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UN Chronicle. 1987 May; 24: p..The Commission on the Status of Women at a special five-day session decided on further ways to implement the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women to the year 2000, which were adopted in July 1985 at the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievement of the United Nations Decade for Women (1976-1985). The 32-member Commission, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council, had been asked by the General Assembly to monitor implementation of the Strategies, which stress the need for all countries to redouble efforts to enable women to wield more power in and to reap more benefits from society. Fifteen texts dealing with improving the situation of women throughout the world were approved without a vote by the Commission. These included eight draft resolutions and two draft decisions recommended for adoption by the Economic and Social Council. (excerpt)
In Africa, hope and difficulties; training nurses in Angola and teaching young men responsible parenthood in Seychelles.
UN Chronicle. 1987 Nov; 24(4): p..Angola trained nurses to provide family planning services. Seychelles started a drive to educate young working people, particularly men, in responsible parenthood. Zimbabwe received a great quantity of contraceptives. All of this was accomplished in 1986 in sub-Saharan Africa with UNFPA help. Computer breakdowns slow work, but not all programmes worked equally well. Repeated computer breakdowns slowed down the Guinea census and the maternal and child health care project in Gabon was delayed by lack of equipment, staff and funds, according to UNFPA's latest annual report. Special projects for women in the region did not advance as rapidly as hoped. (excerpt)
Lack of political commitment hampering population progress in Latin America; uncontrolled growth of cities and aging becoming serious problems. [La falta de compromiso político obstaculiza el progreso de la población en América Latina: el crecimiento descontrolado de las ciudades y el envejecimiento de la población se convierten en problemas graves]
UN Chronicle. 1987 Nov; 24(4): p..Awareness of the importance of population has not yet been translated into political commitment in most Latin American countries. This is happening despite a population growth rate second only to that of Africa and the worst economic crisis in the region's history. Population is not generally being taken into account in development plans. The population units established precisely for that purpose have not yet produced the expected results. The uncontrolled growth of cities and the increase in the number of the aged are two other worrying issues in the continent. These are among the conclusions reached by UNFPA in its 1986 report. (excerpt)
Triumph or threat? The birth of a baby boy in Yugoslavia is cause for celebration and concern - five billionth person.
UN Chronicle. 1987 Nov; 24(4): p..Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar took tiny Matej Gaspar in his arms a few minutes after he was born and proclaimed him the five billionth person on the planet. It was a fine Saturday morning in Zagreb, Yugoslavia, capital of the Croatian Republic. Matej was born at 8:25 a.m. on 11 July 1987. The healthy, blond, 7 pound, 9 ounce boy is the second child of Sanja and Dragutin Gaspar. Matej's mother is a nurse, his father an electrician. "You should be thankful that your son has been born in prosperity", the Secretary-General said to the smiling 23-year old mother while flashbulbs popped and more than 150 journalists from all over the world jostled to cover the scene. He noted that 9 out of 10 children in the world were born in developing countries. (excerpt)
Economic and Social Council reviews world economic and social policy, calls for measures to combat AIDS.
UN Chronicle. 1987 Nov; 24(4): p..The Economic an Social Council, at its second regular 1987 session, made a broad review of international economic and social policy, adopting 58 texts on matters ranging from specific development and assistance issues to food and population problems to combating the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic. In opening the session, Council President Eugeniusz Noworyta of Poland said that international co-operation "should enrich countries and not impoverish some of them". Without restoring mutual confidence, economic cooperation, trade and resource flows would not attain levels commensurate with development needs. Many negative phenomena persisted in international relations which inhibited wide co-operation among countries at different levels of development, and the introduction of an equitable international economic order, taking account of the legitimate interests of all groups of countries. Disparities between the economic potential of States had increased, he said. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1987 Feb; 24: p..The General Assembly on 4 December called on Member States to approve, as a matter of priority, effective measures to implement the Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, adopted in July 1985 at the Nairobi Conference on the United Nations Decade for Women (1976-1985). The measures, it stated, should include establishment or strengthening of appropriate mechanisms for the advancement of women and for implementation of the Strategies, in order to ensure the full integration of women in the political, economic, social and cultural life of their countries. The Assembly acted by adopting resolution 41/110 on the role of women in society without a vote. Governments and intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations were asked to pay due attention to the role of women in society "in all its interrelated aspects - as mothers, as participants in the economic development process and as participants in public life". (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1987 Aug; 24: p..The World Health Organization (WHO) on 2 June launched a global public information campaign with the theme "AIDS: A world-wide effort will stop it'. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a "global epidemic that demands a global attack', said Dr. Jonathan Mann, Director of the WHO Special Programme on AIDS." WHO's global strategy for AIDS control is to stop the spread of AIDS worldwide by striking every way the virus spreads, in every country, using every scientific and educational tool available. AIDS has created a world-wide emergency. The disease has assumed pandemic proportions affecting every continent of the world. A major priority for this campaign is to increase awareness that AIDS threatens all countries.' Since AIDS was first identified in 1981, the number of countries reporting cases of the disease has risen dramatically. As of 27 May, 51,069 AIDS cases had been reported to WHO from 112 countries. The number of reported cases, however, represented only a percentage of the total cases to date, which are estimated to be in excess of 100,000. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1987 May; 24: p..Recent studies on emergency and disaster relief have pointed to the need to further strengthen and improve the emergency-related capacities of the United Nations system and for arrangements for more effective use of those capacities. Nearly 40 per cent of the total United Nations resources during 1984 and 1985 were allocated to humanitarian activities, surpassing the percentage resources--some 34 per cent--for operational activities and other programmes in the economic and social sectors. Furthermore, in the past few years there has been a marked increase in resource allocation for humanitarian assistance around the world. In his book, The Quality of Mercy, William Shawcross says: "Humanitarian aid is often required because of abject political failure. It is neither intended, nor is it able, to resolve political crises that Governments have created or at least failed to address.' Referring to the Kampuchean operation, he states that one effect of such aid has been "to reinforce the political stalemate". Thus humanitarian aid does have political implications, with both pitfalls and constructive potential for facilitating a solution to an impasse. Because of ever-increasing humanitarian problems and such political implications, there is definite need for a new policy science of humanitarian assistance in the world today. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1987 Aug; 24: p..Severe shortages of doctors and other health workers in some countries and an oversupply of health professionals in others were among the problems addressed at the fortieth World Health Assembly. Other topics of concern included: the global battle against acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), maternal and infant health care, diarrhoeal disease control, health education against leprosy, standards for food safety, and help for victims of drought and refugees. The 166-member Assembly, which has endorsed the World Health Organization (WHO) global strategy of Health for All by the Year 2000, also concluded that health was a shared responsibility which rested upon the individual, the community and the government and that the collective commitment of all concerned was required in order to secure adequate economic support for health-for-all strategies. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1987 Aug; 24: p..Reducing by half the rates of infant and child deaths by the year 2000 was among the targets set for the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) by its 41-member Executive Board at its 1987 session. The Board, in endorsing the programme objectives of its 1986-1990 medium-term plan, asked the Fund to give continued priority in both rural and urban areas to the "Child Survival and Development Revolution"--an initiative undertaken by UNICEF in 1983--through such measures as child immunization, oral rehydration therapy and diarrhoeal management, promotion of breast-feeding, improved nutrition and health education, and birth-spacing. The Fund should "work towards the retention of the child and its needs on the political agenda'. Special attention should be given to actions directed against the "causal roots of child and infant mortality'. Basic services should be stressed and child survival and development activities should be integrated into primary health care systems. (excerpt)
Women's rights body reviews reports from 8 States - United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women.
UN Chronicle. 1987 Aug; 24: p..LEGAL, judicial and administrative measures taken to guarantee equality of women's rights in political, economic, social and cultural fields in eight countries were reviewed by the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) at its sixth session (Vienna 30 March-10 April). Bangladesh, Colombia, France, Greece, Poland, Republic of Korea, Spain and Sri Lanka reported to the 23-member expert Committee and responded to their comments and questions. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, approved by the General Assembly in 1979, requires the 92 States parties to guarantee a just distribution of rights and obligations among men and women. Among principles enunciated in the Convention are those relating to affirmative action, maternity protection measures, abolition of prostitution, rights of rural women and de facto equality in family relations, employment, education and cultural and political life. States parties are also asked to report periodically on action they have taken to give effect to the Convention's provisions. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1987 May; 24: p..While the media focus on Africa from 1984 to 1986 brought extraordinary assistance to that crisis-ridden continent, it may have tended to obscure everyday emergencies wrought by disease and malnutrition elsewhere in the world. Recent events in Africa have alerted United Nations agencies once again that ways must be found to sensitize politicians as well as the press to what the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Executive Director James P. Grant has called the "silent emergencies'--the less dramatic continuum of death and human suffering imposed by poverty and ignorance. In the UNICEF State of the World's Children Report for 1987, Mr. Grant notes that over the past two years, more children died in India and Pakistan than in most nations of Africa combined. "In 1986, more children died in Bangladesh than in Ethiopia, more in Mexico than in the Sudan, more in Indonesia than in all eight drought stricken countries of the Sahel', he says. (excerpt)
Annual Review of Public Health. 1987; 8:75-110.The global program of malaria eradication coordinated and supported by the World Health Organization (WHO) since 1957 has been successful in most the countries in the temperate climate zones of the globe. However, by the end of the 1960s it became evident that technical problems, such as resistance of mosquito vectors to insecticides and resistance of malaria parasites to drugs, presented serious obstacles to the pursuit of eradication programs in many tropical countries. Moreover, the administrative and financial difficulties of the developing countries were such that a revised strategy of antimalaria campaigns became necessary. In 1969 the World Health Organization recommended that although eradication of malaria should remain an ultimate goal, in countries where eradication does not appear to be feasible, malaria control operations may form a transitional stage. All effective methods of attack on the parasite and on the Anopheles vector should be employed according to epidemiological conditions of the area involved and in relation to their technical and logistic feasibility. Nevertheless, during the past decade the malaria situation has deteriorated in several countries, especially in southern and southeast Asia and some parts of Latin America. There has been no improvement in the highly endemic countries of tropical Africa. (excerpt)
Dar es Salaam Sunday News. 1987 Nov 8; 7.In this interview, Amadou Traore talks to the WHO Regional Director for Africa, Professor Gottlieb Lobe Monekosso about AIDS, a deadly disease that has become a major public health problem around the world. Monekosso disputes the assertion that Africa and the Caribbean are the birthplaces of HIV. In addition, he talks about the efforts of the WHO in the fight against the disease.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, . 28 p. (WHO/CDD/SER/87.11)This manual provides an overview of the nature of acute diarrhea and its treatment, especially through the use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT), for pharmacists in developing countries. The composition of oral rehydration sales (ORS) is covered as is how to treat dehydration with ORS solution and how to prevent dehydration. The booklet also stresses that antimicrobial and antidiarrheal agents are not recommended for the routine treatment of acute diarrhea. The information presented in the main text is then reviewed in a series of questions and answers, and the World Health Organization's Diarrhoeal Disease Control Programme is described. Finally, a series of guidelines suggest that pharmacists: 1) persuade mothers to use ORT when necessary, 2) supply ORS packets and ensure that mothers know how to prepare and use the solution, 3) prepare ORS solutions in the pharmacy on a daily basis if packets are not available, 4) explain to mothers how household food solutions or sugar/salt solutions can be used to prevent dehydration, 5) persuade mothers not to purchase expensive and ineffective medication, 6) ensure that all cases of severe diarrhea and dehydration are taken to an appropriate health facility, 7) give advice on ways to prevent diarrhea, 8) participate fully in the diarrheal diseases control program of their country, and 9) advocate the teaching of ORT in pharmacy schools and continuing education programs.
Report: Second Conference of Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, 23-25 September 1987, Beijing, China.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1987. , 72 p.The formal proceedings of the 1987 Asian (AFPPD) Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (FPPD) are provided in some detail. 23 countries participated. The Asian Forum Beijing Declaration preamble, program of action, call to action, and rededication are presented. Background information indicates that these conferences have been ongoing since 1984 to exchange information and experience, to promote cooperation, and to sustain involvement of Parliamentarians in population and development issues. Official delegations represented Australia, Bangladesh, China, Korea, India, Iraq, Japan, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, north and south Korea, Sri Lanka, Syria, Thailand, and Vietnam. Observers were from Bhutan, Cyprus, Indonesia, Kiribati, and Tonga. The UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) was involved as Conference Secretariat as well as the Preparatory Committee of China. Other UN and nongovernmental organizations and Parliamentary Councils of the World, Africa, and Europe were involved. Summaries were made of opening conference addresses of Mr. Takashi Sato, Mr. Zhou Gucheng, Chinese Premier Zhao Zivang, Japanese Prime Minister Takeo Fukuda, Dr. Nafis Sadik from the UNFPA, Mrs. Rahman Othman for Mr. Sat Paul Mittal of AFPPD, Australian Prime Minister R.J.L. Hawke, India Prime Minister Rajiv Ghandi, Sri Lankan Prime Minister R. Premedasa, Philippine President Corazon Aquino, Pakistan President Mohammad Zia-ul-Hag, and Bangladesh President Hussain Muhammad Ershad. Election of officers was discussed. The plenary sessions reported on the present situation and prospects for Asian population and development, basic health services and family planning (FP), urbanization, population and food, and aging. Reports were also provided of an exchange among Parliamentarians, the adoption of conference documents and the AFPPD constitution, election of officers, and the closing speakers. Appendices provide a complete list of participants, the constitution which was adopted, and the addresses of Mr. Zhou Gucheng from China's National People's Congress; Mr. Zhao Ziyang, Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China; Mr. Takeo Fukuda of the Global Committee of FPPD, Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director, UNFPA; and Mr. Sat Paul Mittal, Secretary General, AFPPD.
CDD UPDATE. 1987 Mar; (1):1-3.As of December 31, 1986, the World Health Organization's Diarrheal Diseases Control (CDD) Program had received results from 193 surveys conducted in 49 countries. Although there are some indications that the under-5 years mortality rates and oral rehydration therapy (ORT) rates may be inaccurate, the reported estimates of diarrhea incidence are considered to be valid. Overall, the surveys indicate a diarrhea- associated mortality rate of 6.6/1000 children (range, 0.0-54.9/1000), with a median percentage of diarrhea-associated deaths of 36% (range, 0.0-66.4%). The number of episodes of childhood diarrhea/child/year averaged 3.6, with a range of 0.8-10.7. These surveys utilized the cluster sampling method promoted by the CDD Program since 1981. Given concerns about the impact of inadequate training and supervision of interviewers on survey data, the CDD Program has issued a manual with revised guidelines for conducting diarrhea morbidity, mortality, and treatment surveys. The manual includes sample size calculations for detecting changes in mortality and for surveys designed to measure only diarrhea incidence rates, field procedures, a detailed schedule for the training of survey supervisors and interviewers, and overall schedule and checklist for the survey coordinator, and 2 basic questionnaires and a selection of optional questions. Also presented is a procedure for converting a prevalence rate of diarrhea episodes during the preceding 2 weeks into an incidence rate. At present, the CDD Program is interested in supporting surveys in areas where baseline surveys of adequate quality were conducted in 1984 or earlier.
Gland, Switzerland, IUCN, 1987. 63 p.A special Task Force Report by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources focusing on population contains chapters on demographic trends, structural changes and future growth, population policies, family planning programs, relations between population, conservation and development, and recommendations. Unprecedented population growth in this century is such that most countries have people living who have seen their population triple, and Zimbabwe as an example of an African country has grown 8-fold in this period. Population growth is only 1 among many factors that aggravate conservation and development; others include decreasing food supply, inappropriate development patterns fostered by debt, trade imbalances, misguided aid, and even the food surpluses of the North. Current environmental crises will contribute to a predicted 33% loss in arable land by 2000. The report ends with 12 recommendations, e.g., corroboration by country-level population, conservation and development agencies by identifying relevant institutions and introducing coordinating mechanisms. Every couple should be provided with means to plan their family, an effort estimated to cost $6 billion more than the current $2 billion being spent. Women should be given the right of choice about pregnancy, education, and integration into socio-economic development.
[Unpublished] 1987. 2 p. (SPA/INF/87.9)Research needs on the possible interactions between contraceptive methods and HIV infection were discussed by participants attending a June 1987 joint meeting of WHO's Special Programme on AIDS and Special Programme of Research, Development of Research Training in Human Reproduction. The 16 participants from 9 countries represented the fields of epidemiology, immunology, sexually transmitted disease control, reproductive physiology, and gynecology. Participants examined all current contraceptive methods, but focused in detail on IUDs, combined oral contraceptives, and progestogen-only contraceptives. Condoms and spermicides will be reviewed at a later date. Theoretical interactions between contraceptive methods and HIV infection were discussed, but the participants drew no firm conclusions due to lack of sufficient data. They recommended that WHO conduct additional research, particularly in developing countries, on: the influence of oral contraceptives and IUDs on susceptibility to HIV infection, infectiousness of HIV-infected women, the development and course of HIV- related illness, the mechanism of HIV transmission and modification by contraceptive methods, and the influence of pregnancy on the development and courses of HIV-related illness. They also advised that condoms always be used when there was any risk of HIV infection.
[People's perception of diseases: an exploratory study of popular beliefs, attitudes and practices regarding immunizable diseases]
Dhaka, Bangladesh, Worldview International Foundation, 1987 Nov.  p.Researchers interviewed 57 mothers and 27 heads of family in predominantly rural areas about 135km from the capital city of Dhaka, Bangladesh to learn about their perception of diseases. They also talked with 3 traditional healers and 8 influential people in the different locales, e.g., teachers and imams. They learned that each vaccine preventable disease has at least 1 local name rooted in popular beliefs, e.g., all local names for poliomyelitis are associated with an ominous wind. Generally, the local people believe that witches or evil spirits cause all the vaccine preventable diseases. These entities prefer attacking babies, but also are known to afflict women. A preventive measure practiced includes pregnant women never leaving the house in the evening, at noon, or at midnight since these are the times when they are most exposed to evil spirits. There exist 2 traditional healers--fakirs and kabiraj. Fakirs use mystic words with religious chants and perform various healing rituals. The kabiraj sometimes use healing rituals, but also prescribe indigenous medicines. This research provides some useful insights into WHO's Expanded Programme on Immunization in developing communication strategies which build on what people already know. For example, since the local people believe that evil spirits or witches attack the newborn immediately after birth may provide an incentive for early immunization. Since preventing illness and death in newborns is a goal of both modern and traditional medicine, it is likely that the local people are not so concerned with the real cause of illness and will accept any practice that keeps their infant healthy and that fits into their beliefs and perceptions.
Family health selected list of publications, 5th ed. Sante de la Famille Liste de Publications Selectionnees, 5eme ed
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, Division of Family Health, 1987. 20 p. (WHO/FHE/87.5)This bibliography lists selected publications and documents of the World Health Organization that pertain to family health. Most were produced in 1980-87, but earlier publications considered to be of broad interest are also included. The list is divided into the following subcategories: 1) general family health topics; 2) women, health and development; 3) maternal and child health care; 4) family planning; 5) child care; 6) adolescence; and 7) nutrition.
Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1987. xv, 400 p.In this report, the World Commission on Environment and Development does not predict ever increasing environmental decay, poverty, and hardship in a world becoming more polluted and experiencing decreasing resources but sees instead the possibility for a new era of economic growth. This era of economic growth must be based on policies that sustain and expand the environmental resource base. Such growth is absolutely essential to relieving the great poverty that is intensifying in much of the developing world. The report suggests a pathway by which the peoples of the world can enlarge their spheres of cooperation. The Commission has focused its attention in the areas of population, food security, the loss of species and genetic resources, and human settlements, recognizing that all are connected and cannot be treated in isolation from each other. 2 conditions must be satisfied before international economic exchanges can become beneficial for all involved: the sustainability of ecosystems on which the global economy depends must be guaranteed; and the economic partners must be satisfied that the basis of exchange is equitable. Neither condition is met for many developing nations. Efforts to maintain social and ecological stability through old approaches to development and environmental protection will increase stability. The Commission has identified several actions that must be undertaken to reduce risks to survival and to put future development on sustainable paths. Such a reorientation on a continuing basis is beyond the reach of present decision making structures and institutional arrangements, both national and international. The Commission has taken care to base its recommendations on the realities of present institutions, on what can and must be accomplished now; yet to keep options open for future generations, the present generation must begin to act now and to act together. The Commission's proposals for institutional and legal change at the national, regional, and international levels are embodied in 6 priority areas: getting at the sources; dealing with the effects; assessing global risks; making informed choices; providing the legal means; and investing in the future.
Final reports, 98th and 99th meetings of the Executive Committee of the Pan American Health Organization, Washington, D.C., 27 September 1986 and 22-26 June 1987. XXXII meeting of the Directing Council of PAHO, XXXIX meeting, WHO Regional Committee for the Americas, Washington, D.C., 21-25 September 1987.
Washington, D.C., 1987. 136 p. (Official Document No. 219)The 98th and 99th Meetings of the Executive Committee of the Pan American Health Organization, the XXXII Meeting of the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization, and the XXXIX Meeting of the World Health Organization (WHO) Committee for the Americas were all held in Washington, D.C., between 9/86 and 9/87. This document contains the final reports of these conferences, including lists of all participants, and complete texts of all resolutions. The 99th Meeting resulted in Resolution VI, urging member countries to implement plans to control Aedes albopictus implicated in dengue, yellow fever, and california encephalitis. Resolution VII on Women, Health and Development, urging member nations to improve public and private comprehensive health care for women, and calling for increased participation of women in professional posts and representative roles within the organization; Resolution VIII, on Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Relief Coordination; and Resolution XII on AIDS Prevention and Control, which called for a WHO Special Program on AIDS and urged member countries to increase efforts at prevention and control, to provide information to WHO, and to permit free international travel for infected people. The XXXII Meeting contained Resolution IX on Women, Health and Development; Resolution X on Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Relief Coordination; Resolution XI on the Coordination of Social Security and Public Health Institutions; and Resolution XII on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in the Americas.
St. John's, Antigua, CFPA, 1987. 39 p.In the 1920s 1/3 of the children in the Caribbean area died before age 5, and life expectancy was 35 years; today life expectancy is 70 years. In the early 1960s only 50,000 women used birth control; in the mid-1980s 500,000 do, but this is still only 1/2 of all reproductive age women. During 1987 the governments of St. Lucia, Dominica and Grenada adopted formal population policies; and the Caribbean Family Planning Affiliation (CFPA) called for the introduction of sex education in all Caribbean schools for the specific purpose of reducing the high teenage pregnancy rate of 120/1000. CFPA received funds from the US Agency for International Development and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to assist in its annual multimedia IEC campaigns directed particularly at teenagers and young adults. CFPA worked with other nongovernmental organizations to conduct seminars on population and development and family life education in schools. In 1986-87 CFPA held a short story contest to heighten teenage awareness of family planning. The CFPA and its member countries observed the 3rd Annual Family Planning Day on November 21, 1987; and Stichting Lobi, the Family Planning Association of Suriname celebrated its 20th anniversary on February 29, 1988. CFPA affiliate countries made strides in 1987 in areas of sex education, including AIDS education, teenage pregnancy prevention, and outreach programs. The CFPA Annual Report concludes with financial statements, a list of member associations, and the names of CFPA officers.
Communication: a guide for managers of national diarrhoeal disease control programmes. Planning, management and appraisal of communication activities.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Diarrhoeal Diseases Control Programme, 1987. vii, 78 p.When the World Health Organization's Diarrheal Diseases Control Program (CDD) began in 1978, it concentrated on producers and providers of oral rehydration salts. Communication efforts were directed at informing health care providers and training them to treat patients. The time has come for CDD programs to put more emphasis on enduser-oriented approaches, and it is to facilitate that aim that this guide for CDD program managers on enduser-directed communication has been developed. The guide is divided into 3 parts. Part 1 deals with nature and scope of communication in a CDD program. The 1st step is research and analysis of the target population -- find out what the target audience does and does not know and what are some of their misconceptions about the use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and the Litrosol packets. Communication can teach mothers how and when and why to use ORT, but it cannot overcome lack of supply and distribution of the salts; it cannot be a substitute for trained health care staff; and it cannot transform cultural norms. Part 2 deals with the communication design process. Step 1 is to investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice of both the endusers and the health care providers; to investigate what communication resources are available; and to investigate the available resources in terms of cost, time, and personnel. Step 2 is communication planning, in terms of: 1) definition of the target audience; 2) identification of needed behavior modification, and 3) factors constraining it; 4) defining the goals of the communication program in terms of improving access to and use of the new information; 5) approaches to change, e.g., rewards, motivation, and appeal to logic, emotion, or fear; 6) deciding what mix of communications methods is to be used, i.e., radio, printed matter; 7) identifying the institutions that will carry out the communicating; 8) developing a feasible timetable, and 9) a feasible budget. Step 3 is to develop the message to be communicated and to choose the format of the message for different communications media. Step 4 is testing, using a sample of the audience, whether the messages are having their intended effect in terms of acceptance and understanding by the target audience, and revision of the messages as necessary. Step 5 is the actual implementation of the communication plan in terms of using a media mix appropriate to the audience, phasing the messages so as to avoid information saturation; and designing the messages so that they are understandable, correct, brief, attractive, standardized, rememberable, convincing, practical, and relevant to the target audience. Step 6 is to monitor the program to be sure the messages are reaching their intended audiences, to evaluate the program in terms of its actual effects, and to use the results of the monitoring and evaluation to correct instances of communication breakdown. Part 3 deals with the CDD manager's role in communication. The manager must select a suitable communications coordinator, who will have the technical expertise necessary and the ability to call upon appropriate government and private information resources and consultants. The manager must brief the coordinator in the scope and objectives of the CDD program; and he must supervise and monitor the work of the coordinator.