Your search found 359 Results
Structural adjustment in sub-Saharan Africa. Report on a series of five senior policy seminars held in Africa, 1987-88.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1989.  p. (EDI Policy Seminar Report No. 18)In June 1986, the National Economic Management Division of the World Bank's Economic Development Institute (EDI) designed a series of senior policy seminars on structural adjustment for Sub-Saharan Africa. The exercise led to three seminars in 1987: Lusaka I, Lusaka 11, and Abidjan I, and, after redesign, two more in 1988: Victoria Falls and Abidjan 11. Seminar participants were invited in teams typically composed of ministers, governors, permanent secretaries, senior advisors, and a significant number of senior technical staff of central banks, the core ministries of finance and planning, and spending ministries such as agriculture and industry. Twenty seven countries participated in the seminars. Of these, six participated in two separate seminars (see annex A). This report is a synthesized record of the five seminars and is likely to be of interest to all those interested in the reform process in Sub-Saharan Africa, namely, the seminar participants, other similarly placed policymakers, advisors to these policymakers, executives of the public and private sectors, staff of academic institutions, and the staff of international organizations such as the World Bank (the Bank) and the International Monetary Fund (the Fund) involved in studying the political economy of structural adjustment. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1989 Sep; 26(3): p..The Committee--a group of expert economic advisers to the United Nations serving in their personal capacity-- said that in the 1990s, development efforts in the developing world ought to focus on four interrelated areas-- acceleration of economic growth, human resources development, reduction in the number of people suffering from absolute poverty, and controlling the deterioration of the physical environment. Industrialized countries should place greater emphasis on economic expansion to accelerate world-wide economic growth in the 1990s, the Committee stated. Those countries should also reduce tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade, and ensure the developing world access to their markets. The United States must eliminate its massive trade deficit; it must also absorb a significant proportion of the savings of the rest of the world. (excerpt)
Practical steps to implement shelter strategy taken by Human Settlements Commission - Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000.
UN Chronicle. 1989 Sep; 26(3): p..The first practical steps to implement the Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000, the United Nations blueprint to help solve the alarming world-wide housing crisis, were taken at the twelfth session of the Commission on Human Settlements. Some 350 delegates from 85 countries, meeting in the Colombian seaside town of Cartagena de Indias, agreed on ways to promote and monitor the Strategy, which aims to improve the deteriorating shelter situation throughout the world by the end of this century. Unanimously adopted by the General Assembly on 20 December 1988, the document strongly advocates a wide-ranging social mobilization, rather than exclusive Government intervention, to solve the global housing crisis. It focuses on the disadvantaged and the poor, and stresses the full participation of women. (excerpt)
Commission on Status of Women examines Nairobi strategies - Nairobi World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women.
UN Chronicle. 1989 Sep; 26(3): p..With a widespread sense that something dramatic must be done to revive a flagging campaign for women's advancement, the Commission on the Status of Women ended its thirty-third session in Vienna on 7 April. At the opening of the eight-day meeting, on 29 March, Margaret J. Anstee, Director-General of the UN Office at Vienna, asked the body to "sound an alarm". Increasing evidence, she said, indicated that advances towards women's economic and political rights were now slowing or had actually stopped. Unless something was done, the achievement of the goal of equality by the end of the century--only 11 years away--was at risk. That goal was set in the adoption in 1985 of the "Forward-Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women to the Year 2000" by the Nairobi World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1989 Sep; 26(3): p..Children are paying the third world debt with their lives: that is the alarming news carried in the hard-hitting 1989 "State of the World's Children", issued, symbolically, for the first time in a third world capital--New Delhi, India. More than war, flood or famine, the ravages of poverty have caused at least half a million children to die over the last 12 months, as families in developing countries slide back into poverty as a result of these nations' crushing external debt. Two thirds of these deaths have been in Africa, the rest in Latin America, where higher average incomes mask "the grossest inequalities of any continent", UNICEF reports. (excerpt)
Self-reliance of developing countries is UNDP goal for 1990s - United Nations Development Programme.
UN Chronicle. 1989 Sep; 26(3): p..In the 1990s, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) will use its technical aid to continue to build self-reliance in developing nations. Although the Programme will still respond to priorities set by recipient countries, it plans to target action on developing human resources, health, education, and agricultural and rural development. Concluding a year-long overhaul of its goals and policies, the UNDP Governing Council at a high-level 1989 session (New York, 5-30 June) debated its approach to its work in the last decade of the 20th century. The 48-member Council stressed the theme "national capacity-building for self-reliance." It hoped to take on the role of a "facilitator" rather than initiator, urging recipients to take the lead in promoting their own development. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1989 Sep; 26(3): p..Promoting a better and healthier life for children, after ensuring their survival, will increasingly occupy the agenda of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) in the 1990s. The pursuit of primary health care systems, safe motherhood activities, birth spacing, better water supply and sanitation, and basic education, particularly for women and girls, will be UNICEF priorities through the end of the century. At its 1989 session the UNICEF Executive Board asked the Fund to formulate a global strategy through the last decade of the century to promote the well-being of children. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1989 Sep; 26(3): p..Pedro never wanted to be a shoeshine boy. He dreamt of becoming a doctor, but his family did not have enough money to feed him, let alone educate him. He left school at the age of eight to work on the street and soon ended up living there. Now 12, Pedro shines shoes in the daytime and sleeps in a park with other street kids at night. He does not think about becoming a doctor anymore; he concentrates on survival. Pedro is not alone. Although no firm statistics are available, the 1989 UNICEF annual report estimates that as many as 100 million children live on the streets of the world's big cities. Their number has risen dramatically in the past decade, as the world recession, the debt crisis, and civil strife in Latin America, Africa and Asia, pushed many rural families into already crowded urban slums throughout the third world. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1989 Jun; 26(2): p..The proposed blueprint for UNDP in the 1990s will be hammered out in a series of informal meetings between March and May, when it is expected to be made public. The go-ahead was given by UNDP's Governing Council at a special three-day session in New York, in February. The high-level plenary will be part of the Council's 36th regular session, scheduled from 5 to 30 June. With some 5,000 projects worth about $7.5 billion in more than 150 developing countries and territories, UNDP is the United Nations main development aid operation. It is also the world's largest multilateral channel for technical and pre-investment assistance. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1989 Jun; 26(2): p..The UN Population Fund has launched major initiatives to aid sub-Saharan Africa and women, its Executive Director, Dr. Nafis Sadik, told the Population Commission on 21 February. In 1987, the Fund devised a Comprehensive aid strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa, the region of the world with the fastest growing population, highest fertility and mortality rates, and the greatest need for population assistance. Awareness of the implications of population growth and movement has increased dramatically among leaders of African countries over the past five years, she said. The Fund has also strengthened its capacity to deal with issues concerning women, population and development. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] . Presented at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the African Studies Association, Atlanta, Georgia.  p.HIV infection with clinical progression to AIDS appears to be among the most severe human infectious diseases documented to date. As of 1st September 1989, the cumulative total of cases of AIDS reported from 152 countries was 177,965 cases of which 30,978 (17.4%) have been reported from Africa. However, it is known that the reporting of AIDS cases from Africa is incomplete and the proportion may be higher. The AIDS situation has been recognized as a global emergency and the World Health Organization has been given the mandate to coordinate global efforts to prevent the infection and control the disease. The World Health Assembly and the United Nations General Assembly have called upon all countries to establish national AIDS prevention and control programmes in line with the Global Strategy. The WHO has developed several guidelines and strategies to assist the development of national AIDS prevention and control programmes. The Global AIDS Strategy has three objectives: (1) to prevent transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); (2) to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection; and (3) to unify national and international efforts against AIDS. (excerpt)
[Child mortality: How long will it take to reach 30 deaths per 1000 births?] Mortalidad infantil. Hasta cuándo se llegará a las treinta defunciones por mil?
DemoS. 1989; (2):14.In 1989, the Mexican government, through the Secretariat of Health, signed an agreement with representatives of international organizations (PAHO, WHO, and UNICEF) with the central objective of dealing with the mortality of children under five through regional strategies for reducing the mortality rate of children under one to a level no greater than 30 deaths per thousand births by the year 2000. (excerpt)
AIDS and Society. 1989 Oct; 1(1):5-6.Gerald Desmond, Secretary of the United Nations Standing Committee on AIDS, was interviewed in New York by Richard Rockwell, Associate Editor of the Bulletin. (excerpt)
Female circumcision: strategies to bring about change. Proceedings of the International Seminar on Female Circumcision, 13-16 June 1988, Mogadisho, Somalia.
Rome, Italy, AIDOS, 1989. VIII, 148,  p.This book contains the proceedings of the 1988 International Seminar on Female Circumcision in Somalia. The first part relays the introductory addresses presented by the Assistant Secretary General of the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party, the Somali Minister of Health, the Italian Ambassador to Somalia, the World Health Organization's resident representative in Somalia, and the President of the Somali Women's Democratic Organization. Part 2 offers five reports on efforts towards international cooperation to eliminate female genital mutilation undertaken by North/South women's organizations, the Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children, the Foundation for Women's Health Research and Development, and the World Health Organization. Part 3 includes three reports on religious and legal aspects of female genital mutilation, and part 4 presents reports of eradication efforts ongoing in Egypt, Nigeria, the Gambia, and Sudan. The fifth part of the volume is devoted to six reports on aspects of the practice of female genital mutilation in Somalia as well as eradication efforts that involve an information campaign and training. Part 6 reprints the reports of the working groups on health, the law, training and information, and religion, and the final part covers the final resolutions and closing addresses by a UN Children's Fund representative, a representative of the UN Commission for Human Rights, and the Assistant Secretary General of the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party. The Inter-African Committee's Plan of Action for the Eradication of Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children in Africa, approved by the seminar, is contained in the first appendix, and a list of seminar participants is attached in the second.
Consensus statement from the First International Meeting of AIDS Service Organizations, Vienna, 28 February - 3 March 1989.
[Unpublished] 1989. 7 p. (WHO/GPA/INF/89.9)The first international meeting of AIDS service organizations (ASOs) was convened in Vienna by the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Program on AIDS (GPA) from February 28 to March 3, 1989. The meeting was jointly organized by GPA, the WHO Regional Office for Europe, and the members of participating ASOs. 53 representatives of 49 ASOs in 25 countries attended the meeting. The meeting had the following objectives: to identify and define problems faced by ASOs in the areas of strategic planning, organizational structure, communications, and networking; to exchange experiences in these areas; to provide technical information in these areas; and to identify steps for improving coordination between WHO and ASOs. The consensus statement development during the meeting is presented in sections on ASOs, areas of common interest and objectives, major problems facing ASOs, and future cooperation between ASOs and WHO. A list of participants is included.
[Unpublished] 1989 Apr. , 22 p. (GPA/GMC(1)/89.5)The financial status as of March 31, 1989, of the Trust Fund for the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Program on AIDS is presented. Financial resources and expenditures as of that date are described. An overview of resources is presented, followed by sections on resources for unspecified global activities, specified global activities, and activities in specified countries. Expenditures are presented in the following sections: WHO Trust Fund for the Global Program on AIDS, Global Program on AIDS 1988-89 budget, and expenditures in support of national AIDS programs. Staffing status is explained in the following subsections: definitions and procedures, established posts, filled posts, characteristics of professional staff, consultants and short-term professionals, and new procedures for staff selection.
[Unpublished] 1989 Sep. 16 p.Activities directed toward African women began as early as 1972 in the UN Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), resulting in the 1975 establishment of the African Training and Research Center for Women (ATRCW). The ATRCW is the regional Women in Development structure in the UN system in Africa, located within the Cabinet Office of the Executive Secretary of the ECA. The long-term objectives of the center are to help ECA member states improve the socioeconomic conditions of African women and enhance their contribution to development, and to ensure that gender issues are taken into account in national development plans and in regional strategies so that women can fully participate in African regional development. To achieve its goals, ATRCW provides ideas, strategies, and advisory services to member states in the formulation of appropriate policies and programs; coordinates institutions, agencies, and structures concerned with the advancement of African women; and distributes data and information in the exchange of field experiences. ATRCW offers a host of services to member states. The center's institutional framework and work program are described, along with the integration of women's programs in the activities of other ECA divisions. As part of its work program, ATRCW has established a reference unit which functions as a clearing house on women's activities in Africa and as a reference unit for ECA and the center's professional staff and researchers on women and development in Africa.
International Conference on Indo-Chinese Refugees. Declaration and Comprehensive Plan of Action [14 June 1989, draft].
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF REFUGEE LAW. 1989; 1(4):574-81.The International Conference on Indo-Chinese Refugees, held in Geneva in June of 1989, adopted a declaration and comprehensive plan of action. The plan of action calls for efforts to deter clandestine departures in favor of regular departure programs, particularly from Viet Nam. Measures are identified to give people the opportunity to seek asylum and refugee status. The continued resettlement of Vietnamese refugees benefiting from temporary refuge in Southeast Asia is addressed through a "Long-Stayers Resettlement Programme" and a "Resettlement Programme for Newly-Determined Refugees." Procedures are also outlined for the repatriation of persons who are found not to be refugees. The plan of action also indicates the intention of the international community to devise ways to deal with refugees from Laos. Implementation of this plan of action is regarded as a dynamic process requiring continued coordination and possible adaptation to changing situations. Therefore, a Steering Committee will be established under the UN High Commissioner for Refugees to implement the plan of action.
[Unpublished] 1989 Oct 26. 11 p. (UNFPA/CM/89/107; UNFPA/CD/89/103; UNFPA/RR/89/103)In October 1989, UNFPA distributed its Policy Guidelines on UNFPA Support for Population and Environment to its representatives, country directors, and headquarters staff. UNFPA cooperates with other UN agencies on population and environment issues, e.g., UNEP, UNDP, UNICEF, World Food Programme, and International Fund for Agricultural Development. UNFPA assistance in the area of population and environment should be limited to research and analysis, e.g., country case studies; information, education, and communication (IEC) projects that create awareness and that sensitize people to the interrelatedness of population and the environment; policy formulation and planning; and training. UNFPA should seek to provide assistance through interagency cooperation and joint programming projects. UNFPA prefers providing assistance to action-oriented research which examines ways population variables interact with environmental variables in developed and developing countries and improves population/environment linkages at the local level. It favors country case studies because they allow us to study linkages in various settings of hugh differences in natural resources and economic prosperity, political constraints, and different stages of environmental degradation. UNFPA recognizes the need for data collection and analyses at the regional and global levels. To increase awareness and sensitization, UNFPA plans to fund seminars or workshops for parliamentarians, policymakers, planners, representatives of nongovernmental organizations, research and technical institutes, and other relevant people at the global, regional, national, or subnational level. These seminars or workshops should aim for development of proposals for practical action-oriented interventions.
Report of the National Seminar on Environment and Sustainable Development, Aden, 25-27 February 1989.
[Unpublished] 1989. iv, 131 p.The 1989 final report on the environment and sustainable development includes a summary of events an a summary of types of participants in attendance. The purpose of the seminar was to provide senior national experts, policy makers, planners, and executives (in conjunction with UN representatives) with a forum for examination of issues and to propose recommendations and solutions. The level of awareness must be raised among officials and the public. Policy instruments and action must be identified in order to contribute to sustainable growth and the alleviation of poverty. The principle components of a national environmental strategy were to be outlined. The National Council for Environmental Protection needed to be reactivated. After the opening statements, the topics included in this presentation were the organization and agenda for 5 working groups, development projects and environmental considerations, environmental legislation and institutions, marine and coastal areas environment and resources, environmental awareness and education and human resources, policies and future trends, the seminar declaration and recommendations, and closing statements. The full text is provided for the opening statements, the closing statements, and the background papers. Lists of additional background papers and the seminar steering committee members are also given. The seminar declaration referred to the interlocking crises of development, environment, and energy. Population growth threatens world survival, particularly in the poorest countries. Expected economic growth will further deplete environmental resources and contribute to pollution. The world is bound together by these concerns. International debt forces poor countries to overexploit resources and destroy their production base. Developing countries are still in economic disarray. Economic reform hasn't worked for poor countries, and the resource gap is widening between countries. The answer is sustainable development, which is based on an equitable and rational exploitation of natural resources. International cooperation and peace must be strengthened dialogue and understanding and support for the UN.
Ann Arbor, Michigan, University of Michigan, Dept. of Population Planning and International Health, . xxxiii, 134 p.In August 1989, scientists and leaders of international and national groups met at the international symposium for the Survival of Mankind in Tokyo, Japan, to discuss ideas about the interrelationship between population, environment, and development and obstacles to attaining sustainable development. The President of the Worldwatch Institute opened the symposium with a talk about energy, food, and population. Of fossil fuels, nuclear power, and solar energy, only the clean and efficient solar energy can provide sustainable development. Humanity has extended arable lands and irrigation causing soil erosion, reduced water tables, produced water shortages, and increased salivation. Thus agricultural advances since the 1950s cannot continue to raise crop yields. He also emphasized the need to halt population growth. He suggested Japan provide more international assistance for sustainable development. This talk stimulated a lively debate. The 2nd session addressed the question whether the planet can support 5. 2 billion people (1989 population). The Executive Director of UNFPA informed the audience that research shows that various factors are needed for a successful population program: political will, a national plan, a prudent assessment of the sociocultural context, support from government agencies, community participation, and improvement of women's status. Other topics discussed during this session were urbanization, deforestation, and international environmental regulation. The 3rd session covered various ways leading to North-South cooperation. A Chinese participant suggested the establishment of an international environmental protection fund which would assist developing countries with their transition to sustainable development and to develop clean energy technologies and environmental restoration. Another participant proposed formation of a North-South Center in Japan. The 4th session centered around means to balance population needs, environmental protection, and socioeconomic development.
Latin American and Caribbean Region health care financing activities, 1982-1988. An annotated compilation. Draft.
[Unpublished] 1989 Mar. , 87 p. (USAID Contract No. DPE-5927-C-00-5068-00)The Resources for Child Health Project (REACH) presents an overview of health care financing (HCF) activities in the Latin American and Caribbean regions for the period 1982-88. REACH is compiling regional health care financing initiatives, preparing detailed case studies of USAID health financing experiences in 3 countries, and developing a set of general guidelines to be used by health officers to identify opportunities for HCF activities. A draft version of the first of these components is presented and includes an updated annotated list of health finance activities, studies, and projects conducted in the region since 1982. The USAID approach to HCF as put forth in policy statements and other official documents is summarized; World Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, and Pan American Health Organization viewpoints are reviewed as well as social security issues and their relationships to HCF; and country overviews are provided under Caribbean, Central America, South America, and North America subheadings. Brief overviews of HCF activities for each country are given followed by summaries of individual activities funded by USAID and other organizations. Summaries indicate whether activities are public or private sector, main areas of emphasis, and describe content. Activity costs are also given for USAID-funded initiatives.
New York, New York, UNFPA, . ix, 78 p.The UN Population Fund, in cooperation with the Government of Ecuador, initiated a programme Review and Strategy Development (PRSD) exercise in July-August 1989. The results are presented in sections such as national population policy, institutional structure, environment, women, research and training, education, communication, health nongovernmental organizations, and outside technical cooperation, each shown in the format issue, objective(s), and strategy. The Ecuadoran government views the growth rate of 2.8% as manageable, and has a qualitative population policy stated as political goals, with an addendum that addresses a few issues such as women in development. Adequate quantitative and focused data on population and development are lacking. Similarly, national, public, and private institutions are not coordinated and would benefit by regular meetings and information networks. Systematic integration of population and development must begin with policy formulation, planning, and research on rural and urban growth and migration. Health services, now emphasizing individual curative care, must be targeted to women, adolescents, and children, by integrating comprehensive family planning and primary health care. Poor performance of prior maternal-child health/family planning programs must be improved. Suggested strategies include building institutions, improving the information system, dispelling myths about contraceptive methods, informing people about the relationship between family planning and health, and broadening population education. There is potential for population education in literacy and informal education programs for workers and women, and there is a need for enlightenment of journalists and media communicators about population and migration issues. Efforts for improvement of women's lives are nonfocused and fragmented: information on these projects must be systematized, and a policy on women should be consolidated.
Global Blood Safety Initiative. Minimum targets for blood transfusion services. Geneva, 20-22 March 1989.
[Unpublished] 1989. 4 p. (WHO/GPA/INF/89.14; WHO/LAB/89.5)The World Health Organization's minimum targets for blood transfusion services are multiple and may be implemented at different levels of sophistication. The following outline is to be a minimum requirement to ensure a safe blood supply. A national blood transfusion advisory committee should be formed and a blood policy should be formulated. Directors, supporting personnel, and ancillary staff must be of adequate numbers and possess levels of training that meet a minimum standard set by the committee. Operational responsibility should be clearly defined. collaboration with the military should create a national pool of resources in order to better respond to emergencies. Blood donations must collected in an organized manner with adequate record keeping to ensure a healthy and adequate supply. Safety must be of a minimum level in order to ensure adequate public response. Blood collection centers should include refrigerators that can reliably maintain a temperature of 20-6 degrees C. Rh typing and ABO grouping must be consistent and reliable. Screening for HIV, hepatitis, and other blood transmittable diseases must be reliable and efficient. Verifiable records must be kept and inventory must be tightly controlled. Hospital transfusion services should be similarly set up. Training and education programs must be set up for health care professionals.
Proceedings of the Caribbean Regional Conference "Operations Research: Key to Management and Policy", Dover Convention Centre, St. Lawrence, Barbados, May 31 - June 2, 1989.
[New York, New York], Population Council, 1989. 19,  p.Objectives, proceedings, and conclusions of a Caribbean regional conference on operations research (OR) in maternal-child health and family planning programs (FP/MCH) are summarized. Sponsored by the Population Council, USAID, and UNICEF, participants included policy makers, program managers, service providers, and representatives from international agencies in health and family planning from Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Mexico, St. Kitts-Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, and the U.S. The conference was held with hopes of contributing to the legitimization of OR as a management tool, and helping to develop a network of program directors and researchers interested in using OR for program improvement. Specifically, participants were called upon to review the progress and results of recent regional OR projects, analyze the utilization of these projects by policy makers and program managers, highlight regional quality of care, and establish directions for future projects in the region. Overall, the conference contributed to the dissemination and documentation of OR, and provided a forum in which to identify important service, research, and policy issues for the future. OR can improve FP/MCH services, and make positive contributions to the social impact of these programs. The unmet need of teenagers and men and structural adjustment were identified as issues of concern. Strategies will need to be developed to maintain currently high levels of contraceptive prevalence, while responding to the needs of special groups, with OR expected to focus on the quality of care especially in education and counseling, and screening and user follow-up. The technical competence of service providers and follow-up mechanisms are both in need of improvement, while stronger institutional and management capabilities should be developed through training and human resource development.