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  1. 1

    The political economy of reform in Sub-Saharan Africa. Report of the Workshops on the Political Economy of Structural Adjustment and the Sustainability of Reform. Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada, November 20-22,1986. World Bank, Washington, D.C., December 3-5,1986.

    Gulhati R

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1988. 49 p. (EDI Policy Seminar Report No. 8)

    Toward the end of 1986, EDI organized two workshops on The Political Economy of Reform in Africa. Given the Bank's traditional stance, which emphasizes technical and economic factors in development, EDI's interest in this topic may surprise some readers. However, the Bank's recent experience of policy-based lending has underscored the need to broaden our understanding of political and public administration issues. Furthermore, recent EDI senior policy seminars in Africa have reinforced the view that political economy issues are amongst the main obstacles to the initiation and implementation of policy reform. For these reasons, EDI decided to design a series of three Senior Policy Seminars on Structural Adjustment and the Sustainability of Reform in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) during 1986-87. To prepare for these seminars with ministers and senior civil servants from all over sub-Saharan Africa, we decided to convene consultations with scholars in the field of political economy. These discussions would equip us to organize a forum for the exploration of policy processes, including political economy issues, with African practitioners. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    UNICEF looks to the future; African children a major priority - United Nations Children's Fund - includes related article.

    UN Chronicle. 1988 Sep; 25(3):[3] p..

    Deep concern over the deteriorating situation of children in Africa and focus on other major concerns-debt relief for child survival and the needs of street children and abandoned children-marked the 1988 session of the Executive Board of UNICEF. The Fund will invest $2 million within the next two years in a programme to provide essential drugs to African countries, and try to raise $30 million more for that purpose. Originally proposed in 1987 by African health ministers who met in the capital of Mali, the "Bamako Initiative" seeks grass-roots participation and a steady supply of inexpensive but good-quality drugs to make primary health care universally accessible to children and women in sub-Saharan Africa. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Mid-term review of Africa economic recovery programme to be made in September.

    UN Chronicle. 1988 Sep; 25(3):[3] p..

    Delegates will assemble just prior to the opening of the 43rd General Assembly to consider the Secretary General's report on implementation of the plan of action, adopted on 1 June 1986 at a special session of the General Assembly. The Programme is based on two "central elements": African determination and commitment to launch national and regional programmes of economic development; and the commitment of the international community to support African development efforts. African countries under the Programme of Action promised to implement focused and practical activities, priorities and policies and to pursue vigorously appropriate policy reforms. They also undertook to fully mobilize their domestic resources to those ends. Priority areas include: agricultural development, drought and desertification, human resources development, and socioeconomic policy reforms. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Respect for AIDS victims rights, wars against polio, smoking asked - World Health Assembly - includes related article.

    UN Chronicle. 1988 Sep; 25(3):[3] p..

    Respect for the human rights of victims of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and campaigns against polio and smoking have been called for by the 41st World Health Assembly. The 166-member body which guides the work of the World Health Organization (WHO), also urged that "unprecedented measures" be taken to help the least developed countries improve the health of their people. Governments were also called on to increase their primary health care efforts in order to attain the WHO goal of "Health for All by the Year 2000" so that all the peoples of the world could lead socially and economically productive lives. At a solemn ceremony on 4 May to celebrate the 40th anniversary of WHO, outgoing Director-General Dr Halfdan Mahler said the organization had made "a unique contribution to the restoration of social justice in health matters by demonstrating how health can be achieved by all and not just by the privileged few". (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    Economic drought strangles African recovery: Assembly calls for increased aid, debt relief - UN General Assembly - includes interview with Stephen Lewis, Permanent Representative of Canada to the United Nations.

    UN Chronicle. 1988 Mar; 25(1):[7] p..

    Despite courageous internal reform by African Governments since 1986, spiralling debt, cuts in foreign aid and the crash of commodity prices threaten to exacerbate the ongoing African economic crisis, devastating millions of people across the continent. "The economic crisis now facing Africa can exact a toll every bit as deadly as the drought (of 1983-1985)," Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar reported to the forty-second General Assembly in October 1987. The situation has deteriorated, he said, since the Assembly adopted the United Nations Programme of Action for African Economic Recovery and Development, 1986-1990, at a special session of the General Assembly in May 1986. His report examines conditions in Africa one year after the adoption of the Programme, under which African Governments agreed to adjust internal policies, and the international community pledged to increase aid and improve terms of trade. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Global strategy for shelter to the year 2000 adopted; poor and homeless are its main focus.

    UN Chronicle. 1988 Sep; 25(3):[3] p..

    A "Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000" an international policy framework to help solve the worldwide housing crisis-was approved by the 58-member Commission on Human Settlements at its eleventh session. The 32-page text is expected to be endorsed by the General Assembly later this year. Specific guidelines to help Governments set up national shelter strategies and to guide international action were approved as part of the Strategy. Habitat-the Centre for Human Settlements-will coordinate international action triggered by the Strategy. In an opening speech, the Commission Chairman, Mrs. Mohsina Kidwai, India's Minister of Urban Development and Tourism, called attention to the importance of the informal sector, the co-operative sector and self-help as a major part of housing activity. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    On the road to peace and economic recovery - Africa; includes related article.

    UN Chronicle. 1988 Jun; 25(2):[3] p..

    African Governments assisted by international financial institutions are making a determined effort to undertake needed economic reforms, but additional financial support is essential if they are to succeed, an Advisory Group on Financial Flows to Africa reported on 22 February. A team of 13 eminent financial experts, headed by Sir Douglas Wass, former Permanent Secretary of the United Kingdom Treasury, was appointed by Secretary-General Perez de Cuellar in April 1987 to examine the external flows of resources to Africa and to recommend ways and means to ensure that the resource flows are adequate for the successful implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action for African Economic Recovery. They submitted their report two days after Mr. Perez de Cuellar returned from a 10-day visit to six African countries, during which African economic problems were extensively discussed with African leaders. (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    Refugees faced with open hostility, resentment worldwide in 1986; Assembly backs plan for conference on plight of refugees in Southern Africa - includes related articles.

    UN Chronicle. 1988 Mar; 25(1):[2] p..

    Open hostility and mistrust toward the world's 12.6 million refugees escalated in 1986, threatening to paralyse international co-ordination and co-operation on the issue, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees told United Nations delegates in November 1987. Jean-Pierre Hocke, the United Nations High Commissioner, outlined the highlights of his report on the global status of refugees before a crowded meeting of the Third Committee. The year 1986, he stated, had been dominated by four major trends: a majority of refugees had been compelled to stay longer and longer in the countries of first asylum; the number of refugees was multiplying as a result of old and new crises; refugees and asylum-seekers were arriving at frontiers in a growing number of countries on all continents; and the tendency to confuse refugees and economic migrants was becoming stronger, confusion which could lead to an impasse if States were not careful. (excerpt)
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  9. 9

    Ato del Avellanal v. Peru, 28 October 1988.

    United Nations. Human Rights Committee


    The plaintiff challenged Article 168 of the Peruvian Civil Code, which provides that, when a woman is married, only the husband is entitled to represent matrimonial property before a court. On the basis of this Article, the plaintiff had lost a suit over back rent due from tenants of buildings that she owned. The Human Rights Committee concluded that Article 168 violated Article 3 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) (equal right of men and women to enjoyment of rights guaranteed by the ICCPR; Article 14(1) (equality before courts); and Article 26 (equality before the law and equal protection of the law). It called on the Peruvian Government to remedy these violations. (full text)
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  10. 10

    Integrating women's component into population programmes. Report of a training workshop for UNFPA field staff in the Africa and Middle East Regions, Mombasa, Kenya, 18-21 January 1988.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Special Unit for Women, Population and Development

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1988. iv, 12 [48] p.

    The Mombasa Training Workshop held in 1988 was the first in a series organized to address the problems of women's role in development. The aim was to impart skills and understanding to the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) field staff and to learn ways of integrating women's concerns into population programs. 36 UNFPA field staff from 24 countries participated. The Workshop featured background papers presented by Deryck Onyango-Omuodo and Hilda Mary Tadria who outlined the concerns of integrating women into development and population programs. Christine Oppong spoke about African women's fertility and the link to unequal status and roles. Participants presented short background statements on the status of women and population programs in their respective countries; priorities for support were identified. 5 projects were examined: the 1988 Population Census of Tanzania, demographic training at the University of Zambia, assistance to the Ghana Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning (FP) Program, support for FP based on primary health care in Nigeria, and Population, Human Resources, and Development Planning in Gambia. The workshop was evaluated by participants and recommendations, were made for follow-up. The themes of significance gleaned from the background papers and country reports were 1) the need for more knowledge on women and constraint to women's access to education, employment, and health care. 2) There was also a need for policymakers and planners to be more aware and sensitive to women's issues. 3) Better use of resources in integrating women's concerns into project development was also needed. Ways of improving existing projects were identified, i.e., none of the 5 projects mentioned women as a target group and provision of matrices and checklists was insufficient. Changes in attitudes and perceptions and constant vigilance of women's issues are needed. Project design improvements included local participation, a variety of types of expertise, strengthening women's groups, giving time to an appropriate design, and learning from the past. Suggested directions for UNFPA were given.
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  11. 11

    Proceedings of the Workshop for Accelerated Control of Neonatal Tetanus, WHO / U.S. Agency for International Development, Harare, Zimbabwe, 18-25 July 1988.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Africa; United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]; John Snow [JSI]. Resources for Child Health [REACH]

    Brazzaville, Congo, WHO, Regional Office for Africa, 1988. [6], 71 p. (USAID Contract No. DPE-5927-C-00-5068-00)

    Neonatal tetanus (NNT) is the second leading cause of child mortality among the 6 Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) target diseases. In Africa alone, it is responsible for an estimated 210,000 infant deaths/year. Despite these figures and the availability of a safe, effective, and inexpensive heat-stable vaccine, however, the control of NNT has been neglected relative to efforts taken against other vaccine-preventable diseases. The Global Advisory Group of the EPI in November, 1987, therefore recommended countries to take urgent steps to improve coverage with tetanus toxoid (TT) immunization and eliminate NNT through special initiatives. A total of 5 workshops were proposed for 1988 and 1989 to help African countries prepare to accelerate NNT control activities. Activities and outcomes from the first of these workshops to be presented in Harare, Zimbabwe, during July 18-25, 1988, are presented in this report. The World Health Organization (WHO)/USAID Workshop for Accelerated Control of Neonatal Tetanus included participants invited from Ethiopia, The Gambia, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Presentations generally discussed NNT in Africa and its prevention by means other than immunization. Country presentations considered the magnitude of NNT, TT coverage, control strategies, safe delivery practices, surveillance, monitoring, and communication strategies. A doctor from WHO presented on designing and executing neonatal tetanus mortality surveys, while other papers discussed NNT surveillance and the monitoring of TT coverage among women by routine reporting and cluster surveys; alternative immunization strategies to increase TT coverage; and social mobilization and communication strategies for the control of NNT. Proposed TT immunization policies, strategies, and activities are summarized.
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  12. 12

    Training materials in population education.

    Maldives. Ministry of Education. Non-Formal Education Unit

    Male, Maldives, Ministry of Education, Non-Formal Education Unit, 1988 Nov. [2], 86 p.

    The population growth rate of Maldives is over 3.2% and is one of the highest in the region. The development rate is over 12% and the literacy rate is 93% for both males and females and there is a high participation rate for basic education. The government has launched a population education program with assistance from UNFPA and UNESCO. Through the educational process people will be equipped to make rational decisions on population problems of the future. The long range objective of this program is to make young adults aware of the inter- relationships of population and aspects of quality of life, and that population growth rate is an important factor affecting their lives as well as the socio-economic development of their family. The immediate objectives are to strengthen the educational development center, to contribute to life preparation of children, to enhance social living of adults and youth not in school, to develop the competence of over 500 teachers, and to convey population education messages to as many islanders as possible. The messages that will be included in the curriculum include family size and family welfare, delayed marriage, responsible parenthood, population and resources, and population related beliefs and values. The teaching process for addressing the moral dilemma includes introducing and confronting the dilemma, then establishing individual positions for action and establishment of the class response to the position of action. The next step is selecting an appropriate strategy and examining different individual reasons within the class group. Major methods used in this training include hierarchical, peer group, mobile training, self learned, correspondence, linked training, mass media, field operational seminars, and internships.
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  13. 13

    Safe Motherhood Initiative: meeting of interested parties, World Health Organization, Executive Board Room, Geneva, Thursday, 7 July 1988.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health

    [Unpublished] 1988. 25 p. (FHE/SMI/MIP/88.2)

    Given the multiple causes of maternal mortality, the World Health Organization's (WHO) Program of Maternal and Child Health addresses 4 factors: 1) social equality for female children and women; 2) universally accessible family planning to avert high-risk or unwanted pregnancies; 3) adequate prenatal care, including nutrition, with early recognition and referral of women with high-risk pregnancies; and 4) access to required obstetric care for women with emergencies that occur during pregnancy, delivery, or in the immediate postpartum period. WHO's Safe Motherhood activities are aimed at reducing maternal mortality by at least 50% by the year 2000. Toward this end, WHO is working to assist countries to determine the magnitude of their maternal mortality problem, identify the immediate underlying causes of maternal deaths, reach decisions about action priorities, evaluate innovations in maternal health care, conduct staff training, and support resource mobilization by national authorities so that programs can be implemented adequately. Research, information analysis and dissemination, technical support, and training comprise the foci of WHO's interventions in maternal health at present. If the Safe Motherhood Initiative is to be achieved, greater coordination and technical support at the global level and collaboration among agencies and national authorities at the country level will be required. The lack of sensitivity and responsiveness on the part of health staff to the perceived needs and perspective of women still comprises an obstacle to women's use of available maternal health services and must be addressed through training. To maintain the pace of its Safe Motherhood activities, WHO required US $4.5 million in extrabudgetary support.
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  14. 14

    [Stop AIDS: a prevention campaign] Stop SIDA: une campagne de prevention.

    Aide Suisse contre le SIDA; Switzerland. Office Federal de la Sante Publique

    [Berne], Switzerland, Aide Suisse contre le SIDA, 1988 Apr. [15] p. (Documentation 1)

    This document contains 12 brief and nontechnical articles by experts on different aspects of AIDS diagnosis and control. The 1st 3 articles, on AIDS information and communications, include a discussion of the international exchange of information on AIDS, an outline of worldwide activities of the World Health Organization Special Program Against AIDS, and a discussion of information policy on AIDS. The next several articles, on AIDS transmission, include articles explaining why mosquitoes do not transmit AIDS and why AIDS is not spread by kissing. An article calls for fighting AIDS instead of using it as a vehicle for social control or discrimination against marginal groups. 3 others call for greater understanding and compassion rather than fear in dealing with AIDS patients. A more detailed article on means of contamination and the unlikelihood of infection through casual contact is followed by a work suggesting that screening for HIV be limited primarily to blood donors and individuals with symptoms suggesting HIV infection. The final article analyzes why Switzerland has the highest per capita prevalence of AIDS in Europe and explores the epidemiology of AIDS in Switzerland.
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  15. 15

    Statement from the Consultation on AIDS and the Workplace, Geneva, 27-29 June 1988.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS; World Health Organization [WHO]. Office of Occupational Health; International Labour Office [ILO]

    [Unpublished] 1988. [4] p. (WHO/GPA/INF/88.7)

    Government, trade union, business, and public health representatives from 18 countries met in Geneva in June 1988 to discuss risk factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the workplace, the response of workers and management to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, and the potential use of the workplace for health education activities. The emphasis was on occupational settings where there is no risk of transmittal of the HIV from worker to worker or worker to client. Protection of the human rights and dignity of HIV-infected workers should be the cornerstone of occupational policy on AIDS; workers with symptomatic HIV infection should be accorded the same treatment as any other worker with an illness. Pre-employment screening for HIV infection is discriminatory and should be prohibited. Employees should be under no obligation to inform their employer about their HIV status. Any information about seropositivity on the part of individual workers should be kept confidential by the employer to protect the employee from discrimination and social stigmatization. To create a climate of mutual understanding, unions and employers are urged to organize educational campaigns. HIV- infected individuals should be entitled to work as long as they are able, and efforts should be make to seek reasonable alternative working arrangements if feasible. Finally, HIV-infected persons should not be excluded from social security benefits and other occupationally related benefits. Overall, the AIDS crisis presents employers with an opportunity to improve working relationships in a way that enhances human rights and ensures freedom from discrimination.
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  16. 16

    Population and the greenhouse effect.

    Zero Population Growth [ZPG]

    Washington, D.C., ZPG, 1988 Aug. [2] p. (ZPG Fact Sheet)

    Industrialized nations have emitted gases, which are transforming the Earth into a greenhouse, into the atmosphere for many years. Carbon dioxide (CO2), produced by burning fossil fuels and wood; chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) released by refrigerants and other sources; nitrous oxides, generated by fossil fuels; and methane, produced from decomposition of organic matter, trap infrared rays thereby causing an unprecedented rate of global warming. In the period from 1900-1988, the concentration of CO2 has climbed 20% and the average global temperature has risen >1 degree Fahrenheit. Further, since 1963, the rate of increase of atmospheric CO2 essentially equals population growth. Population growth also directly contributes to the increase in atmospheric methane. Forests naturally remove CO2 from the air, yet humans are destroying about 27 million acres of tropical forests/year. If the present fossil fuel rates persist, CO2 concentration will increase 2 fold by 2050 causing a mean global temperature increase of 9 degrees Fahrenheit. Other computer simulations predict changes in global precipitation, droughts, a rise in sea level by 1-4 feet, and the extinction of many species of plants and animals. Scientists major concern is the suddenness of this climatic change because it leaves little time for humans and plant and animal species to adapt. The World Meterological Organization of the United Nations advises that all nations ratify the recommendations of the 1987 Montreal meeting on ozone. 1 recommendation states that the industrialized nations must reduce the production and consumption of CFCs by 50% by the end of the century. Since the US consumes 28% of the world's annual energy consumption, the US should led the world in energy conservation. Any approach that does not advocate resource consumption and population stabilization will fail, however.
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  17. 17

    Breastfeeding, breast milk and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Statement from the Consultation held in Geneva, 23-25 June, 1987.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS; World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health

    WHO REPORT. 1988; 1-2.

    Recommendations from a consultation on breastfeeding, breast milk and HIV infection held by the Global Programme on AIDS and the Division of Family Health of the WHO in June 1987 are summarized. 20 participants from 15 countries, experts in epidemiology, immunology, virology, pediatrics and nutrition attended. There is a 25-30% chance that HIV will be transmitted from mother to infant during the perinatal period. Whether HIV can be transmitted via breast milk is unknown and risk is thought to be small. While there is 1 report of HIV cultured from breast milk, and a few cases of mothers infected after delivery by blood transfusions who transmitted HIV to their infants by breastfeeding, there are many reports of infected mothers breastfeeding without infecting their infants. Breast milk is still the best food for infants for immunologic, nutritional, psychological and child-spacing benefits. It is recommended that breastfeeding continue to be promoted in both developing and developed countries, regardless of HIV status. The use of pooled human milk is the second best mode of infant feeding. Pasteurization at 56 degrees C. for 30 minutes will inactivate HIV. Wet nurses should be chosen with care.
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  18. 18

    Report of Meeting on Breast Cancer and Oral Contraceptives, Geneva, 27-28 June 1988.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. Task Force on the Safety and Efficacy of Fertility Regulating Methods

    [Unpublished] 1988. 5, [4] p.

    The World Health Organization's Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction, convened a meeting of scientists to discuss the correlation between longterm oral contraceptive use and breast cancer. The meeting was held in Geneva from June 27-29, 1988. The issue at hand was whether early longterm oral contraceptive use did or did not have a direct relationship to women developing breast cancer. Epidemiological data and recent unpublished reports were reviewed at the meeting and various strategies were explored. Since most of the available data at the meeting was unpublished and confidential, the report of the meeting contained a general summary of the findings. 3 hypotheses concerning breast cancer and oral contraceptives concerned the following areas: 1) latent period use of oral contraceptives, 2) their hormonal content, and 3) bias. Basic research strategies included scientific research, classification of pill preparations, use of vital statistics, ranking pill types in various studies, new case-control studies, reducing bias in new studies, and interaction between epidemiologists and other scientists.
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  19. 19

    Sixth programme report, 1986-1987.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1988. ii, 119 p.

    The 6th report of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Control Program (CDD) describes the activities of the program during 1986 and 1987. The program consists of health services, a research component, and information services. Program review bodies are discussed, as are resources and obligations. New publications and documents are listed. 7 appendices are given: 1) diarrheal diseases control--resolution of the World Health Assembly, May 15, 1987; 2) WHO CDD estimates of oral rehydration salts (ORS) access and ORS/oral rehydration therapy (ORT) use rates by country and region, 1986; 3) new research projects supported by the program (from January 1, 1986 to December 31, 1987); 4) publications arising out of program-supported research; 5) collaborating centers; and 6) financial status. Health service program activities include planning and implementation, and training. Also important is increasing the availability of ORT. Health education and communication are important in the health services program. Program progress must be evaluated. The program's research component consists of biomedical and epidemiological, and operational (health) services research. Research projects include improved ORS formulations and ORT; feeding during and after acute disease; drugs in diarrhea therapy; persistent diarrhea; epidemiology of specific diseases; studies on risk factors for diarrhea and related interventions; development, evaluation, and improvement of diagnostic procedures for diarrhea; and development and testing of vaccines. Research also consists of collaborating with industry and other organizations.
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  20. 20

    Smokeless tobacco control: report of a WHO Study Group.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Study Group on Smokeless Tobacco Control


    This booklet presents the report of the Study Group on Smokeless Tobacco Control to the World Health Organization. The use of smokeless tobacco is increasing. 3 million people in the US and over 100 million people in India and Pakistan use some form of it -- snuff, chewing tobacco, or betel quid. They contain nicotiana and areca alkaloids, nitrosamines, phenols, aldehydes, and numerous other mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds. Smokeless tobacco has been associated with oral, nasal, pharyngeal, laryngeal, pancreatic and urinary cancers, as well as precancerous oral effects, such as leukoplakia. Smokeless tobacco has all the same effects on the cardiovascular system as nicotine in cigarettes, and it is equally addictive. In countries where smokeless tobacco is not yet used, its manufacture or importation should be forbidden, and in countries where it is already in use, all forms of promotion should be forbidden. Smokeless tobacco products should be highly taxed and should carry health warnings. Educational campaigns should be used to make the public, especially teenagers and young adults, aware of the danger. The greatest obstacles to the control of smokeless tobacco will be the tobacco companies, and action should be taken to keep them from gaining control in developing countries where smokeless tobacco-making is still mainly a cottage industry. The World Health Organization, member states, other UN agencies, and intergovernmental organizations should cooperate in this campaign. The Study Group recommended to the World Health Organization that promotion of smokeless tobacco should be banned, taxes on it should be raised, priority should be given to replacing tobacco by other crops, sales to minors should be prohibited, products should be required to display health warnings, smokeless tobacco use should be banned in public places, education campaigns should be directed at decision-makers and young people, smokeless tobacco should be included in the World Health Organization's program combatting tobacco, and the World Health Organization should cooperate with other international organizations to control smokeless tobacco.
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  21. 21

    Science and Technology for Development: Prospects Entering the Twenty-First Century. A symposium in commemoration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C., June 22-23, 1987.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]; National Research Council

    Washington, D.C., National Academy Press, 1988. 79 p.

    This Symposium described and assessed the contributions of science and technology in development of less developed countries (LDCs), and focused on what science and technology can contribute in the future. Development experts have learned in the last 3 decades that transfer of available technology to LDCs alone does not bring about development. Social scientists have introduced the concepts of local participation and the need to adjust to local socioeconomic conditions. These concepts and the development of methodologies and processes that guide development agencies to prepare effective strategies for achieving goals have all improved project success rates. Agricultural scientists have contributed to the development of higher yielding, hardier food crops, especially rice, maize, and wheat. Health scientists have reduced infant and child mortalities and have increased life expectancy for those living in the LDCs. 1 significant contribution was the successful global effort to eradicate smallpox from the earth. Population experts and biological scientists have increased the range of contraceptives and the modes for delivering family planning services, both of which have contributed to the reduction of fertility rates in some LDCs. Communication experts have taken advantage of the telecommunications and information technologies to make available important information concerning health, agriculture, and education. For example, crop simulation models based on changes in temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind, solar radiation, and soil conditions have predicted outcomes of various agricultural systems. An integration of all of the above disciplines are necessary to bring about development in the LDCs.
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  22. 22

    Recommendation R (87) 25 of the Committee of Ministers to member states concerning a common European public health policy to fight the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 26 November 1987 at its 81st Session.

    Council of Europe. Committee of Ministers


    Recommendation R (87) 25 of the Committee of Ministers recommends that the Council of Europe adopt a common action against the HIV and AIDS. This recommendation is based on the facts that there is no cure or vaccine for AIDS and that an epidemic of serious proportions will inevitably result if preventive action is not taken. It is therefore recommended that the governments of the member states: 1) declare the fight against AIDS an urgent national priority; 2) devise a strategy of preventive measures, including the formation of coordinating committees, the formation of a public health policy to achieve behavioral changes through widespread educational programs, and the implementation of public health measures, including screening, confidential reporting of seropositivity, strengthening of health care services, training of staff, and program evaluation and research; and 3) intensify cooperation among European governments by mutual assistance and avoidance of duplication.
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  23. 23

    Prototype action-oriented school health curriculum for primary schools. Teacher's guide.

    UNICEF. Middle East and North Africa Regional Office; World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean

    Alexandria, Egypt, WHO, Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, 1988. xii, 133 p.

    This Prototype Action-Oriented School Health Education Curriculum was the product of a joint WHO-UNICEF regional plan to promote health education in primary schools in the Eastern Mediterranean. Health education, conceptualized as an effort to help children to develop their physical and intellectual potential, appreciate the need to protect and promote the quality of life, and prepare future generations to achieve a healthier, more equitable world, is an important part of the goal of "health for all by the year 2000" and socioeconomic development in general. Primary schools are an ideal forum to use to work to prevent illness and empower people to shape their own futures free from disease. Even before children leave school, they can help to change prevalent ideas and practices and work to improve the health status of their families and communities. The role that the schools can play in enhancing health is facilitated by the high status awarded school teachers in developing countries. This guide for teachers outlines a prototypical health education curriculum that includes sections on responsibility and health; the human body; personal hygiene; oral health; care of the eyes, ears, nose, skin, hair, and feet; nutrition; social and mental health; the environment; first aid; disease transmission; needs and facilities in the community; the care of sick children; immunization; diarrhea; skin infections and wounds; infections due to worms and parasites; common respiratory infections; and other infectious diseases. The guide further suggests teaching techniques and aids for each of these subject areas.
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  24. 24

    [Senegal: report of mission on needs assessment for population assistance] Senegal: rapport de mission sur l'evaluation des besoins d'aide en matiere de population.

    Fonds des Nations Unies pour la Population

    New York, New York, Fonds des Nations Unies pour la Population, [1988]. vi, 117 p. (Rapport No. 96)

    To deal with Senegal's severe economic situation, the government has put in place the 6th development plan (1981-1985). Increasing population growth and internal migration have rendered data from the 1976 census unuseful. Uncontrolled urbanization also constitutes a major problem for Senegal. Faced with this situation, the government has created a national population commission and laws on contraception, families, family planning, and health. Activities relevant to population have been regrouped under a single ministry, the Ministry of Social Development. The government's approach to population includes integrating population with development, integrating family planning with the well-being of families and maternal and child health, fighting sterility problems, and integrating women into the development process.
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  25. 25

    [Mali: report of mission on needs assessment for population assistance] Mali: rapport de mission sur l'evaluation des besoins d'aide en matiere de population.

    Fonds des Nations Unies pour la Population

    New York, New York, Fonds des Nations Unies pour la Population, 1988. x, 67 p. (Rapport No. 95)

    The UN Fund for Population Activities sent a 2nd needs assessment to Mali in September 1985. Mali is a vast Sahelian country, characterized by vast deserts. Only 16.8% of the population is urbanized. Mali is essentially agricultural. The 3rd 5-year development plan covered the years 1981-1985. Population factors do not occupy the place they deserve in development planning in Mali. Recommendations for population and development planning include forming an organization to promote population policy and territorial resource management. Recommendations on data collection include creating a national coordinating committee for demographic statistics, analyzing census data from 1976 and planning for the census of 1987, and reorganizing the vital statistics system. The mission recommends the creation of a national organization to coordinate research activities in the country. Recommendations on health and family planning services include examining bottlenecks in the national health system, redistributing health personnel, and improving planning and administration. The mission recommends extending the educational system in Mali. Materials on population must be included in educational materials. Facts on the condition of women and their participation in economic life are insufficient. The mission recommends the creation of a section for women in the Ministry of State to gather social, economic, and demographic information on women.
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