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  1. 1

    Five priority areas highlighted in report on Africa crisis.

    UN Chronicle. 1986 Aug; 23:[4] p..

    Five priority areas for national and international action are highlighted in a 53-page report of the Secretary-General on the critical economic situation in Africa (A/S-13/2) placed before the General Assembly's thirteenth special session. The priority areas include: national and collective self-sufficiency in food production and agricultural development in general; efforts to meet drought and desertification; rehabilitation and development of transport and other structures; development of human resources and social services, with attention to the role of women and the need to protect vulnerable groups; and external financial resources and the problem of external debt. The report states that droughts and famines suffered by many African countries from 1983 through 1985 attracted the world's attention to the plight of Africa. Emergency aid and good rains brought some relief, and although the food situation remains "precarious' and in some areas "quite serious', the immediate threat of mass starvation has subsided. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    World Health Assembly appeals for more aid to health strategies of developing countries.

    UN Chronicle. 1986 Aug; 23:[5] p..

    The World Health Assembly at its thirty-ninth session (Geneva, 5-16 May) called for action to improve health strategies of developing countries and to combat drug abuse, tobacco use and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) eqidemic. Delegates representing most of the 166 member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) expressed support for the WHO "Global Strategy for Health for All by the Year 2000' and appealed to developed countries and international organizations and agencies to assist developing countries with their national health strategies. The appeal, contained in a resolution adopted on 15 May, was made in view of the "widespread economic crisis which had resulted in a fall in living standards in many countries and provoked serious unemployment and formidable austerity policies', which in some countries resulted in substantial cuts in health care. The crisis, particularly in developing countries, had been aggravated by the persistent rise in the foreign debt and deterioration of the balances of trade', and endangered the possibility of reaching the goal of health for all by the year 2000. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    United Nations Programme of Action for African Economic Recovery 1986-1990.

    UN Chronicle. 1986 Aug; 23:[5] p..

    Secretary-General Perez de Cuellar said the international community, in adopting the Programme of Action, had "clearly expressed their human solidarity with their brothers and sisters in Africa'. Determined and continued efforts over time were needed to meet the challenge. "The image of Africa as a dependent continent must disappear. Africa is a continent rich in physical and human resources. The realization of its potential will not only fulfill the hopes and aspirations of the peoples of Africa, but also contribute immeasurably to the economic and social well-being of all the world'. A summary of the 3-part, 24-paragraph Programme of Action follows. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    UNICEF executive board endorses programmes for children in 'difficult circumstances', including 'street children' and war victims.

    UN Chronicle. 1986 Aug; 23:[3] p..

    Programmes to help children affected by armed conflicts, exploitation and other difficult circumstances were endorsed by the Executive Board of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) at its 1986 annual meeting (New York, 14-25 April). The Board decided that UNICEF, in collaboration with concerned agencies, should play a major role within the United Nations system in promoting programmes to benefit "street children'. The Fund's 41-nation governing body also re-endorsed priority for implementing UNICEF's Child Survival and Development Revolution, adopted as policy in 1983, in the context of primary health care and community-based services and approved programme expenditures of $84.5 million. It also approved a commitment of $232.54 million for the 1986-1987 biennial budget, and endorsed the emergency appeal--made in April by UNICEF Executive Director James P. Grant--for an additional $102 million for the agency's increased activities in Africa and recommended that in the future such appeals be reviewed by the Board. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    Economic and Social Council considers issues relating to human rights, women, drugs, homeless, southern Africa.

    UN Chronicle. 1986 Aug; 23:[10] p..

    Action by the 54-member Economic and Social Council at its first regular session of 1986 concerned a wide range of issues, including human rights, illicit drug traffic, the homeless, the status of women, crime control, racial discrimination, population, youth and the disabled. Particular situations relating to southern Africa, the Middle East and other areas of the world were also the focus of Council attention. The Council, in adopting 43 resolutions and 35 decisions during its four-week session (New York, 28 April-23 May), also reviewed matters relating to the International Year of Peace, being observed during 1986. Debate on some human rights situations and issues concerning southern Africa, including transnational corporations (TNCs) and mercenaries, resulted in votes reflecting opposing views. The Council condemmed collaboration by TNCs with South Africa in the nuclear, military and economic fields, and the increased recruitment, financing, training, assembly, transit and use of mercenaries to destabilize and overthrow certain African Governments. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Sixth Committee acts on wide variety of legal issue: protection of children, detained persons, among them.

    UN Chronicle. 1986 Jan; 23:[4] p..

    The Sixth Committee (Legal) in November addressed a wide variety of legal issues, including those related to protection of children and detained persons, peaceful settlement of disputes, review of the United Nations Charter, and the Law of Treaties between States and International Organizations. The General Assembly on 11 December acted on drafts proposed by the Committee on those issues and others. In decision 40/422, adopted without a vote, the Assembly expressed appreciation at the work done in the Third and Sixth Committees in their common endeavour of elaborating a Declaration on Social and Legal Principles relating to the Protection and Welfare of Children, with Special Reference to Foster Placement and Adoption, Nationally and Internationally. It also decided that informal consultations should be held early in the Assembly's 1986 session to achieve agreement on the remaining questions so that the draft Declaration could be adopted at that session. The item has been on the Assembly's agenda since 1980. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    African crisis: the human dimension special UNICEF report on the future of Africa's children.

    UN Chronicle. 1986 Apr; 23:[15] p..

    So begins a special report, Within Human Reach: A Future for Africa's Children, prepared by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). According to UNICEF, neglect of the human costs of the African crisis has obscured a full understanding of the "scenario for disaster' that has been unfolding on that continent over the past two decades. "In its day-to-day work in the continent, UNICEF is faced with the maluntrition and ill health which claim the lives of nearly 4 million African children each and every year--even when there is no drought, no famine, no camps, no epidemics, and no media coverage', states UNICEF Executive Director James P. Grant in a preface to the report. "This is the "silent emergency' which, exacerbated by war and drought, has suddenly become the "loud emergency' of which all the world has heard'. However, adds Mr. Grant, "the first priority for action is to protect the lives and the normal growth of children. In times of emergency, the immediate, human argument for "children first' is an obvious one. But there is also a longer-term and more hard-headed case to be made. For there is a profound connection between the mental and physical development of the children and the social and economic development of their nations.' (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    Expert group meets on 1990 world population and housing census programme.

    UN Chronicle. 1986 Jan; 23:[3] p..

    An expert group meeting on the 1990 World Population and Housing Census Programme was held at Headquarters from 11 to 15 November. A resolution adopted in May 1985 by the Economic and Social Council on the recommendation of the Statistical Commission had requested the Secretary-General to proceed with the development of a 1990 World Population and Housing Census Programme, to be carried out during 1985-1994, and to make all of the necessary preparations with a view to assisting interested Member States in planning and carrying out improved censuses. The resolution had also noted with satisfaction the "unprecedented efforts" made by State Members, in all regions, to carry out population and housing censuses as part of the 1980 World Population and Housing Census Programme. In that decade, a census of population or a census of population and housing had been carried out in 191 countries or areas of the world. Thus, over 95 per cent of the world's population had been enumerated. (excerpt)
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  9. 9

    WHO board reviews 'health for all by year 2000' strategy.

    UN Chronicle. 1986 Apr; 23:[4] p..

    The first global evaluation of the World Health Organization's "Strategy for Health for All by the Year 2000' was reviewed by the 31-member Executive Board of the World Health Organization (WHO)(Geneva, 8-22 January). The Board also demanded action to protect the rights of non-smokers and to prevent and control the spread of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The Board also asked for a special report on health and development in Africa, for review by the special session of the United Nations General Assembly on the critical economic situation in Africa in May. Noting that 86 per cent of Member States had reported on evaluation of their national health strategies, the Board urged all Member States to work towards reducing "socioeconomic and related health disparities among people'. (excerpt)
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  10. 10

    FAO sees decline in 'undernutrition', but the number of hungry continues to grow - Food and Agriculture Organization.

    UN Chronicle. 1986 Apr; 23:[8] p..

    For the first time in 40 years a decline in the incidence of undernutrition in the developing world has been detected by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Rapid population growth, however, has pushed the number of hungry people slightly upwards, according to FAO's Fifth World Food Survey, published in December. "There is evidence of a turn in the tide', FAO Director-General Edouard Saouma states in the foreword to the Survey. But he cautions that there are no grounds for complacency. "As we have seen from the current African food crisis, widespread malnutrition can all too quickly turn into actual famine and starvation'. The Survey provides both high and low estimates of the undernourished, which reflect two interpretations of the body's energy requirements. According to lower estimates, at least 335 million people in the developing market economies were undernourished in 1979-1981, some 10 million more than a decade before. However, the proportion of people suffering from hunger dropped from 19 to 15 per cent of the total population. (excerpt)
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  11. 11

    Special Assembly session adopts five-year programme of action for economic recovery of Africa.

    UN Chronicle. 1986 Aug; 23:[14] p..

    A five-year plan of action to revitalize and develop the economies and resources of Africa was adopted at the conclusion of the thirteenth special session of the General Assembly, convened from 27 May to 1 June at Headquarters to address the continent's critical economic situation. The United Nations Programme of Action for African Economic Recovery and Development, 1986-1990, was adopted without a vote, after what was described as "delicate,' "determined', "very tough' negotiations. The session, originally scheduled to conclude on 31 May, was extended by one day to accommodate reaching agreement on the text. Crucial priority areas were addressed: agriculture, environment, infrastructure, human resources and external resources. Divided into three parts, the Programme provides an analysis of Africa's critical economic situation; an inventory of objectives and costs of specific action--oriented measures--both activities and policies --to be taken at national, sub-regional and regional levels and aimed primarily at medium-term and long-term rehabilitation; suggestions for international commitments, including debt constraints and increased South-South co-operation; and follow-up and evaluation machinery. (excerpt)
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  12. 12

    $740 million pledged for UN development activities.

    UN Chronicle. 1986 Jan; 23:[2] p..

    Some 110 countries pledged $740 million for United Nations development activities at the 1985 United Nations Pledging Conference for Development. Contributions were made to more than 30 funds and programmes related to social and economic development, technical co-operation, training and research, capital development and environmental management. Some pledging countries stipulated that their contributions were subject to parliamentary approval. Some major donors, including Australia, Japan and the United States, said they were unable at this time to make pledges because their budgetary time-tables did not coincide with that of the Conference. Several other nations stated that contributions to specific programmes and organizations would be announced at a later date. (excerpt)
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  13. 13

    Emergency needs total $1 billion; resolve to solve African crisis must not waver, Secretary-General says - Javier Perez de Cuellar.

    UN Chronicle. 1986 Feb; 23:[3] p..

    A "very cautious and conditional expression of hope" was delivered by Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar on 17 December 1985 to an informal meeting of Member States on the African emergency situation. Thanks to the generous international response and to rain which promised better harvests, he said, emergency needs would be down significantly in 1986 but still amount to nearly $1 billion. However, as the situation improved and news of the famine "faded from the front pages", the resolve of the international community to respond adequately might weaken. "We cannot let that happen", said the Secretary-General. "The momentum that has been generated this year must be maintained." The drought highlighted the seriousness of Africa's development crisis, he said, which must be addressed "with the same sense of urgency and in the same concerted and sustained manner which characterized the response to the drought". (excerpt)
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  14. 14

    Expanded Programme on Immunization. Programme review. Bhutan. Programme Elargi de Vaccination. Examen du programme, Bhoutan.

    Bhutan; World Health Organization [WHO]; UNICEF

    Weekly Epidemiological Record / Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire. 1986 Jan 24; 61(4):21-3.

    The Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in Bhutan began in 1979. A strong and effective management team expanded EPI to 17 of 18 districts by 1985. A team reviewed it and other primary health care activities such as the control of diarrheal disease program between in 1985. EPI and maternal and child health (MCH) activities were integrated fully. The EPI/MCH program had moved towards decentralization to improve program management and understanding of local needs. It used 1 chart to monitor growth monitoring and to record immunizations. Team members conducted a survey in Chirang District. EPI leaders had introduced a consistent system for reporting immunization doses. Despite the problems with the Himalayas and poor communications and transport systems, EPI established a well operated cold chain. Only 13% of children were fully immunized. Just 20% had been immunized with all 3 doses of diphtheria/pertussis/tetanus/polio vaccine. Further 53% had received no immunizations at all. Moreover drop out rates stood about 50%. Nevertheless measles coverage was 1 of the highest in the WHO Southwest Asia Region (24%). Most children received their immunizations at outreach clinics rather than basic health units or hospitals. 29% of mothers whose children were not fully immunized did not know about the need for immunization while 10% said the location for immunizations was too far to travel. The estimated annual diarrhea rate for <5 year old children was 4.1 episodes/child. 41% of children had a diarrheal episode 2 weeks before the survey. 20% of children with diarrhea received oral rehydration solution. 91% of mothers delivered at home with no assistance from a health worker or a traditional birth attendant. 97% of the children were breast fed for at least 1 year. In conclusion, the EPI/MCH program must increase immunization coverage and reduce drop out rates.
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  15. 15

    Sexuality and family planning programme. Health for All 2000.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Europe. Sexuality and Family Planning Unit

    Copenhagen, Denmark, WHO, Regional Office for Europe, Sexuality and Family Planning Unit, 1986 May. 12 p.

    In 1965, the World Health Assemble gave the World Health Organization (WHO) a mandate to offer advice on family planning to member states and later states that family planning is an important part of basic health services. In 1884 the 33 members of the European region adopted a plan of action for a consolidated health policy. The goal of this plan and strategy, is for people to have access to health services that will make it possible to have socially and economically productive lives. There will be 4 main areas of effort including, promotion of healthy lifestyles, prevention medicine, better primary health care systems, and more effective political, managerial, technical, manpower, and research to ensure the above. There are ongoing studies to consider sexual health in a variety of cultures. These will assess changing sex roles, information interchange on lifestyle factors and demographic trends, ideas on childrearing styles, and recommendations on the development of healthy sexual relationships. There will be assessments of harmful sexual behavior and the reduction of sexually transmitted diseases. To improve basic health care systems, this program will help[ clarify concepts, investigate needs, analyze present services, get client input, compare information, and draw up guidelines. Methods will be examined to improve information exchange and the distribution of research and other pertinent material. There will be guidelines for legislative proposals in relation to lifestyles that promote better health by 1991. The development of ways to integrate family planning programs and services and connect them to key areas of society, is a goal to be reached by 1993. Also training programs to improve the various aspects of family planning and sexuality, including the attitudes of health professionals is needed.
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  16. 16

    Report. European Parliamentarians' Forum on Child Survival, Women and Population: Integrated Strategies, February 12-13, 1986, the Hague, Netherlands.

    European Parliamentarians' Forum on Child Survival, Women and Population

    [The Hague, Netherlands, European Parliamentarians' Forum on Child Survival, Women and Population, 1986.] 109 p.

    This report summarizes the consensus of the European Parliamentarians' Forum on Child Survival, Women, and Population. They have had the opportunity to examine integrated approaches to several of the world's most crucial issues of social development. Their co-sponsors, the World Health Organization, UNICEF, and the UN Population FUND, have been active in promoting integrated strategies to provide health for all, survival and well-being of mothers and children, family planning, and full and equal participation of men and women in the development process. But a great deal more remains to be done. The parliamentarians subscribe to the view that the effectiveness of the UN system will increase considerably in pursuit of commonly defined goals and objectives and action programs as defined in various conferences and meetings. Common action plans are available; the challenge now is to engage in a combined and concerted effort to implement these plans. Their role as parliamentarians is to implement the recommendations of today and to build up support, both within the governmental and the private sectors. Public perception tends to overlook the significant contributions the UN and related bodies are making to improve conditions of life and well-being the world over. The main tasks all have agreed on are 1) encouraging UN agencies and organizations concerned with social development to work together closely and to and enhance the effectiveness of their programs; 2) focusing public attention on the interrelatedness of issues relating to health, mother and child survival and care, the role and status of women, and freedom of choice for both men and women in family matters; 3) seeking greater support for social development programs of the UN, which ultimately strengthens the UN as a whole, through increased governmental contributions and better public understanding; and 4) maintaining and strengthening their own commitment through dialogues among themselves as parliamentarians.
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  17. 17

    [Morocco: report of second mission on needs assessment for population assistance] Maroc: rapport de la seconde mission sur l'evaluation des besoins d'aide en matiere de population.

    Fonds des Nations Unies pour les activities en matiere de population

    New York, New York, Fonds des Nations Unies pour les activities en matiere de population, 1986. xii, 90 p. (Rapport No. 88)

    This report details the conclusions of a study mission on population matters which visited Morocco from October 24 - November 14, 1985. In June 1985, Morocco had 22 million inhabitants. Numerous studies, including the census of 1982, the Morocco Fertility Survey of 1979-1980, and the Contraceptive Prevalence Survey of 1984, reveal demographic changes in Morocco. For example, life expectancy at birth has increased from 52.9 years in 1970-1975 to 59.1 years in 1980. Contraceptive knowledge and use have increased, and marriage age is later than formerly. In spite of these fundamental changes, the population continues to grow. The mission is conscious of real effort by ministries to collaborate in population matters. These efforts take place in the absence of an explicit population policy at a higher level. It is necessary to increase the support given to the Ministry of Public Health to improve strategies for maternal and child health services and to increase family planning services, the demand for which never ceases to grow. Internal and international migration are problems that merit attention. The brain drain is posing problems for economic development. It is necessary to make new efforts to obtain information on women's status and means of improving it. Data collection must be given a high priority for development planning. Data analysis and research activities must be reinforced in Morocco. Multisectoral activities in which population plays a part must be supported. Priority should be given to projects oriented toward assisting disadvantaged groups, such as women, youth, and the rural population, especially mothers and infants.
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  18. 18

    [Workshop on Sensitization of Communication Professionals to Population Problems, Dakar, 29 August, 1986 at Breda] Seminaire atelier de sensibilisation des professionnels de la communication aux problemes de population, Dakar du 25 au 29 Aout 1986 au Breda.

    Senegal. Ministere du Plan et de la Cooperation

    Dakar, Senegal, UNICOM, Unite de Communication, 1986. 215 p. (Unite de Communication Projet SEN/81/P01)

    This document is the result of a workshop organized by the Communication Unit of the Senegalese Ministry of Planning and Cooperation to sensitize some 30 Senegalese journalists working in print and broadcast media to the importance of the population variable in development and to prepare them to contribute to communication programs for population. Although it is addressed primarily to professional communicators, it should also be of interest to educators, economists, health workers, demographers, and others interested in the Senegalese population. The document is divided into 5 chapters, the 1st of which comprises a description of the history and objectives of the Communication Unit, which is funded by the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). Chapter 1 also presents the workshop agenda. Chapter 2 provides an introduction to population problems and different currents of thought regarding population since Malthus, a discussion of the utilization and interpretation of population variables, and definitions of population indicators. The 3rd chapter explores problems of population and development in Senegal, making explicit the theoretical concepts of the previous chapter in the context of Senegal. Topics discussed in chapter 3 include the role of UNFPA in introducing the population variable in development projects in Senegal; population and development, the situation and trends of the Senegalese population; socioeconomic and cultural characteristics of the Senegalese population; sources of sociodemographic data on Senegal; the relationship between population, resources, environment and development in Senegal; and the Senegalese population policy. Chapter 4 discusses population communication, including population activities of UNESCO and general problems of social communication; a synthesis and interpretation of information needs and the role of population communication; and a summary of the workshop goals, activities, and achievements. Chapter 5 contains annexes including a list of participants, opening and closing remarks, an evaluation questionnaire regarding the workshop participants, and press clippings relating to the workshop and to Senegal's population.
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  19. 19

    Provisional summary record of the fifteenth meeting, WHO headquarters, Geneva, Thursday, 16 January 1986, at 14h30.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Executive Board

    [Unpublished] 1986 Jan 16. 4 p. (EB77/SR/15)

    This summary record details the progress and evaluation report of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). Professor Menchaga noted that the 1990 coverage goal was ambitious and would be difficult to realize under present circumstances. Dr. Henderson, (EPI director) directed attention to the EPI's dilemma, which arises because substantial program acceleration will be required to meet the goal in many countries, and heroic measures will be called for in a few nations. Yet, the level of political commitment which is being achieved and publicized makes it difficult for national managers to plan for anything less than total short-term success, even if this means risking the long-term viability of the program. Dr. Henderson went on to make the point that while all partners in the immunization effort are aware of this dilemma, none have easy solutions to propose. The World Health Organization (WHO) has an especially important role to play and should be able to offer support to immunization planning taking place at the national level. This maximizes the chances that acceleration strategies adopted in the short term are in conformity with, and help support, national strategies for realizing for all by the year 2000. It was noted that there should be no backing away from the 1990 immunization goal. The necessary political commitment and financial resources are being mobilized, and the goal seems to be attainable in most countries of the world. Innovative immunization strategies will be required. In reply to Dr. Adou's question regarding the role of inactivated polio vaccine in EPI, Dr. Henderson responded that the WHO was encouraging operational research to gain further experience with the use of that vaccine but continued to recommend the oral vaccine as the routine for most immunization programs in developing countries.
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  20. 20

    WHO research activities: biennium 1984-1985.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Office of Research Promotion and Development

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 1986. x, 424 p. (RPD/COM/86.)

    This compendium provides substantive, systematic coverage of all research-related activities of the World Health Organization (WHO) for 1984-1985. Coverage includes programs which do not have a special managerial framework for their research activities. The volume is structured according to the official program classification of WHO (1984-1985); its principal concern is to reflect adequately the fields of scientific investigation within individual programs and to suggest, wherever appropriate, existing or possible lines of convergence between them. Research activities within global programs described include such population-related fields of study as: (1) health manpower; (2) maternal and child health; (3) women, health, and development; and (4) family health. Also included are reports on research activities within regional programs in Africa, the Americas, the Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, South-east Asia, and the Western Pacific region. The report's final two sections are a List of Institutionally Based Research Related Activities and a Summary Budgetary Table and Graphs.
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  21. 21

    Scales and related techniques for weighing pregnant women, newborns, infants and children: an evaluation. Report of a Working Group meeting, Copenhagen, 24 to 26 June 1985.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Divison of Family Health. Maternal and Child Health Unit; UNICEF; World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health. Maternal and Child Health Unit

    [Unpublished] 1986. 10 p. (WHO/MCH/86.5)

    A World Health Organization (WHO) Working Group Meeting was held in 1985 to evaluate scales and related techniques for weighing pregnant women, newborns, infants, and children. Program needs were discussed in terms of personnel, location, load, cost, potential for local manufacture, and frequency of use. Scale specifications, divided into the categories of fundamental design, potential for scale error, and potential for operator error, were delineated. The Working Group called for the development of adequate production standards for locally produced scales and for quality control to be included both in personnel training and as regular equipment calibration checks. The group further recommended that more research be conducted on measures of gestational age, the link between maternal weight gain and infant mortality, and the use of other anthropometric measurements as weight surrogates. A decision was made not to recommend the use of surrogate measures at this time. It was also recommended that pictorial instructional materials be included with all scales and that these be adapted for local use. Field testing was suggested for simple devices that tell whether an infant is above or below a designated weight.
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  22. 22

    [Population and development in the Republic of Zaire: policies and programs] Population et developpement en Republique du Zaire: politiques et programmes.

    Zaire. Departement du Plan. Direction des Etudes Macroeconomiques

    [Unpublished] 1986. Presented at the All-Africa Parliamentary Conference on Population and Development, Harare, Zimbabwe, May 12-16, 1986. 9 p.

    The 1st census of Zaire, in July 1984, indicated that the population of 30 million was growing at a rate of at least 2.3%/year. The crude birth rate was estimated at 46/1000 and was believed to be higher in urban areas than in rural because of better health and educational conditions. The crude death rate was estimated at 16/1000 and the infant mortality rate at 106/1000. 46.5% of the population is under 15. The population is projected to reach 34.5 million in 1990, with urban areas growing more rapidly than rural. Zaire is at the stage of demographic transition where the gap between fertility and mortality is very wide. The consequences for national development include massive migration and rural exodus, unemployment and underemployment, illness, low educational levels, rapid urbanization, and increasing poverty. In the past decade, Zaire has undertaken a number of activities intended to improve living conditions, but as yet there is no explicit official policy integrating population and development objectives. In 1983, the Executive Council of Zaire organized a mission to identify basic needs of the population, with the assistance of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). In 1985, the UNFPA developed a 5-year development plan. The UNFPA activities include demographic data collection, demographic policy and research, maternal-child health and family planning, population education, and women and development. In the area of data collection, the 1st census undertaken with UNFPA help has increased the availability of timely and reliable demographic data. The vital registration system is to be improved and a permanent population register to be developed to provide data on population movement. A National Population Committee is soon to be established to assist the Executive Council in defining a coherent population policy in harmony with the economic, social, and cultural conditions of Zaire. Demographic research will be conducted by the Demographic Department of the University of Kinshasa and the National Institute of Statistics. A primary health care policy has been defined to increase health coverage to 60% from the current level of 20%. Zaire has favored family planning services integrated with the primary health care system since 1979. At present 2 components of the Desirable Births" program are underway, the Desirable Births Service Project undertaken in 1983 and the Rural Health Project undertaken in 1982, both executed by the Department of Public Health with financing provided by US Agency for International Development. The RAPID (Resources for the Analysis of the Impact of Population on Development) program has been used since 1985 to inform politicians, technicians, and planners. Efforts have been underway since 1965 to include women in the development process, and a new family code is being studied which would give better protection to some rights of women and children.
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  23. 23

    Provisional summary record of the fourteenth meeting, WHO headquarters, Geneva, Thursday, 16 January 1986, at 9h30.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Executive Board

    [Unpublished] 1986 Jan 16. 20 p. (EB77/SR/14)

    This document provides a progress and evaluation report of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), a summary record of the 14th Meeting, held in Geneva, Switzerland during January 1986. Dr. Uthai Sudsukh began by saying that the Program Committee had undertaken a review and evaluation of immunization against the major infectious diseases in relation to the goal of health for all and primary health care. This was the second in a series of evaluations and reviews of World Health Organization (WHO) programs corresponding to the essential elements of primary health care. The Program Committee had requested the Secretariat to revise the progress and evaluation report in light of its observations as well as those of the EPI Global Advisory Group. The revised report was before members in document EB77/27, which contained a draft resolution proposed for submission to the 39th World Health Assembly in May 1986. Dr. Hyzler indicated that the revised report provided an excellent picture of the present situation, and he supported the recommendations of the EPI Global Advisory Committee and the draft resolution proposed for submission to the Health Assembly. The underlying concern that was expressed in the report was that EPI might become isolated as a vertical program at the expense of encouraging infrastructure development. Consequently, it was important to ensure that rapid increases in EPI coverage were sustained through mechanisms that also strengthened the delivery of other primary health care interventions. The efficiency of EPI was linked closely to the efficacy of maternal and child health services. The real commitment to the success of immunization that was needed was that of the health workers providing day-to-day care to mothers and children and their families. Those countries that had realized the most progress in immunization had done so because of a very strong maternal and child health component in their national health services. Dr. Otoo made the point that 1 of the major constraints in EPI programming was the shortage of managerial skills and that more effort must be made to improve managerial capabilities. Comments of other participants in the 14th Meeting are included in this summary document.
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  24. 24

    Health effects of female circumcision.

    Institute for Development Training

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Institute for Development Training, 1986. 42, [3] p. (Training Course in Women's Health Module 5)

    Female circumcision encompasses a variety of surgical procedures performed on female children in Africa and the Middle East. Although female circumcision is a traditional practice, it is also a health issue because of its severe physical and psychological consequences. This women's health module seeks to provide health practitioners with information on recognizing the immediate and longterm consequences of female circumcision and to suggest ways of counteracting this practice. The module includes a pre-test and post-test and chapters on the following topics: types of female circumcision operations, immediate health effects of the practice, longterm consequences for general health, the effects of excision and infibulation on marriage and childbirth, health consequences of re-infibulation, and health education strategies. The module is self-instructional, allowing the student to learn at his or her own pace. An appended statement by the World Health Organization (WHO) states that WHO has consistently and unequivocally advised that female circumcision should not be practiced by any health professionals in any setting.
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  25. 25

    Monitoring the impact of UNFPA basic needs assessment on women's projects.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. Special Unit for Women and Youth

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1986 Aug. vi, 30 p.

    This report reviews the assessments of women's needs and the recommendations for specific women's projects in the UNFPA Basic Needs Assessment (BNA) reports. Because the BNA reports serve as a basis for the Fund's program development, the report also examines the extent to which BNA recommendations have led to the development of specific women's projects in the countries concerned. A total of 38 BNAs are included in the analysis. The text on women was reviewed to ascertain the extent to which the technical guidelines of a previously published UNFPA manual had been taken into account in assessments of women's special needs and in the formulation of recommendations for the improved integration of women in development. Although the majority of reports were found to be satisfactory, some issues were still neglected, among them: women's health problems and preventive health measures; professional and managerial training of health personnel; women's economic activities, remuneration and working conditions; women's participation in political life and in decision-making; women's access to educational facilities and curricular content; migration; the burden of household and job responsibilities for women working outside the home; the need for men to share in family and domestic responsibilities; and the need for men, especially male decision makers, to be educated on the potential contribution of women to development. This report also suggests ways of improving the consideration of women's concerns in BNAs and in program development.
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