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[Unpublished] 1984 Jan. 13 p.The UN Development Program (UNDP) began a special drive in the mid-1970s to ensure that women would enjoy greater benefits from its programs of technical cooperation. Efforts have increased steadily since 1975 when UNDP's Governing Council declared that "the integration of women in development should be a continuous consideration in the formulation, design, and implementation of UNDP projects and programs." They involve: promotion to create a greater awareness of women's needs and approaches which can meet them effectively; orientation and training to enhance skills in developing, implementing, and monitoring programs of benefit to women; improving the data base to provide better information on women's productive roles; programming to address women's concerns and generate self-sustaining activities, replicable nationally, regionally, and interregionally; and personnel action to increase the number of women professionals within UNDP. A number of projects supported by UNDP are directly benefiting women, especially those in rural and poor urban areas of developing countries. Among other things, these projects are helping to reduce women's workloads; addressing needs for clean water, health care, and education; providing training in basic skills; and helping to develop income-earning potentials. Examples are cited for the countries of Indonesia, Mali, Mexico, Yemen Arab Republic, Nepal, Rwanda, Honduras, Papua New Guinea, Liberia, Bolivia, and the Philippines.
Report on the evaluation of the UNFPA-supported women, population and development projects in Indonesia (INS/79/P20 and INS/83/P02) and of the role of women in three other UNFPA-supported projects in Indonesia (INS/77/P03, INS/79/P04, and INS/79/P16).
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Apr. vi, 52 p.The Evaluation Mission analyzes and assess the 2 United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA)-supported Women, Population and Development Projects and the role of women in 3 other UNFPA-assisted projects in Indonesia. The Mission concluded that the family planning and cooperative/income generation scheme as evolved in the 2 projects has contributed to increasing contraceptive acceptance and continuation and to a shift from the less reliable to the more reliable contraceptive methods. The projects have also assisted women and their families to expand their income generating activities, raise their incomes, and improve the family's standard of living. The Mission recommends that: 1) more diversified income producing activities be encouraged; 2) product outlets be identified and mapped and appropriate marketing strategies devised; 2) loan repayment schedules be carefully examined; 4) data collection, monitoring and evaluation be streamlined and strenghthened; and 5) the process of the entire rural cooperatives/income generation scheme be more comprehensively documented. In the 3 other projects, which are addressed to both men and women, the needs and concerns of women have not been adequately taken into account and/or the participation of women in all phases of the projects and their access to project benefits have not been equal to men. The Mission therefore recommends that special consideration be given to women's concerns in the design and formulation of all projects. The Mission ascertained that non-women specific projects tend to perpetuate existing discriminatory or unequal access to, and control of, resources by women unless specific consideration is accorded to them.
Women At Work. 1984; (2):1-71.This document describes the current status of maternity protection legislation in developed and developing countries and is based primarily on the findings of the International Labor Organization's (ILO's) global assessment of laws and regulations concerning working women before and after pregnancy. The global survey collected information from 18 Asian and Pacific countries, 36 African nations, 28 North and South American countries, 14 Middle Eastern countries, 19 European market economy countries, and 11 European socialist countries. Articles in 2 ILO conventions provide standards for maternity protection. According to the operative clauses of these conventions working women are entitled to 1) 12 weeks of maternity leave, 2) cash benefits during maternity leaves, 3) nursing breaks during the work day, and 4) protection against dismissal during maternity. Most countries have some qualifying conditions for granting maternity leaves. These conditions either state that a worker must be employed for a certain period of time or contributed to an insurance plan over a defined period of time before a maternity leave will be granted. About 1/2 of the countries in the Asia and Pacific region, the Americas, Africa, and in the Europe market economy group provide maternity leaves of 12 or more weeks. In all European socialist countries, women are entitled to at least 12 weeks maternity leave and in many leaves are considerably longer than 12 months. In the Middle East all but 3 countries provide leaves of less than 12 weeks. Most countries which provide maternity leaves also provide cash benefits, which are usually equivalent to 50%-100% of the worker's wages, and job protection during maternity leaves. Some countries extend job protection beyond the maternity leave. For example, in Czechoslovakia women receive job protection during pregnancy and for 3 years following the birth, if the woman is caring for the child. Nursing breaks are allowed in 5 of the Asian and Pacific countries, 30 of African countries, 18 of the countries in the Americas, 9 of the Middle East countries, 16 of European market economy countries, and in all of the European socialist countries. Several new trends in maternity protection were observed in the survey. A number of countries grant child rearing leaves following maternity leaves. In some countries these leaves can be granted to either the husband or the wife. Some countries have regulations which allow parents to work part time while rearing their children and some permit parents to take time off to care for sick children. In most of the countries, the maternity protection laws and regulations are applied to government workers and in many countries they are also applied to workers in the industrial sector. A list of the countries which have ratified the articles in the ILO convenants concerning maternity benefits is included.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 May. xii, 156 p. (Report No. 67)A Needs Assessment and Program Development Mission visited the People's Republic of China from March 7 to April 16, 1983 to: review and analyze the country's population situation within the context of national population goals as well as population related development objectives, strategies, and programs; make recommendations on the future orientation and scope of national objectives and programs for strengthening or establishing new objectives, strategies, and programs; and make recommendations on program areas in need of external assistance within the framework of the recommended national population program and for geographical areas. This report summarizes the needs and recommendations in regard to: population policies and policy-related research; demographic research and training; basic population data collection and analysis; maternal and child health and family planning services; management training support for family planning services; logistics of contraceptive supply; management information system; family planning communication and education; family planning program research and evaluation; contraceptive production; research in human reproduction and contraceptives; population education and dissemination of population information; and special groups and multisectoral activities. The report also presents information on the national setting (geographical and cultural features, government and administration, the economy, and the evolution of socioeconomic development planning) and demographic features (population size, characteristics, and distribution, nationwide and demographic characteristics in geographical core areas). Based on its assessment of needs, the Mission identified mjaor priorities for assistance in the population field. Because of China's size and vast needs, external assistance for population programs would be diluted if provided to all provincial and lower administrative levels. Thus, the Mission suggests that a substantial portion of available resources be concentrated in 3 provinces as core areas: Sichuan, the most populous province (100,220,000 people by the end of 1982); Guandong, the province with the highest birthrate (25/1000); and Jiangsu, the most densely populated province (608 persons/square kilometer. In all the government has identified 11 provinces needing special attention in the next few years: Anhui, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jilin, Shaanxi and Shandong, in addition to Guangdong, Jiangsu, and Sichuan.
In: Quantitative approaches to analyzing socioeconomic determinants of Third World fertility trends: reviews of the literature. Project final report: overview, by Indiana University Fertility Determinants Group, George J. Stolnitz, director. [Unpublished] 1984. 79-91.Simple no-work/work distinctions are an unreliable basis for estimating causal linkages connecting female employment/work-status patterns to fertility. World Fertility Survey (WFS) data show about 3/4, 1/2, and 1/4 child differentials for over 20, 10-19, and under 10 years marital duration grouss respectively, for women employed since marriage. Effects on marriage seem strongest in Latin America and weakest in Asia. Controlling for age, marital duration, urban-rural residence, education, and husband's work status. But from the results of a number of WFS and other studies, it seems relationships of work status and fertility are difficult to confirm beyond directional indications, even in Latin America. A UN study using proximate determinants such as contraception and work status including a housework category indicated differentials in contraceptive practice were not significant net of control for education. Philippine data indicates low-income employment might increase fertility by decreasing breastfeeding, while WFS data from 5 Asian countries indicated pre-marital work encourages increased marriage age, without being specific about effects. Also, female employment must affect a large population to have a real impact on aggregate fertility, since female labor force activity is likely to change slowly if at all. Data presently available do not cover micro-level factors that may be important, such as effects of work on breastfeeding, nor do they lend themselves to examination by multi-equation analysis. More work is needed to isolate effects of work-status attributes like male employment, and to analyze intra-cohort mid-course fertility objective changes, as well as new theoretical process models such as competing time use and maternal role incompatibility.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Jul. vii, 59 p. (Report No. 68)This report of a Mission visit to Ghana from May 4-25, 1981 contains data highlights; a summary of findings; Mission recommendations regarding population and development policies, population data collection and analysis, maternal and child health and family planning, population education and communication programs, and women and development; and information on the following: the national setting; population features and trends (population size, growth rate, and distribution and population dynamics); population policy, planning, and policy-related research; basic data collection and anaylsis; maternal and child health and family planning (general health status, structure and organization of health services, maternal and child health and family planning activities, and family planning services in the private sector); population education and communication programs; women, youth, and development; and external assistance in population. Ghana gained independence in 1957. The country showed early promise of rapid development. Although well-endowed with natural and human resources, Ghana now suffers from food scarcity, inadequate infrastructure and services, inflation, inequities in income distribution, unemployment, and underemployment. Per capita gross national product (GNP) was $400 in 1981; between 1960-81 the average annual growth of GNP was -1.1%. A high rate of natural increase of the population has compounded development problems by intensifying demands for food, consumer goods, and social services while simultaneously increasing the constraints on productivity. The population, estimated at 13 million in mid-1984, is growing at a rate of 3.25% per annum. Immigration and emigration have contributed to changes in the size and composition of the population. Post-independence development policies favored the urban areas, encouraging a steady rural-to-urban shift in the population. At the same time, worsening socioeconomic conditions spurred the emigration of professional, managerial, and technical personnel and skilled workers. Ghana was the 1st sub-Saharan African nation to establish an official population policy. Since the formulation of the policy in 1969, successive governments have remained committed to its emphasis on fertility reduction while increasing attention to the problems of mortality and morbidity and rural/urban migration. Recognizing the need to intensify the commitment to population policies, the Mission recommends support for a program to further the awareness of policy makers of the relationship between population trends and their areas of responsibility. The Mission recommends the creation of a special permanent population committee and the strengthening of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning's Manpower division. The Mission also makes the following recommendations: the provision of training, technical assistance, and data processing facilities to ensure the timely provision of demographic data for socioeconomic planning; data collected in the pilot program of vital registration be evaluated before the system is expanded; the complete integration of maternal and child health and family planning and general health services within the primary health care system; and improvement in women's access to resources such as education, training, and agricultural inputs.
The changing roles of women and men in the family and fertility regulation: some labour policy aspects
In: Family and population. Proceedings of the "Scientific Conference on Family and Population," Espoo, Finland, May 25-27, 1984, edited by Hellevi Hatunen. Helsinki, Finland, Vaestoliitto, 1984. 62-83.There is growing evidence that labor policies, such as those advocated by the International Labor Organization (ILO), promote changes in familial roles and that these changes in turn have an impact on fertility. A conceptual model describing these linkages is offered and the degree to which the linkages hypothesized in the model are supported by research findings is indicated. The conceptual model specifies that: 1) as reliance on child labor declines, through the enactment of minimum age labor laws, the economic value of children declines, and parents adopt smaller family size ideals; 2) as security increases for the elderly, through the provision of social security and pension plans, the elderly become less dependent on their children, and the perceived need to produce enough children to ensure security in old age is diminished; and 3) as sexual equality in job training and employment and the availability of flexible work schedules increase, sexual equality in the domestic setting increases, and women begin to exert more control over their own fertility. ILO studies and many other studies provide considerable evidence in support of these hypothesized linkages; however, the direction or causal nature of some of the associations has not been established. Development levels, rural or urban residence, and a number of other factors also appear to influence many of these relationships. Overall, the growing body of evidence accords well with ILO programs and instruments which promote: 1) the enactment of minimum age work laws to reduce reliance on child labor, 2) the establishment of social security systems and pension plans to promote the economic independence of the elderly, 3) the promotion of sexual equality in training programs and employment; 4) the promotion of the idea of sexual equality in the domestic setting; and 5) the establishment of employment policies which do not unfairly discriminate against workers with family responsibilities.
Development: Seeds of Change. 1984; (4):76-9.The International Women's Year (IWY) Conference in 1975 was the first opportunity for dialogue between 2 important emerging movements: the feminist movement and the movement to integrate women and development. The women and development movement began at about the same time as the feminist movement. By 1970 the full integration of women in the total development effort was adopted as an objective of the International Development Strategy for the Second Development Decade. In 1974 the women and development movement achieved a minor but significant recognition in US policy. The US foreign Assistance Act was amended to require "inter alia" US representatives in international agencies to encourage and promote the integration of women into national economies. The dialogue of the 2 movements at the IWY Conference, and its associated nongovernmental Tribune was electric. Feminists began to appreciate that their movement was only 1 part of a global women's movement, and they started to consider their list of basic demands as geopolitically specific and to realize and accept that elsewhere the list might include access to land, food prices, and many other issues. Feminism offered those concerned with women and development a holistic approach to changing women's lives, aimed at changing all facets of oppression and not just, for example, to increase access to education or to create greater economic independences. The conference provided a turning point for both movements by legitimizing them and by providing the impetus and the networks for a worldwide movement. The dialogue also produced a conference document, the Declaration of Mexico, 1975. Apart from the adoption of this Declaration and a World Plan of Action for the implementation of the objectives of the International Women's Year, several important decisions were made at the Mexico City Conference. It was decided to establish 1975-85 as the UN Decade for Women. This decision directed some of the energy generated by the Conference towards ensuring continuing international debate and action. A 2nd important initiative arising from the IWY Conference was the creation of the Voluntary Fund for the Decade for Women (VFDW) to provide financial and technical assistance to women. A Mid-Decade Conference was held in July 1980 in Copenhagen and adopted a Program of Action for the Second Half of the UN Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace. The task in preparation for the 1985 Review and Appraisal Conference for the end of the Decade for Women is to find a better instrument for assisting national governments and others to understand how to go about determining what problems women face in their countries and appropriate and effective means of overcoming them.
Development: Seeds of Change. 1984; 4:80-1.A strategy, developed by the Women's Programme of the Social Development Division of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) to promote women's participation in the development process, is described. Although recommendations of international conferences invariably call for the inclusion of women in all levels of development planning, efforts to involve women in planning at the national level have met with little success. Even if women received sufficient training and education to qualify them as planners, their impact on development planning would be minimal due to deficiencies within the national planning process. Top planning units in most Asian and Pacific countries are composed of highly trained expatriots who lack an understanding of the needs of the population in general and of women in particular. The strategy developed by the Women's Programme is based on expanding the role of women in development planning at the local level and gradually sensitizing the planning hierarchy to women's needs and to women's abilities. This awareness building can be facilitated by developing links between government agencies and women's organizations. Application of this strategy revealed that it was much more difficult to build awareness among government officials and planners then to involve women in development at the local level. The planning process is constantly subject to personnel and policy changes because of changing political situations, and planners remain isolated from the public. At the community level, women's efforts to promote development are highly successful. Programs developed by women tend to benefit the entire community, and women's roles in these activities are highly visible. These successful efforts will contribute toward building an awareness of women's capacities to promote development. Conditions which are conducive to local level involvement of women include the political will to promote participation, the provision of appropriate training to prepare community members for participation, and the existence of an adequate infrastructure and sufficient resources to carry out programs.
Forum on Population and Development for Women Leaders from Sub-Saharan African Countries, New York, 15-18 May, 1984.
New York, UNFPA, 1984. 39 p.The Forum I and Forum II meetings, held during May 1984, were part of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) initiatives to increase participation by women leaders and women's organizations in all aspects of population programs. Objectives were: to review the extent of women's participation in population programs; to identify issues and topics which enhance or restrict the active participation of women in population and development releated efforts; to identify strategies designed to broaden the integration of African women into population programs at regional, national, and international levels to examine the types of project which could improve the situation of African women and formulate practice proposals to intensify their participation in population programs; to identify interested women leaders and women's organizations willing to cooperate with UNFPA in implementing population policies and programs responsive to women's needs and concerns and enable them to participate in such programs; and to identify possible solutions to population-related issues and topics of special concern to women, e.g., fertility, infant and maternal mortality, and migration, and to discuss how to address these issues during the forthcoming Women's Conference in Nairobi. This document includes the proceedings of both forums. In general, participants at Forum I agreed that efforts to improve the status and welfare of women and to afford them greater prominence in national development efforts should become an integral part of a country's development strategy. The following recommendations were made: UNFPA's funding policies should be more flexible in support of activities at present considered to be of low priority, such as the supply of time and labor saving devices, vocational training, and income generating activities; UNFPA should play a leading role in programs designed to support the advancement of women and coordinate such efforts with other UN organizations to make programs more effective and achieve a comprehensive approach to measures for improving the status of women; support should be given to planning and management and to applied technology and science training; UNFPA should continue the dialogue with women's organizations and women leaders; UNFPA's budget for projects designed to improved the status of women should be increased substantially to finance the described interventions; and women's organizations and women as individuals should involve themselves in activities beyond traditional women's programs Forum II emphasized the need to relieve women of the excessive burden of childbearing and of time and energy consuming domestic chores. Participants are listed along with the names and affiliations of observers and representatives of the UN system.
People. 1984; 11(4):4-7.A significant happening at the International Conference on Population, which took place in Mexico City during August 1984, was the world consensus on the need to act more urgently to deal with the interrelated problems of population and development and to provide the conditions of life and means by which everyone can plan their family. The note of concern about the impact of population growth and about its distribution and structure was consistent. Support for expanded family planning services came from all sides, including Africia and Latin America. The UN agencies and the World Bank came nearest to injecting a visionary and emotional charge into the occasion. Their near universal message was the need to release and mobilize the energies of the people and slow excessive population growth by investing in their health, education, environment, employment opportunities and in family planning. Bradford Morse, Administrator of the UN Development Program, added a powerful plea, that the international factors of protectionism, debt, and high increase rates, arms spending, and ddeclining aid flows must be addressed if the goals of the original Plan of Action, i.e., to promote "economic development, wuality of life, human rights, and fundamental freedoms," were to be dealt with. James Grant, Executive Director of UNICEF, stated tha the experience of the past decade confirms "that development and population programs are interacting, mutually reinforcing efforts that work with the 'seamless' web of income, nutrition, health, education, and fertility." The final document put the same idea into various paragraphs. This consensus position was simple and consistent, but in its way, revoluntionary. The elements which brought about this agreement were made clear from the start. The 1st was the change in government attitudes towards population. In 4/5 of the world governments regard population as a key factor inn development strategy. A 2nd factor was that governments now feel more independent and less under external pressure. A 3rd element was that women in nearly all countries desire fewer children than they wanted previously and many are coming out openly and stating that they did not want their last child. A 4th factor was the awareness that population problems affect developed countries as well as developing countries. Along with these changes has come greater awareness of the health and social benefits of family planning. These ideas find expression the the 38 pages of recommendations which were eventually agreed on. The most significant of these was the added emphasis given to the role and status of women.
[Unpublished] 1984. Presented at the Second African Population Conference, Arusha, Tanzania, January 9-13, 1984. 21 p.This discussion of Ethiopia focuses on: sources of demographic data; population size and age-sex distribution; urbanization; fertility; marital status of the population; mortality and health; rate of natural increase; economic activity and labor force activity rates; food production; education; population policies and programs; and population in development planning. As of 1983, Ethiopia's population was estimated at 33.7 million. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy. Ethiopia has not yet conducted a population census, however, the 1st population and housing census is planned for 1984. The population is young with children under 15 years of age constituting 45.4% of the total population; 3.5% of the population are aged 65 years and older. The degree of urbanization is very low while the urban growth rate is very high. Most of the country is rural with only 15% of the population living in localities of 2000 or more inhabitants. In 1980-81 the crude birthrate was 46.9/1000. The total fertility rate was 6.9. Of those aged 15 years and older, 69.2% of males and 71.3% of females are married. According to the 1980-81 Demographic Survey the estimates of the levels of mortality were a crude death rate of 18.4/1000 and an infant mortality rate of 144/1000. At this time 45% of the population have access to health services. It is anticipated that 80% of the population will be covered by health care services in 10 years time. Ethiopia is increasing at a very rapid rate of natural increase; the 1980 estimation was 2.9% per annum. Despite the rich endowments in agricultural potential, Ethiopia is not self-sufficient in food production and reamins a net importer of grain. Enrollment at various levels of education is expanding rapidly. There is no official population policy. Financial assistance received from the UN Fund for Population Activities and the UN International Children's Emergency Fund for population programs is shown.
Popleone. 1984 Jul; 1(1):13-6.In the context of an interview, the role of women in development is discussed. Despite the fact that women in Africa have the primary responsiblity of carrying out the daily agricultural tasks involved in planting, tending, harvesting, and marketing, men are the target of most development programs. This inconsistency is attributable to a variety of cultural and social factors. For example, the fruits of agriculture are culturally defined as belonging to the men, and men, therefore, make the decisions about how the proceeds from farming are to be spent. Factors such as this reduce the visibility of women's major contribution to agricultural production. Recent socioeconomic and demographic changes have altered the role of women in African societies in a number of ways. Tribal structures have broken down and traditional sex rules have been disrupted. Subsistence patterns have also been disrupted, and parents now realize that they must limit family size in order to provide adequately for their children. Increased access to family planning is helping these parents reduce family size. The high proportion of young people in the population strains many support facilities and increases hardships for women. The greatest achievement for women in the past decade is the increased recognition given to their contribution in development. Many African governments have created commissions and committees charged with the task of formulating policies and programs to integrate women in development activities. The UN Development Program (UNDP) has helped upgrade the status of women by funding many projects aimed at improving conditions for women. The UNDP provides funds for maternal and child health programs, projects aimed at improving water supplies, and projects aimed at generating income for women. In addition, UNDP is helping to develop effective strategies for integrating women in development planning. Communication plays an important role in enhancing the position of women in Africa. Public knowledge of women's problems and needs has increased, and many misconceptions about the role of women have been corrected.
Interview: Dr. Nafis Sadik on: population and women in development--the second decade of women. What roles?
Popleone. 1984 Jul; 1(1):23-4.The role of women in development is discussed. In africa, women, and especially rural women, assume major responsibilities for child rearing; caring for the elderly; providing food, health care, and other services for family members; producing agricultural crops; and undertaking other income-generating activities. These tasks and responsibilities are not fully recognized in the national statistics. Furthermore, women do not derive a corresponding share of the benefits of development programs nor are they accorded a correspondingly important role in development planning. The major achievement for women in developing countries during the last decade has been the increased public awareness of women's contributions to the well-being of the family and of society. This awareness must now be translated into effective programs and policies. The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) tries to ensure that women benefit from population projects and that women fully participate in all aspects of program development and implementation. UNFPA also provides education and skill development programs for women and seeks to develop projects relevant to the needs of women. Communication plays a major role in educating the public about the needs, problems, and concerns of women and about the impact of population growth on the family and on the individual.
Population Headliners. 1984 Jan; (106 Suppl):1-4.A major item on the agenda of the Expert Group Meeting on Forward Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women was a critical review of the achievement of the UN Decade for Women, which touched on several aspects related to integrated population programs. These included demographic trends, health and nutrition, education, employment in various economic sectors, and science and technology. The meeting identified the area of science and technology as 1 of the most significant sectors having a major impact on the present role and status of women and would continue to do so in the future. Few women occupy jobs in the scientific and technical sectors and even fewer participate in scientific development. It was felt imperative that women avail themselves of and keep up with the advances in science and technology in order to gain an avenue for commanding resources and power and to equalize their status with men. The continued lagging behind of women in this area exposes them to continued if not increasing exploitation and subjugation. It was also stressed that there was a need for more research and data to identify the effects of any technological innovations on the status of women, in the short- and long-term. The following were among the recommendations made on specific sector issues which pertain to an integrated approach to population and the development of women: member states should undertake active surveillance of the health status of women to determine their health problems and needs and monitor progress in order to provide maximum health benefits to women; governments should ensure full employment for women and men and provide equal access to employment opportunities by breaking down barriers to people's equality in seeking and retaining jobs; women's studies need to be incorporated into existing disciplines and not treated as separate courses; and systematic and organized research on women's concerns in development should be conducted to develop theories and policies and to measure the contribution of women. The manner in which the role and status of women influences demographic trends was presented to meeting participants. The achievement of low fertility seems to reflect many elements which contribute to women's status. Possibly most important is that low fertility requires a large element of female participation in family decision making and implementing. Low fertility also correlates with measurements of women's status because many of the indicators of status are the conventional determinants of fertility, such as education and labor force participation.