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Forum on Population and Development for Women Leaders from Sub-Saharan African Countries, New York, 15-18 May, 1984.
New York, UNFPA, 1984. 39 p.The Forum I and Forum II meetings, held during May 1984, were part of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) initiatives to increase participation by women leaders and women's organizations in all aspects of population programs. Objectives were: to review the extent of women's participation in population programs; to identify issues and topics which enhance or restrict the active participation of women in population and development releated efforts; to identify strategies designed to broaden the integration of African women into population programs at regional, national, and international levels to examine the types of project which could improve the situation of African women and formulate practice proposals to intensify their participation in population programs; to identify interested women leaders and women's organizations willing to cooperate with UNFPA in implementing population policies and programs responsive to women's needs and concerns and enable them to participate in such programs; and to identify possible solutions to population-related issues and topics of special concern to women, e.g., fertility, infant and maternal mortality, and migration, and to discuss how to address these issues during the forthcoming Women's Conference in Nairobi. This document includes the proceedings of both forums. In general, participants at Forum I agreed that efforts to improve the status and welfare of women and to afford them greater prominence in national development efforts should become an integral part of a country's development strategy. The following recommendations were made: UNFPA's funding policies should be more flexible in support of activities at present considered to be of low priority, such as the supply of time and labor saving devices, vocational training, and income generating activities; UNFPA should play a leading role in programs designed to support the advancement of women and coordinate such efforts with other UN organizations to make programs more effective and achieve a comprehensive approach to measures for improving the status of women; support should be given to planning and management and to applied technology and science training; UNFPA should continue the dialogue with women's organizations and women leaders; UNFPA's budget for projects designed to improved the status of women should be increased substantially to finance the described interventions; and women's organizations and women as individuals should involve themselves in activities beyond traditional women's programs Forum II emphasized the need to relieve women of the excessive burden of childbearing and of time and energy consuming domestic chores. Participants are listed along with the names and affiliations of observers and representatives of the UN system.
People. 1984; 11(4):4-7.A significant happening at the International Conference on Population, which took place in Mexico City during August 1984, was the world consensus on the need to act more urgently to deal with the interrelated problems of population and development and to provide the conditions of life and means by which everyone can plan their family. The note of concern about the impact of population growth and about its distribution and structure was consistent. Support for expanded family planning services came from all sides, including Africia and Latin America. The UN agencies and the World Bank came nearest to injecting a visionary and emotional charge into the occasion. Their near universal message was the need to release and mobilize the energies of the people and slow excessive population growth by investing in their health, education, environment, employment opportunities and in family planning. Bradford Morse, Administrator of the UN Development Program, added a powerful plea, that the international factors of protectionism, debt, and high increase rates, arms spending, and ddeclining aid flows must be addressed if the goals of the original Plan of Action, i.e., to promote "economic development, wuality of life, human rights, and fundamental freedoms," were to be dealt with. James Grant, Executive Director of UNICEF, stated tha the experience of the past decade confirms "that development and population programs are interacting, mutually reinforcing efforts that work with the 'seamless' web of income, nutrition, health, education, and fertility." The final document put the same idea into various paragraphs. This consensus position was simple and consistent, but in its way, revoluntionary. The elements which brought about this agreement were made clear from the start. The 1st was the change in government attitudes towards population. In 4/5 of the world governments regard population as a key factor inn development strategy. A 2nd factor was that governments now feel more independent and less under external pressure. A 3rd element was that women in nearly all countries desire fewer children than they wanted previously and many are coming out openly and stating that they did not want their last child. A 4th factor was the awareness that population problems affect developed countries as well as developing countries. Along with these changes has come greater awareness of the health and social benefits of family planning. These ideas find expression the the 38 pages of recommendations which were eventually agreed on. The most significant of these was the added emphasis given to the role and status of women.
[Unpublished] 1984. Paper prepared for the International Conference on Population held in Mexico City, August 6-13, 1984. 138 p.The World Population Plan of Action (WPPA), which was adopted by consensus at the UN World Population Conference held at Bucharest in 1974, recommended that a comprehensive and thorough review towards achieving the goals and recommendations of the Plan of Action should be done every 5 years. The goals and recommendations of the Plan could then be modified. An International Conference was to be held in 1984 so that selected issues of the highest priority could be discussed. The aim was to contribute to the process of review and appraisal of the WPPA and to further its implementation. The present report is before the conference for consideration. It provides the rationale for the further implementation of the Plan of Action. Its purpose is to facilitate the deliberations of the Conference by providing appropriate background information on population trends and policies and assessing the progress made in achieving the goals and objectives of the Plan. This report is organized into 6 major chapters: 1) socioeconomic development and population; 2) development of population policies; 3) population trends, prospects, goals and policies; 4) promotion of knowledge; 5) role of national governments and the international community; and 6) monitoring, review and appraisal of the WPPA. Each chapter includes a summary of the major trends observed in the past decade and where appropriate, the most probable future prospects. This is followed by an assessment of the level of implementation of the Plan. This report has been prepared by the Population Division of the Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, in cooperation with the Department of Technical Cooperation for Development, the UN Fund for Population Activities, the regional commissions, specialized agencies and other bodies of the UN systems, as well as several nongovernmental organizations.
In: International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Male involvement in family planning: programme initiatives. London, England, IPPF, . 177-83.The International Labor Organization (ILO) has enlarged its traditional concern and responsibility for labor welfare to encompass the worker's welfare not only at the workplace but also in his living environment. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the ILO's Population/Family Welfare Education Programme. The basic objective of this program is to improve the quality of life of workers and teir families through educational activities aimed at creating an appreciation of interrelations between family income and expenditure, family budgeting and determining of priorities for various needs of the family, including family size. The program is implemented at country level through labor ministries, employers' groups, trade unions, or co-operatives. The program is designed for workers in the organized sector; its content and approach are refined for 4 main sub-groups: male workers, young workers undergoining vocational training, young unmarried female workers, and plantation workers and cooperative members in rural areas. In all cases the ILO program uses existing welfare and educational institutions, and is presented in terms of family level relationships. Once the inter-relationships of needs and resources within the context of the family is considered, it becomes apparent that needs are predominantly determined by family size. To the extent that couples are prepared to regulate their fertility, this decision may be influenced by family decision making. On the other hand, the potential for influencing family resources is limited. Family well-being can thus be seen in terms of family needs, resources and decision making. Workers must therefore be shown that they can determine their family size. This is the basic family welfare education message. It has a distinct ILO flavor about it and has proved to be acceptable to governments, employers, trade union leaders and members.
Population Headliners. 1984 Jan; (106 Suppl):1-4.A major item on the agenda of the Expert Group Meeting on Forward Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women was a critical review of the achievement of the UN Decade for Women, which touched on several aspects related to integrated population programs. These included demographic trends, health and nutrition, education, employment in various economic sectors, and science and technology. The meeting identified the area of science and technology as 1 of the most significant sectors having a major impact on the present role and status of women and would continue to do so in the future. Few women occupy jobs in the scientific and technical sectors and even fewer participate in scientific development. It was felt imperative that women avail themselves of and keep up with the advances in science and technology in order to gain an avenue for commanding resources and power and to equalize their status with men. The continued lagging behind of women in this area exposes them to continued if not increasing exploitation and subjugation. It was also stressed that there was a need for more research and data to identify the effects of any technological innovations on the status of women, in the short- and long-term. The following were among the recommendations made on specific sector issues which pertain to an integrated approach to population and the development of women: member states should undertake active surveillance of the health status of women to determine their health problems and needs and monitor progress in order to provide maximum health benefits to women; governments should ensure full employment for women and men and provide equal access to employment opportunities by breaking down barriers to people's equality in seeking and retaining jobs; women's studies need to be incorporated into existing disciplines and not treated as separate courses; and systematic and organized research on women's concerns in development should be conducted to develop theories and policies and to measure the contribution of women. The manner in which the role and status of women influences demographic trends was presented to meeting participants. The achievement of low fertility seems to reflect many elements which contribute to women's status. Possibly most important is that low fertility requires a large element of female participation in family decision making and implementing. Low fertility also correlates with measurements of women's status because many of the indicators of status are the conventional determinants of fertility, such as education and labor force participation.