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WHO Programme in Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning. Report of the second meeting of the WHO Programme Advisory Committee in Maternal and Child Health, Geneva, 21-25 November 1983.
[Unpublished] 1984. 95 p. (MCH/84.5)The objectives of the 2nd meeting of the Program Advisory Committee (PAC) for the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Program in Maternal and Child Health, including Family Planning (MCH/FP) were to 1) assess the MCH/FP program's achievements since the 1st PAC meeting in June, 1982, 2) determine the level of scientific and financial resources available for the program, and 3) to examine the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the delivery of MCH/FP services. The committee reviewed the activities and targets of the program's 4 major areas (pregnancy and perinatal care, child health, growth, and development, adolescent health, and family planning and infertility), and developed a series of recommendations for each of these areas. Specific recommendations were also made for each of the major program areas in reference to the analysis and dessimination of information and to the development and use of appropriate health technologies. Upon reviewing the role of TBAs in the delivery of MCH/FP services, PAC recommended that all barriers to TBA utilization be removed and that training for TBAs should be improved and expanded. PAC's examination of financial support for MCH/FP activities revealed that for a sample of 26 countries, the average annual amount allocated to MCH activities was less than US$3/child or woman. This low level of funding must be taken into account when setting program targets. International funding agencies did indicate their willingness to increase funding levels for MCH programs. The appendices included 1) a list of participants, 2) an annotated agenda, 3) detailed information on the proposed activities of the program's headquarters for 1986-87, and 4) a description of the the function, organizational structure, and technical management of the MCH/FP program. Also included in the appendices was an overview of the current status of MCH and a series of tables providing information on infant, child, and maternal health indicators. Specifically, the tables provided information by region and by country on maternal, child, and infant mortality; causes of child deaths; maternal health care coverage; contraceptive prevalence; infant and child malnutrition; the number of low weight births; adolescent health; teenage births; breast feeding prevalence and duration; and the proportion of women and children in the population.
The poor quality of official socio-economic statistics relating to the rural tropical world: with special reference to South India.
MODERN ASIAN STUDIES. 1984; 18(3):491-514.Statistics relating to the sizes of farm-holdings, the output and yield of crops, household income and expenditure, occupation, cattle ownership, and the sizes of villages were considered, and some features of the Karnataka population census were criticized. The main reason for the extremely poor quality of so many official socioeconomic statistics relating to the rural tropical world is the failure to realize that statistical procedures are based on conditions peculiar to advanced countries. The All-India National Sample Survey is a rare example of a wasted exercise which runs into several hundred separate reports. Because of the inevitable unreliability of most statistics it should be assumed that all statistics covering whole countries or large states, which relate to agricultural yields, crop values, and production, are bound to include a large element of estimation. Organizations like the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) should provide some information on the basis of estimates, and statistical tables without notes should not be published, such as the regular Statistical Bulletins of the FAO. Far fewer figures of far higher quality should be produced. Owing to the diversity of agrarian systems, very few economic generalizations (any presumed inverse relationship between crop yield and size of farm-holding) can be of universal application. Organizations like the FAO should advise tropical countries that it is wasteful to collect statistics that are considered conventional in advanced countries because of the nature of their agrarian systems and systems of land tenure. Instead of estimating the proportions of households below poverty levels, economic indicators of living standards, such as agricultural wage rates and determinants of the distribution of household farmland, should be identified.
[Statistical country yearbook: members of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, 1984] Statisticheskii ezhegodnik stran--chlenov Soveta Ekonomicheskoi Vzaimopomoshchi, 1984.
Moscow, USSR, Finansy i Statistika, 1984. 456 p.This yearbook presents general statistical information for member countries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. A section on population (pp. 7-14) includes data on area and population; population according to the latest census; average annual population; birth, death, and natural increase rates; infant mortality; average life expectancy; marriages and divorces; urban and rural population; and population distribution by social group. (ANNOTATION)
Hong Kong, Family Planning Association of Hong Kong, 1984.  p.This 1983-84 Annual Report of the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong lists council and executive members as well as subcommittee members and volunteers for 1983 and provides information on the following: administration of the Association; clinical services; education; information; International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) activities; laboratory services; library service; motivation; personnel resource development and production; the Sexually Assualted Victims Service; studies and evaluation; subfertility service; surgical service; training; the Vietnamese Refugees Project; women's clubs; the Youth Advisory Service; and youth volunteer development. In 1983, there was a total of 45,384 new cases; total attendance at clinics was 261,992. A series of thirteen 5-minute segments on sex education was produced as part of a weekly television youth program. An 8-session sexual awareness seminar continued to receive a very good response. To meet the increasing demand of young couples for better preparation towards satisfactory sexual adjustment in marriage, a 3-session seminar on marriage was regularly conducted every month during 1983. 13 seminars were held, reaching a total of 374 participants. Other education efforts included a family planning talk, the Kwun Tong Population and Family Life Education Week, and 39 sessions of talks and lectures on various topics related to family planning and sex education. The year-long information campaign was organized in response to the 1982 Knowledge, Attitude, Practice findings that many couples still fail to recognize the concept of shared responsibility in family planning. Laboratory services include hepatitis screening, premarital check-up examinations, pap smear, the venereal disease research laboratory test (VDRL), and seminal fluid examinations. Throughout the year, 256 interviews were given to sexually assaulted victims. To arouse the awareness of the public with regard to preventing rape through education, counselors conducted talks and gave radio and television interviews on the Sexually Assaulted Victims Service. The records of the 3 sub-fertility clinics showed that altogether in 1983 there were 1355 new cases and 561 old cases, with a total attendance of 6682. 144 pregnancies also were recorded. Training programs included sex education seminars for social workers, a sex education course for secondary school teachers, a sex education seminar for student guidance officers, and an advanced course on human sexuality for teachers and social workers.
[Unpublished] 1984. Presented at the Union of National Radio and Television Organisations of Africa [URTNA] Family Health Broadcast Workshop (Nairobi, 19-23 November, 1984).  p.Statistical information on Zambia's population is provided, and the activities, goals, and achievements of the country's family health, maternal and child health (MCH), and expanded immunization programs are described. Zambia is a tropical country and has a 1-party participatory democratic form of government. The country is inhabited by 73 tribes speaking 62 languages. In 1983, the population size was 6,425,000, and 48.6% of the population was under 15 years of age. Population size, area, and density information for each province is provided. The general fertility rate was 220/1000 women of reproductive age. Life expectancy was 50 years for women and 46.7 years for men. The 6 major causes of death among women and children in 1979 were measles, malnutrition, pneumonia, malaria, diarrhea, and respiratory infection. The Ministry of Health is actively working to expand immunization and MCH services in the rural areas. The family health program is a training program charged with the task of providing training in family health for 600 enrolled nurses and midwives. Sessions include 6 weeks of classroom instruction followed by 6 weeks of clinical or field experience. Topics covered in the training sessions are health education, teaching and communication skills, management skills, child health, nutrition, immunization, prenatal and postnatal care, and child spacing. Graduates of the program are assigned to rural health facilities where they supervise the delivery of immunization and MCH services and initiate child spacing services. The family health program, initiated in 1980, is funded by the UN Fund for Population Activities and is guided jointly by the Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization. As of 1983, 19 registered nurse midwives and 442 enrolled nurse midwives were trained under the program. Information on the family health program is disseminated via radio, television, a Ministry of Health magazine, the World Health Day Exhibition, and agricultural shows. The development of MCH services in rural areas is emphasized by the 1980-84 national development plan. The major components of the MCH program are prenatal and postnatal care, family planning, children's clinics, vitamin and protein supplementation, immunization, and school health services. The Expanded Immunization Program (EIP) is integrated into the primary health care system and covers remote areas not as yet covered by MCH services. The specific goals of the program are to increase immunization coverage, establish a cold chain for vaccines, reduce vaccine wastage, and train health personnel to use and maintain cold chain equipment. The program is funded by various UN agencies and the national government. Family planning was introduced into Zambia by the Family Planning Association. The organization's name was later changed to the Planned Parenthood Association to overcome the mistaken impression that family planning meant the complete cessation of childbearing. In 1973, child spacing was integrated into the MCH program and family planning was assigned a high priority in the 1980-84 national development plan. Between 1980-84, the number of family planning acceptors increased from 49,412 to 101,803. In 1984, a number of evaluations were made of the MCH, EPI, and family health programs. The results of these evaluations will be available in the near future. Tables provide information on contraceptive usage, the Ministry of Health budget for 1983, the number and type of health staff in 1982, and the number and type of health facilities in the country.
Population and Development Review. 1984 Mar; 10(1):103-26.This paper presents some of the results of projections prepared by the World Bank in 1983 for all the world's countries. The projections (presented against a background of recent demographic trends as estimated by the United Nations) trace the approach of each individual country to a stationary state. Implications of the underlying fertility and mortality assumptions are shown mainly in terms of time trends of total population to the year 2100, annual rates of growth, and absolute annual increments. These indices are shown for the largest individual countries, for world regions, and for country groupings according to economic criteria. The detailed predictive performance of such projections is likely to be poor but the projections indicate orders of magnitude characterizing certain aggregate demographic phenomena whose occurrence is highly probable and set clearly interpretable reference points useful in discussing contemporary issues of policy. (author's)
Jakarta, Indonesia, U.S. Agency for International Development, Office of Population and Health, 1984 Jun. 32 p.This booklet, intended to provide a brief introduction to the Indonesian Family Planning Program and US Agency for International Development (USAID) assistance to this program, describes Indonesia's population problem, population policy and government goals, population strategy, and results. The data were compiled from numerous sources, including the National Family Planning Coordinating Board and USAID Office of Population and Health. Based on Indonesian census figures, the annual average rate of population growth was 2.3% during the 1971-80 period. USAID currently projects a decrease in the average annual rate of natural increase to 1.6% during the 1980-90 period and to 1.1% during the 1990-2000 period. The population policy goal is to institutionalize the small, happy, prosperous family norm. The strategy is to reduce significantly the rate of population growth through the family planning program and related population policies, to ameliorate population maldistribution through transmigration programs, and to improve socioeconomic conditions for all citizens through expanded development programs. The family planning target is to reduce the crude birthrate to 22/1000 population by March 1991. This represents a 50% reduction in the crude birthrate over the 1971-91 period. In 1970, the total of new family planning acceptors was 53,103 in Java-Bali; in 1984 3,895,120. For the Outer Islands I, acceptors numbered 117,875 in 1975 and 1,009,852 in 1984. For Outer Islands II, the acceptors numbered 56,705 in 1975 and 341,212 in 1984. The percent of married women 15-44 using modern contraceptives increased from 2% in 1972 to 58% in 1984. In Java-Bali, 32% of married women aged 15-44 were oral contraceptive (OC) users as of March 1984; 16% were IUD users, 2% condom users, 6% injectable acceptors, and 2% acceptors of other methods. For Outer Islands I, 33% were OC users, 8% IUD acceptors, 4% condom users, 3% injectable acceptors, and 2% acceptors of other methods. In the Outer Islands II, 12% were OC acceptors as of March 1984, 5% IUD acceptors, 1% condom users, 4% injectable acceptors, and 1% acceptors of other methods.
New York, New York, UNICEF, . 42 p.In the last 12 months, world-wide support has been gathering behind the idea of a revolution which could save the lives of up to 7 million children each year, protect the health and growth of many millions more, and help to slow down world population growth. This document summarizes case studies which illustrate the techniques which make this revolution possible. These techniques are: oral rehydration therapy (ORT); growth monitoring; expanded immunization using newly improved vaccines to prevent the 6 main immunizable diseases which kill an esitmated 5 million children a year and disable 5 million more (measles, whooping cough, neonatal tetanus, polio, diphtheria and tuberculosis); and the promotion of scientific knowledge about the advantages of breastfeeding and about how and when an infant should be given supplementary foods. Results are summarized from Guatemala, Papua New Guinea, Brazil, Egypt, Indonesia, Barbados, the Philippines, Nicaragua and Honduras, Malawi, China, Nepal, Bangladesh, Colombia, and Ethiopia. The impact of economic recession and female education on childrens' health is discussed, and basic statistics for developed and underdeveloped countries are given.