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  1. 1

    Imprisonment of children, slavery, racial discrimination acted on by human rights.

    UN Chronicle. 1985 Jul-Aug; 22:[6] p..

    The imprisonment of children, slavery, genocide, and racial discrimination in South Africa and Namibia were among the topics acted upon by the Commission on Human Rights Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities at its meeting in Geneva (5-30 August). The Sub-Commission strongly condemned South Africa for "brutal acts of terrorism" carried out to suppress the black majority's realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms. It demanded the "immediate lifting" of the state of emergency and called upon the international community to continue its efforts towards total economic, cultural and political isolation of South Africa until that country abandoned its policy of apartheid and its illegal occupation of Namibia. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Progress made in drafting convention on right of child.

    UN Chronicle. 1985 Mar; 22:[2] p..

    The Working Group on a draft convention on the rights of the child adopted a number of articles during 12 meetings from 28 January to 8 March, according to a report of the Group (E/CN.4/1985/L.1) that was reviewed by the Commission on Human Rights during its 1985 annual session, held at Geneva from 4 February to 15 March. The Group had adopted a number of other articles of the draft convention earlier. The Commission has been engaged in the drafting of a convention on the rights of the child since 1978 with a view to concluding a universal instrument containing binding obligations upon States. During the Group's meetings, the report stated, representatives of States had proposed draft articles and amendments which had not been discussed by it for lack of time. The Group is expected to meet for a week before the Commission's 1986 session to try to complete its task. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Drinking water and sanitation decade: record progress in early 1980s.

    UN Chronicle. 1985 May; 22:[4] p..

    Safe drinking water was provided for an estimated 345 million people in developing countries from 1980 to 1983, surpassing the record set during the entire period of the 1970s, according to a United Nations report on "Progress in the attainment of the goals of International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade." The report, a mid-Decade evaluation of progress achieved since the Decade was launched in 1980, will be considered later this year by the General Assembly. It notes almost 140 million rural and urban dwellers benefited from newly installed sanitation facilities, a prerequisite to improved health in most developing countries. An estimated 530 million additional people will receive reasonable access to safe drinking water and some 86 million people will receive adequate sanitation services by the end of 1985. Despite these advances, some 1,200 million people remain without safe water and some 1,900 million without adequate sanitation in the developing world. National, international and grassroots action on many fronts is needed to plan, design, construct, operate and maintain the services they require. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    More than 1 million African drought victims saved through international efforts, OEOA says.

    UN Chronicle. 1985 Sep; 22:[2] p..

    More than a million people throughout Africa would have perished had it not been for the massive international relief effort launched in December 1984, the Office for Emergency Operations in Africa (OEOA) reported in September. The "partnership between the drought-stricken countries and the international community' helped stave off what would have been an "unprecedented peace-time disaster', the Office stated in its monthly report on the African crisis. In spite of relief efforts and increased rain throughout drought-stricken areas of Africa, the situation in some countries is still critical, the OEOA warned. "One good rainy season can hardly be expected to undo the damage of several years of drought', the report stated. Lesotho was cited as an example of how the mere return of the rains did not necessarily signify the end of the crisis. Earlier forecasts for that country's harvest were about 15 per cent higher than was likely to be the case. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    Assistance to Africa among main issues discussed during Secretary-General's trip to Europe and Africa - Javier Perez de Cuellar.

    UN Chronicle. 1985 Jul-Aug; 22:[5] p..

    Efforts to resolve political and economic problems in Africa were among the main concerns as Secretary- General Javier Perez de Cuellar met with government leaders and United Nations officials during a 25-day trip (30 June-24 July) to Europe and Africa. He visited Switzerland, Italy, Yugoslavia, Austria, Kenya, Ethiopia, Morocco and France. Highlights of the trip included his opening addresses to the Organization of African Unity (OAU) Summit Meeting in Addis Ababa, the second regular (1985) session of the Economic and Social Council in Geneva, and the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women, held in Nairobi from 15 to 26 July. The need for a multilateral response to urgent problems of development was a recurring theme. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    The global possible: resources, development, and the new century.

    Global Possible Conference (1984: Wye Plantation)

    In: The global possible: resources, development, and the new century, edited by Robert Repetto. New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University Press, 1985. 491-519. (World Resources Institute Book)

    Participants at the Global Possible Conference in 1984 concluded that, despite the dismal predictions about the earth, we can still fashion a more secure, prosperous, and sustainable world environmentally and economically. The tools to bring about such a world already exist. The international community and nations must implement new policies, however. Government, science, business, and concerned groups must reach new levels of cooperation. Developed and developing countries must form new partnerships to implement sustained improvements in living standards of the world's poor. Peaceful cooperation is needed to eliminate the threat of nuclear war--the greatest threat to life and the environment. Conference working groups prepared an agenda for action which, even though it is organized along sectoral disciplines, illustrates the complex linkages that unite issues in 1 area with those in several others. For example, problems existing in forests tie in with biological diversity, energy and fuelwood, and management of agricultural lands and watersheds. The agenda emphasizes policies and initiatives that synergistically influence serious problems in several sectors. It also tries to not present solutions that generate as many problems as it tries to solve. The 1st section of the agenda covers population, poverty, and development issues. it provides recommendations for developing and developed countries. It discusses urbanization and issues facing cities. The 3rd section embodies freshwater issues and has 1 list of recommendations for all sectors. The agenda addresses biological diversity, tropical forests, agricultural land, living marine resources, energy, and nonfuel minerals in their own separate sections. It discusses international assistance and the environment in 1 section. Another section highlights the need to assess conditions, trends, and capabilities. The last section comprises business, science, an citizens.
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  7. 7

    Child care in Islam, 1405 (H) - 1985 (A.D.).

    Al Azhar

    [Unpublished] [1985]. [5], 101 p.

    This study was conducted by a working group of religious leaders from Al Azhar formed by request of UNICEF. The point of the study is to establish religious support of practical health care for children. The idea was endorsed by the religious leaders and a working groups was created to research the Koran in an effort to make the strongest possible theological case for child health care. 6 specific issues were to be supported: (1) immunization of children for diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, measles, polio, and tuberculosis; (2) treatment of diarrheal dehydration with oral rehydration therapy; (3) promoting improved health practices; (4) support for breastfeeding; (5) encouragement of early treatment of respiratory infections; (6) immunizing pregnant mothers for tetanus. A number of TV events were shown during the religious program (Fi Rihab El Iman) which concentrated on child protection and sound upbringing as well as how to effectively meet the child's needs before and after birth. The working groups produced 6 research papers that drew heavily from the Koran, hadiths and famous quotations. UNICEF supports issuing these papers together as a reference book for people in related fields. This booklet is a synthesis of the research papers and has been widely disseminated attention was paid to use very simple language so as to maximize its appeal and effect.
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  8. 8

    Energy and protein requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation.

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]; World Health Organization [WHO]; United Nations University [UNU]


    In 1981, participants in the Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation on Energy and Protein Requirements met in Italy to reexamine the interrelationships between energy and protein requirements and to recommend methods to integrate requirement scales for energy and proteins. They stated that the use of a reference man or woman to determine energy requirements should no longer be used since it is unduly restrictive and there is a wide range of body size and patterns of physical activity. The tables exhibit this wide range so users can use those values that best apply to his or her conditions. Overall the participants agreed that estimates of energy requirements should be based on actual or desirable energy requirement estimates. In terms of children, however, this principle cannot be applied since there is not enough information available about their energy expenditure. Further no one could agree on how to determine what actual intakes are needed to maintain health in its broadest sense in either developing or developed countries since observed actual intakes are not necessarily those that maintain a desirable body weight or optimal levels of physical activity. Divers patterns of physical activity in different age and sex groups are presented nonetheless to guide users in applying requirement estimates. The maintenance protein requirements identified by the 1971 consultation for the young child < 6 years old, e.g. 1 g/ for 5-6 year old, and the young male adult (.54-.99 remained the same. The participants made indirect estimates of protein needs for the remaining age and sex groups. They acknowledged that digestibility can affect the availability of protein and protein requirements need to be adjusted for fecal losses of nitrogen. They concluded that the natural diets for infants and preschool children contain sufficient amount of essential amino acids, but not those of the remaining groups.
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  9. 9

    Managing national population education programmes: issues and actions.

    UNESCO. Division of Educational Sciences, Contents and Methods. Population Education Unit

    [Paris, France], Unesco, Division of Educational Sciences, Contents and Methods, Population Education Unit, 1985. vi, 200, [30] p. (Comparative Study of Programme Development Strategies in Population Education (COSDEPE)/Project GLO/81/P.22; ED/85/WS/56)

    Identifying the issues in the management of national population education is the aim of this book prepared for the UNESCO Population Education Unit. The introduction explains the role of the book and details the elements of population education. Part 2 identifies various aspects of population education programs including curriculum and materials development, teacher training, program management, monitoring and evaluation, and the transition to integration of population education with a school program. Additional readings are suggested in an annex, as well as the address of UNESCO population education units and projects. The final annex outlines trends in teacher education.
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  10. 10

    Prototype home-based mother's record: a guideline for its use, and adaptation in maternal and child health/family planning programmes and a reference manual for field testing and evaluation.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health. Maternal and Child Health Unit

    [Unpublished] 1985. [2], 119 p. (MCH/85.13)

    There is a need for a simple, home-based maternal record that can monitor breastfeeding and family planning practices during the interpregnancy period, identify high-risk women, and guide health care workers in the timely management of care to be provided in the home and at the next referral level. This record should further serve as an educational tool that promotes the concept of participation in self- care. Maternal cards used in clinics and hospitals are difficult for primary health care workers with limited education to complete and are not designed to be adapted to the changing health problems and health needs in a given community. In response to this situation, the World Health Organization's Maternal-Child Health Unit has designed a prototype home-based mother's record that can serve as a starting point for the design of more area-specific ones. The record contains 6 panels: 1 for data and risk conditions suggested by past history; 3 for data on past pregnancies, deliveries, and postpartum periods; 1 to monitor health progress before the 1st pregnancy or during the interpregnancy interval; and 1 for recording recommendations to the referral center. It is important that any mothers' records developed should be field tested to evaluate the physical condition of the card after 1 year of use, the extent of use of the record, the quantity of information collected and its usefulness, the assessment of health workers about the value of the record, risk factors identified, utilization of referral sources and family planning services, and linkages with other health records.
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  11. 11

    [Republic of Zaire: report of mission on needs assessment for population assistance] Republique du Zaire: rapport de mission sur l'evaluation des besoins d'aide en matiere de population.

    Fonds des Nations Unies pour les activities en matiere de population

    New York, New York, Fonds des Nations Unies pour les activities en matiere de population, 1985. ix, 63, [1] p. (Rapport No. 72)

    The UN Fund for Population Activities sent a needs assessment mission to Zaire in 1983. The mission recommends that the 1st priority be given to analyzing and exploiting the results of the 1984 census, Zaire's 1st census. It is recommended that the Institut National de la Statistique participate in data collection and analysis for the census. The lack of trained demographers is noted, and teaching statistics and demography should be made a priority. 3 areas of research in population matters are priorities: 1) the detailed analysis of the results of the census, 2) modern contraceptive usage, and 3) malnutrition in mothers and children. The creation of a national commission on human resources and population is recommended. Zaire has a rather large medical-health infrastructure that is badly adapted to the actual needs of the population. The problem is not only the lack of resources but also the absence of clear health policies. Population education does not currently exist in Zaire, but formal population education could be placed at all levels of the educational system. As regards population information and communication, radio coverage is very important in a country that is largely rural. Women are still undervalued in Zaire society. They participate actively in the country's economy, but they remain on the margins of the modern sector. The new department on female conditions and social affairs has 2 priorities: 1) improving the quality of life of rural women with income-generating projects and 2) creating adult female education centers in urban areas.
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  12. 12

    [People's Republic of the Congo: report of mission on needs assessment for population assistance] Republique Populaire du Congo: rapport de mission sur l'evaluation des besoins d'aide en matiere de population.

    Fonds des Nations Unies pour les activities en matiere de population

    New York, New York, Fonds des Nations Unies pour les activities en matiere de population, 1985. x, 53, [1] p. (Rapport No. 75)

    The UN Fund for Population Activities sent a mission to the Congo (Brazzaville) to assess their needs for assistance in population matters in 1984. Government policy still does not cover linkages between population and economic development. The Mission particularly recommends the assistance be given to the 1984 census. It is necessary to have demographic data on which to base health programs. The Mission also strongly recommends technical assistance for maternal and child health and family planning programs. The Mission recommends providing support for civil registration, an infant and child mortality survey in rural areas, and a national survey of population, migration, and employment to take place 5 years after the census. The effective integration of population in development planning requires not only data collection but demographic, social, and economic research. The recent creation of the Ministry of Scientific and Technical Research will give a new boost to research activities. In the domain of health in general, and maternal and child health in particular, the situation is characterized by insufficiency and by a lack of health statistics. There are grave health problems. Morbidity and mortality are high, especially among infants. Faced with these problems, the government has instituted a huge effort to promote the well-being of families. The Mission recommends a national population education policy. The condition of women remains difficult, and little information is available. The Mission recommends further research on the status of women and the education of women.
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  13. 13

    Eradication of indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus in the Americas. Plan of action, July 1985.

    Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]. Expanded Program on Immunization [EPI]

    [Washington, D.C.], PAHO, 1985 Jul. 26 p. (EPI-85-102; CD31/7 Annex II)

    The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) appointed a Technical Advisory Group (TAG) which met in July 1985 to plan eradication of wild poliovirus in the Americas by 1990 by immunization and surveillance. The strategies to be adopted are mobilization of national resources; vaccine coverage of 80% or more of the target population; surveillance to detect all cases; laboratory diagnosis; information dissemination; identification and funding of research needs; development of a certification protocol; and evaluation of ongoing program activities. The expanded immunization program (EPI) will be organized at the country level by setting up National Work Plans, with inventories of resources and identification of participating agencies and donors, under the guidance of national EPI offices. The TAG will be composed of a core of 5 experts on immunization, with additional consultants as needed, meeting quarterly, semi-annually or annually to review progress and publish recommendations. Regional EPI offices will coordinate eradication activities between the Ministries of Health, the 10-11 epidemiologists/technical advisors in each country and all agencies affiliated with the PAHO. Support personnel will be available at the sub-regional and regional level, including support virologists to assist the laboratory network. Appendices are attached showing estimated costs for regional and regional personnel, vaccines, laboratories, and program activities, predicting that the effort will pay for itself 2.3 times over by 2000.
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  14. 14

    Toward the well-being of the elderly.

    Pan American Health Organization

    Washington, D.C., Pan American Health Organization, 1985. 172 p. (PAHO Scientific Publication 492.)

    At present, aging is the most salient change affecting global population structure, mainly due to a marked decline in fertility rates. The Pan American Health Organization Secretariat organized a Briefing on Health Care for the Elderly in October 1984. Its purpose was to enable planners and decision-makers from health and planning ministries to exchange information on their health care programs for the elderly. This volume publishes some of the most relevant papers delivered at that meeting. The papers are organized into the following sections: 1) the present situation, 2) services for the elderly, 3) psychosocial and economic implications of aging, 4) training issues, 5) research and planning issues, and 6) governmental and nongovernmental policies and programs.
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  15. 15

    Report on Asia-Pacific Workshop on Scouting and Family Life Education, Bangkok, Thailand, 21-27 June 1985.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]; World Scout Bureau. Asia-Pacific Region

    [Unpublished] 1985. 10, [27] p.

    This workshop, held in Thailand in 1985, was attended by 22 key trainers from 10 national scout organizations in the member countries of the Asia-Pacific region. The objectives of the conference were to enable participants to identify the problems and needs of young people in their respective countries, learn the value of family life education in relation to scouting, provide creative and effective activities for Scouts in family life education, design a plan for the promotion of family life education in the home and the community, and implement a scheme of close collaboration with family planning associations as well as other relevant governmental and nongovernmental agencies. A thorough exchange of ideas and experiences was fostered through carefully planned plenary sessions, group discussions, and individual exercises. All presentations stressed the similarity of the aims and objectives of family life education and scouting. A proficiency badge on family life education ("Happy Home Badge") was suggested as a means of introducing such education into scouting programs. The involvement of parents in Scout activities relating to family life was also encouraged. An effective way of generating and sustaining public interest and support for family life education in the Scout movement would be to implement activities that coincide with holidays such as Mother's Day and International Youth Year. There will be continuous monitoring of follow-up activities to the workshop by the 2 co-sponsoring organizations, International Planned Parenthood Foundation and World Scout Bureau, Asia-Pacific Region.
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  16. 16

    Report of the Expanded Programme on Immunization Global Advisory Group Meeting, 21-25 October 1984, Alexandria.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expanded Programme on Immunization [EPI]. Global Advisory Group

    [Unpublished] 1985. 51 p. (EPI/GEN/85/1)

    This report of the Expanded Program on Immunization Global Advisory Group Meeting, held during October 1984, contains the following: conclusions and recommendations; a summary of the global and regional programs; a review of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region; a review of country programs in Denmark, Brazil, and India; a report on the epidemiology and control of pertussis; and discussion of sentinel surveillance, surveillance of neonatal tetanus, polio, and measles, and research and development; and proposals for the 1985 meeting of the Global Advisory Group. The Global Advisory Group concluded that national immunization programs have made much progress, realizing some 30% coverage in developing countries with a 3rd dose of DPT. Yet, the lack of immunization services continues to extract a toll of 4 million preventable child deaths annually in the developing world. The Global Advisory Group indicated that the acceleration of existing programs is essential if immunization services are to be provided for all children of the world by 1990. Such acceleration calls for continued vigorous action to mobilize political support and financial resources at national and international levels. Considerable experience has been gained in most countries regarding implementation of immunization programs. The knowledge now exists to bring about major improvements in program achievement, yet gaps in knowledge exist in both technical and administrative areas. Action is needed in the following areas if programs are to accelerate sufficiently to meet the target: management of existing resources; use of intensified strategies; program evaluation; coordination with other components of primary health care; collaboration among international agencies; and regional and country meetings. To take maximum advantage of the benefits offered by vaccine, each country should take the necessary steps to include all relevant antigens in its national program. In particular, the universal use of measles vaccine should be encouraged. It also is of concern that some countries are not yet using polio vaccine and that others omit pertussis vaccine from their programs. Countries are urged to review their current practices about the anatomical site of intramuscular immunization. Taking into account the criteria of safety and ease of administration, thigh injection for DPT and arm injection for TT are recommended strongly. The Global Advisory Group reaffirmed its 1983 recommendation to use every opportunity to immunize eligible children.
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  17. 17

    [Family health selected list of publications] Sante de la famille liste de publications selectionnees.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, Division of Family Health, 1985. 15 p. (FHE/85.3.)

    This list of 1978-1984 publications and documents of the World Health Organization (WHO) covers subjects that have been given priority on the regional and global levels relating to family health. The sections are divided into 1) Family Health, 2) Maternal and Child Health, 3) Maternal and Child Care, 4) Infant and Young Child Nutrition, 5) Nutrition, and 6) Health Education. Publications listed with a price, and back numbers of periodicals, are for sale and can be obtained through a bookseller, from any of the stocklists shown at the end of this document, or directly from the WHO distribution and sales office.
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  18. 18

    Health systems research in maternal and child health including family planning: issues and priorities. Report of the meeting of the Steering Committee of the Task Force on Health Systems Research in Maternal and Child Health including Family Planning, New Delhi, 12-15 March 1984.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health. Maternal and Child Health Unit

    [Unpublished] 1985. 23 p. (MCH/85.8)

    In a series of general discussions aimed at establishing health systems research priorities, the Steering Committee of the Task Force on the Risk Approach and Program Research in Maternal-Child Health/Family Planning Care identified 9 major issues: 1) health services and health systems, 2) research and service to the community, 3) involving the community, 4) evaluation, 5) information systems, 6) interdisciplinary nature of health systems research, 7) appropriateness in technology and research, 8) funding and collaboration between agencies, and 9) implications for research program strategies. Background considerations regarding subject priorities for health systems research include the policies, goals, and programs of WHO, especially the goal of health for all by the year 2000. Of particular importance is the joining of training in health systems research with the research itself given the shortage of workers in this area. The sequence of events in the management of research proposals includes approach by an applicant, the WHO response, information to the appropriate WHO regional office, the beginning of technical dialogue, development of protocol, submission of grant application, contractual agreement, initial payments, regular monitoring of progress, proposed training strategy, annual reports, final report, and assistance in disseminating results. 3 subject areas were identified by the Steering Committee for additional scrutiny: 1) the dissemination of results of health systems research in maternal-child health/family planning, 2) the implementation of health services research and the studies to be funded, and 3) the coordination and "broker" functions of the Steering Committee.
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  19. 19

    Adolescents: planning contraceptive and counselling services.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Central Council

    [Unpublished] 1985. 114 p.

    This document is a practical guide to help those Planned Parenthood Associations which want to establish contraception and counseling services for young people. It draws its examples from the considerable experience of selected European countries in what can be controversial and difficult areas. In the section devoted to adolescent sexuality and contraception, contributors cover culture and subculture, health and sexuality, sexual behavior and contraceptive services, the adolescent experience, the question of opposition to services for adolescents, and statistical indices. 1 section is devoted to examples of contraceptive counseling services for adolescents in Sweden, Italy, France, the UK, and Poland. Another section summarizes service provision examples. The 5th section presents methodology for the establishment of adolescents services and the final section discusses methodology testing of new projects. This report contends that the case for the rapid development of contraceptive/counseling services, tailored to the needs and desires of young people, is justified on moral as well as on sociological, psychological, and health grounds. It rejects totally the argument that any measure which could facilitate the sexual debut of the unmarried or legally dependent adolescent should be resisted. It does recognize public concern about family breakdown and the potential health risks of sexual activity but considers the examples given as measures designed to combat rather than ignore these. Taking into account sociological, psychological, and medical evidence, the contributors to this report challenge the following presumptions: sexual activity among the young is always and necessarily morally unacceptable and socially destructive; adolescents will resort to promiscuous sexual activity in the absence of legal deterrents such as refusal of access to contraceptive/counseling services; the potential health risks of sexual activity and use of contraceptives during adolescence provide sufficient justification for deterrent measures, including refusal of contraceptive/counseling services; and the scale of sexual ignorance and prevalence of unplanned pregnancy among adolescents can only be reduced by disincentives and deterrents to sexual activity itself. The case for the provision of contraceptive/counseling services rests on their potential to help adolescents to recognize and resist repressive forms of sexual activity, which are destructive of humanmanships. Evidence suggests that it is not difficult to attract a large cross-section of an adolescent public to use contraceptive/counseling services, where established.
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  20. 20

    The control of schistosomiasis: report of a WHO Expert Committee.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expert Committee on the Control of Schistosomiasis


    This document represents the work of a World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on the Control of Schistosomiasis which met in Geneva in 1984. Chapters in this volume focus on epidemiology, disease due to schistosomiasis, methods of control, progress in national control programs, and a strategy for morbidity control. At present, the aim is to control the morbidity due to schistosomiasis rather than to control its transmission. The simplicity of diagnostic techniques, the safety and ease of administering oral antischistosomal drugs, the use of snail control measures based on specific epidemiologic criteria, and precise methods of data collection and analysis mean that control activities can be adapted to suit any level of the health care delivery system. Drug treatment reduces the prevalence and intensity of infection, prevents or reduces pathologic manifestations in infected persons, and is generally the most cost-effective way of achieving schistosomiasis control. On the basis of the severity of schistosomiasis in the area, its priority rating as a public health problem, and available resources, those operational approaches most suited to a particular area should be identified. Active community participation is necessary to ensure that the maximum benefits are derived from chemotherapy. Maintenance of transmission control by the primary health care system, through monitoring of both parasitologic indexes and clinical signs and measurements, is essential. In most endemic areas, schoolchildren are regarded as the most appropriate target group for monitoring. The WHO Expert Committee has recommended that schistosomiasis control programs be integrated into primary health care and noted the need for greater administrative and managerial expertise in schistosomiasis control. Improvement in socioeconomic conditions in endemic areas provides the longterm solution to schistosomiasis control.
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  21. 21

    Resolution passed on 24 October 1985 [on child immunization].

    League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies; International Federation of National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

    ASSIGNMENT CHILDREN. 1985; 69-72:155-6.

    In its Resolution passed on October 24, 1985, the League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies recognized its unique position to play a role in strengthening the provision and utilization of national immunization programs. The League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies appreciates that an involvement with national immunization programs would add substance to previous resolutions in support of primary health care, would complement recent initiatives directed toward nutrition and diarrheal diseases, and would strengthen the emergency and relief responses of national socieities. It invites national societies to determine ways in which they could become more actively involved in the control of vaccine-preventable diseases through their participation in national immunization programs, based on their existing resources and current activities, and requests the Secretary-General of the League identify ways of stimulating and supporting the activities of national societies for the control of vaccine-preventable diseases and to ensure that such activities are coordinated with those of the World Health Organization, the UN International Chidren's Emergency Fund, and other organizations involved with the control of vaccine-preventable diseases.
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  22. 22

    The Expanded Programme on Immunization: the 1974 Resolution by the World Health Assembly.

    World Health Assembly (27th: 1974)

    Assignment Children. 1985; 69-72:87-8.

    This document is the 1974 resolution passed by the World Health Assembly on the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). The resolution recommends that Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) develop or maintain immunization and surveillance programs against some or all of the following diseases: diphtheria, poliomyelitis, pertussis, tetanus, measles, tuberculosis, and smallpox. The resolution requests that the Director-General of WHO: 1) intensify WHO's activities pertaining to the development of immunization programs, especially for developing countries; 2) assist Member States in developing suitable programs by providing technical assistance and assuring the availability of good-quality vaccines at a reasonable cost; 3) study the possibilities of providing from international sources an increased supply of vaccines, equipment, and transport and developing local competence to produce vaccines at the national level; 4) continue to support research on the efficacy of vaccines and on unsolved practical problems encountered in immunization procedures; 5) arrange seminars and other educational activities on the design and execution of programs. The resolution further requests the Director-General to establish a special account under the Voluntary Fund for Health Promotion to be credited with the values of gifts intended for the EPI and to ensure that vaccines donated to the program conform with WHO requirements.
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  23. 23

    PolioPlus programme: criteria for funding of polio immunization programmes.

    Rotary Foundation

    Assignment Children. 1985; 69-72:187-92.

    To date, the Rotary Foundation of Rotary International has allocated over US$12 million for polio immunization programs in 26 countries to protect more than 87 million children and has pledged to raise US$120 million within 3 years. The 1st major polio immunization project assisted was launched in the Philippines in 1980. On 14 May 1985, Rotary joined PAHO/WHO in the goal to eradicate polio in the Americas by 1990. Rotarians have provided support to many recent accelerated immunization programs in cooperation with governments, UNICEF, and WHO. (author's)
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  24. 24

    [The Permanent Household Survey: provisional results, 1985] Enquete Permanente Aupres des Menages: resultats provisoires 1985

    Ivory Coast. Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances. Direction de la Statistique

    Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Ivory Coast. Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances. Direction de la Statistique, 1985. 76 p.

    This preliminary statistical report provides an overview of selected key economic and social indicators drawn from a data collection system recently implemented in the Ivory Coast. The Ivory Coast's Direction de la Statistique and the World Bank's Development Research Department are collaborating, under the auspices of the Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study, to interview 160 households per month on a continuous basis for 10 months out of the year. Data are collected concerning population size, age structure, sex distribution, family size, nationality, proportion of female heads of household, fertility, migration, health, education, type of residence, occupations, employment status, financial assistance among family members, and consumption. Annual statistical reports based on each round of the survey are to be published, along with brief semiannual updates.
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  25. 25

    Future use of new imaging technologies in developing countries: report of a WHO Scientific Group.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Scientific Group on the Future Use of New Imaging Technologies In Developing Countries

    World Health Organization Technical Report Series. 1985; 1-67.

    This report was prepared by a World Health Organization (WHO) Scientific Group on the Future Use of New Imaging Technologies in Developing Countries, which met in Geneva in 1984 to consider the use of ultrasound and computed tomography. There is increasing demand for both techniques, necessitating careful examination of the costs, medical indications, and types of equipment needed. The primary need in diagnostic imaging is conventional radiology. It is stressed that the use of ultrasound or computed tomography should be considered only when conventional radiology is already available. In addition, neither technique should be considered unless the appropriate specialist physicians are well trained and the resources and manpower are available to provide the necessary treatment and care. Ultrasound is the method of choice for imaging during obstetric examinations, and has almost replaced radiography in this area. This document aims to delineate the conditions under which these 2 new imaging technologies will be of use in developing countries. Toward this end, it outlines the major clinical indications for the use of these techniques and specifies the particular areas where the most benefit can be obtained from their use. The Scientific Group concluded that use of these 2 technical advances confers definite advantages, as long as proper planning and education precede their purchase. In particular, it is noted that purchase of computed tomography equipment will have a significant effect on the total health budget of many countries. Finally, the document reviews all aspects of the specifications and choice of equipment, as well as the type of buildings, education, and maintenance that are essential.
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