribution of manufacturing industries to GDP. Reflecting the emergence during the 1980s of new priorities in development strategy, the Programme of Action for the LDCs for the 1990s differs from the Action Programme adopted at the first UN Conference on LDCs held in 1981 in Paris. The new Programme emphasizes respect for human rights, the need for democratization and privatization, the potential role of women in development and the new regard for population policy as a fundamental factor in promoting development. Greater recognition of the role of non-governmental organizations in LDC development is also emphasized. (excerpt)
Pediatric AIDS now considered a global threat; millions expected to become orphans - World Health Organization projections.
UN Chronicle. 1990 Dec; 27(4): p..Alarming projections by the World Health Organization (WHO) show that the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) will become the number of killer of children in sub -Saharan Africa during the 1990s, making pediatric AIDS a major global threat. By the end of 1992 alone, almost a million infants born there will be infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). While this region of Africa will be hardest-hit, AIDS will also become a global pediatric killer elsewhere, based on the fast spread of HIV among heterosexuals in Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean and the United States. Based on a recent WHO study of the AIDS pandemic, it is estimated that by the year 2000, 10 million infants and children globally will have been infected with HIV and most will have died at AIDS. Equally chilling is the WHO forecast of an additional 10 million uninfected children under the age of 10 who will be orphaned by the end of this decade due to the health of their parents from AIDS. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1990 Dec; 27(4): p..An estimated 8 to 10 million people globally will contract the human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) that causes the acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the next 10 years, a new study by the World Health Organization (WHO) predicts. That figure marks a significant and alarming rise of 2 million more people than WHO's projections last year. Equally dramatic are statistics showing that HIV is spreading fast among women and children in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. An estimated 3 million women will develop AIDS in the 1990s and at least 80 per cent are in sub-Saharan Africa, WHO suggested. By the end of 1992, there will be 1 million HIV-infected children born to these women. AIDS will become the leading cause of death of women aged 20 to 40 in some cities of central Africa. "It's obvious that HIV infection is continuing to spread very rapidly in parts of the world like central Africa, where AIDS is having a devastating impact on individual countries", said Dr. Michael H. Merson, Director of WHO's Global Programme on AIDS (GPA), in a recent interview. (excerpt)
Human Rights Quarterly. 1990 Feb; 12(1):97-105.When famine spreads, children die first. Diarrhoea is the worst killer in spite of available knowledge and means to control it. In poorer nations, some twelve million children die every year because they do not have vaccines or sufficient food. They are deprived of the most fundamental of all human rights-- the right to live. "It is our children who pay the heaviest price for our shortsighted economic policies, our political blunders, our wars." So said Eglantyne Jebb, the British pioneer for children's rights some seventy years ago when starting her campaign for better protection of the world's children. Her voice was heard. She was arrested for obscenity when she displayed pictures of starving children damaged by the war in other parts of Europe. But people rallied to her support and the Save the Children movement was formed. This new international movement drafted the Declaration of Geneva, adopted by the Assembly of the League of Nations in 1924. The first step had been taken towards international norms for the protection of children. The Declaration contained five principles which were general but to the point. One was that children should be the first to receive relief in emergencies. From then on, "children first" became a fundamental point in the struggle for the rights of the child. (excerpt)
Acute respiratory infections in children: case management in small hospitals in developing countries. A manual for doctors and other senior health workers.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Programme for the Control of Acute Respiratory Infections, 1990.  p. (WHO/ARI/90.5)Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are one of the commonest causes of death in children in developing countries. They are responsible for four of the estimated 15 million deaths that occur in children under 5 years of age each year; two-thirds of these deaths are in infants (especially young infants). Lung puncture studies in developing countries indicate that most cases of severe pneumonia in children are caused by bacteria, usually Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae. This contrasts with the situation in developed countries, where the great majority are due to viruses. (excerpt)
Towards putting farmers in control: a second case study of the rural communication system for development in Mexico's tropical wetlands. [Agricultores a las riendas: un segundo estudio de casos del sistema de comunicación rural para el desarrollo en los pantanos tropicales mexicanos]
Rome, Italy, FAO, 1990. v, 58 p. (Development Communication Case Study No. 9)This is the second Case Study of the Rural Communication System for Development in Mexico's Tropical Wetlands. The first was written in late 1985 and published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in early 1987. The important changes that have taken place in Mexico since 1985, in particular as they relate to development in the tropical wetlands and the communication system working in that context, now warrant a second Case Study. To set the present Case Study in its proper context, it should, ideally, be read in conjunction with the earlier one, but since this may not be possible for all readers, the salient information provided in the earlier study will be given in the Background section, below. The first part of this Study will set the scene and describe the approach and the work being carried out, while the last section will attempt to examine the situation from various perspectives and offer some views regarding its future prospects. It should be noted, however, that this Study is not an evaluation. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1990. xv, 57 p. (World Bank Discussion Papers No. 103)This paper proposes a series of operational guidelines on how to provide agricultural extension services in a cost-effective way to women farmers. All small-scale farmers, regardless of gender, face constraints, but the focus here is on women farmers in order to foster a better understanding of the particular gender-related barriers confronting women and the strategies needed to overcome them. Attention is concentrated on Sub-Saharan Africa in view of the crucial role of women in agriculture throughout the sub-continent. Worldwide operational guidelines for agricultural extension for women farmers are planned for later this year. The recommendations have been gleaned from the experiences of African governments, the World Bank and other donors, and researchers. Ongoing pilot programs have provided useful guidance about what can work to integrate women fully into the agricultural extension system and what problems are likely to emerge in different socioeconomic environments. This is, however, an ongoing process: it is a relatively new field and much remains to be learned. It will be especially important to test alternative approaches over the next few years. This paper will then be revised to incorporate new lessons of experience. This paper is organized as follows: Chapter 1 addresses the question of why women need help -- the role women have in agriculture, especially in Africa, and the particular constraints they face in terms of access to resources and information. Chapter 2 examines the information needed to modify extension systems to better reach women farmers, to modify the focus of research to address women's activities and constraints, and to monitor and evaluate programs. Ways to collect such data are also suggested. Chapter 3 deals with the transmission of the extension message to women farmers -- the role of the extension agents and the importance of gender, the use of home economists and subject matter specialists, and the use of contact farmers and groups. The final Chapter examines the formulation of the message to be delivered, and the linkage between extension and agricultural research and technology. (excerpt)
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, .  p.This paper highlights data on social issues taken from a larger group of studies compiled by the Global Programme on AIDS. The studies summarized in the following six tables concern AIDS- related knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and practice. Categories include: 1) Prostitution, 2) Homosexual, Bisexual Men, 3) Drug Users, 4) Students and Youth, 5) Health Care Workers, Medical Students, and 6) The General Public.