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Your search found 4 Results

  1. 1
    031396

    The changing roles of women and men in the family and fertility regulation: some labour policy aspects

    Oppong C

    In: Family and population. Proceedings of the "Scientific Conference on Family and Population," Espoo, Finland, May 25-27, 1984, edited by Hellevi Hatunen. Helsinki, Finland, Vaestoliitto, 1984. 62-83.

    There is growing evidence that labor policies, such as those advocated by the International Labor Organization (ILO), promote changes in familial roles and that these changes in turn have an impact on fertility. A conceptual model describing these linkages is offered and the degree to which the linkages hypothesized in the model are supported by research findings is indicated. The conceptual model specifies that: 1) as reliance on child labor declines, through the enactment of minimum age labor laws, the economic value of children declines, and parents adopt smaller family size ideals; 2) as security increases for the elderly, through the provision of social security and pension plans, the elderly become less dependent on their children, and the perceived need to produce enough children to ensure security in old age is diminished; and 3) as sexual equality in job training and employment and the availability of flexible work schedules increase, sexual equality in the domestic setting increases, and women begin to exert more control over their own fertility. ILO studies and many other studies provide considerable evidence in support of these hypothesized linkages; however, the direction or causal nature of some of the associations has not been established. Development levels, rural or urban residence, and a number of other factors also appear to influence many of these relationships. Overall, the growing body of evidence accords well with ILO programs and instruments which promote: 1) the enactment of minimum age work laws to reduce reliance on child labor, 2) the establishment of social security systems and pension plans to promote the economic independence of the elderly, 3) the promotion of sexual equality in training programs and employment; 4) the promotion of the idea of sexual equality in the domestic setting; and 5) the establishment of employment policies which do not unfairly discriminate against workers with family responsibilities.
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  2. 2
    028322

    The Billings method of family planning: an assessment.

    Betts K

    Studies in Family Planning. 1984 Nov-Dec; 15(6/1):253-66.

    This paper critically analyzes claims for the effectiveness of the Billings method of natural family planning and raises questions about the wisdom of actively promoting this method. The Billings method, developed in Australia, is based on client interpretation of changing patterns of cervical mucus secretion. Evaluation of the method's use-effectiveness has been hindered by its supporters' insistence on distinguishing between method and user failures and by the unreliability of data on sexual activities. However, the findings in 5 large studies aimed at investigating the biological basis of the Billings method provide little support for the claims that most fertile women always experience mucus symptoms, that these symptoms precede ovulation by at least 5 days, and that a peak symptom coincides with the day of ovulation. Although many women do experience a changing pattern of mucus symptoms, these changes do not mark the fertile period with sufficient reliability to form the basis for a fully effective method of fertility control. In addition, the results of 5 major field trials indicate that the Billings method has a biological failure rate even higher than the symptothermal method. Pearl pregnancy rates ranged from 22.2-37.2/100 woman-years, and high discontinuation rates in both developed and developing countries were found. Demand for the method was low even in developing countries where calendar rhythm and withdrawal are relatively popular methods of fertility control, suggesting that women of low socioeconomic status may prefer a method that does not require demanding interaction with service providers and acknowledgment of sexual activity. The Billings method is labor-intensive, requiring repeated client contact over an extended time period and high administrative costs, even when teachers are volunteers. It is concluded that although natural family planning methods may make a useful contribution where more effective methods are unavailable or unacceptable, many of the claims made for the Billings method are unsubstantiated by scientific evidence.
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  3. 3
    027346

    The ILO population/family welfare education programme.

    Richards JH

    In: International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Male involvement in family planning: programme initiatives. London, England, IPPF, [1984]. 177-83.

    The International Labor Organization (ILO) has enlarged its traditional concern and responsibility for labor welfare to encompass the worker's welfare not only at the workplace but also in his living environment. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the ILO's Population/Family Welfare Education Programme. The basic objective of this program is to improve the quality of life of workers and teir families through educational activities aimed at creating an appreciation of interrelations between family income and expenditure, family budgeting and determining of priorities for various needs of the family, including family size. The program is implemented at country level through labor ministries, employers' groups, trade unions, or co-operatives. The program is designed for workers in the organized sector; its content and approach are refined for 4 main sub-groups: male workers, young workers undergoining vocational training, young unmarried female workers, and plantation workers and cooperative members in rural areas. In all cases the ILO program uses existing welfare and educational institutions, and is presented in terms of family level relationships. Once the inter-relationships of needs and resources within the context of the family is considered, it becomes apparent that needs are predominantly determined by family size. To the extent that couples are prepared to regulate their fertility, this decision may be influenced by family decision making. On the other hand, the potential for influencing family resources is limited. Family well-being can thus be seen in terms of family needs, resources and decision making. Workers must therefore be shown that they can determine their family size. This is the basic family welfare education message. It has a distinct ILO flavor about it and has proved to be acceptable to governments, employers, trade union leaders and members.
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  4. 4
    024476

    Research on the status of women: implications for integrated population policies and programmes.

    Population Headliners. 1984 Jan; (106 Suppl):1-4.

    A major item on the agenda of the Expert Group Meeting on Forward Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women was a critical review of the achievement of the UN Decade for Women, which touched on several aspects related to integrated population programs. These included demographic trends, health and nutrition, education, employment in various economic sectors, and science and technology. The meeting identified the area of science and technology as 1 of the most significant sectors having a major impact on the present role and status of women and would continue to do so in the future. Few women occupy jobs in the scientific and technical sectors and even fewer participate in scientific development. It was felt imperative that women avail themselves of and keep up with the advances in science and technology in order to gain an avenue for commanding resources and power and to equalize their status with men. The continued lagging behind of women in this area exposes them to continued if not increasing exploitation and subjugation. It was also stressed that there was a need for more research and data to identify the effects of any technological innovations on the status of women, in the short- and long-term. The following were among the recommendations made on specific sector issues which pertain to an integrated approach to population and the development of women: member states should undertake active surveillance of the health status of women to determine their health problems and needs and monitor progress in order to provide maximum health benefits to women; governments should ensure full employment for women and men and provide equal access to employment opportunities by breaking down barriers to people's equality in seeking and retaining jobs; women's studies need to be incorporated into existing disciplines and not treated as separate courses; and systematic and organized research on women's concerns in development should be conducted to develop theories and policies and to measure the contribution of women. The manner in which the role and status of women influences demographic trends was presented to meeting participants. The achievement of low fertility seems to reflect many elements which contribute to women's status. Possibly most important is that low fertility requires a large element of female participation in family decision making and implementing. Low fertility also correlates with measurements of women's status because many of the indicators of status are the conventional determinants of fertility, such as education and labor force participation.
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