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New York, New York, The Global Committee of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, 1984. 32 p.The International Parliamentary Assembly on Population and Development was held in Mexico City, immediately following the United Nations International Conference on Population in 1984. The implementation of the World Population Plan of Action adopted by the UN conference was discussed by 184 parliamentarians from 60 countries. The result was an action plan, affirming that the ultimate objective of development and population policies would be improvement of the quality of life and well-being of individuals and families; noting the agreement of the UN conference, that population is integral to development; placing population policies in the prerogative of each sovereign country; recognizing the achievements of parliamentarians; and reasserting the importance of parliamentarians in the formulation of policies and enactment of population and development laws. Since the 1979 Colombo, Sri Lanka Parliamentarians conference, achievements have included the holding of regional conferences; establishment of the Global Committee; Asian Forum, and Inter-American Parliamentary Group, and national groups in 40 countries; and encouraging participation of parliamentarians in the 1984 UN conference. As elected representatives of the people, the parliamentarians' role includes insuring population and development issues receive priority attention; alerting constituents to the importance and inter-relationship of population and development; securing a political concensus for action; initiating legislative measures; working for funding allocation; reviewing progress; and collaborating with other parliamentarians as well as diverse international organizations. Parliamentarians should, in future, work also for the improved status of women; the strengthening of primary health care and legislative strenghening of family planning; extending of educational opportunities to all, and assisting in protecting the physical environment, in alleviating the problems of migration, and fostering of community participation. Steering and drafting committee members and participating countries are listed.
London, England, IPPF, 1984. 3 p. (IPPF Fact Sheet)Long term problems of population growth in China are indicated by the fact that 65% of the 1,024,950,000 1983 population is under 30 years of age; 50% is under 21. Although family planning was started in the 1950s, it was neglected during the 1960s Cultural Revolution, and did not become a national program until 1971. The one child per family policy, proposed in 1978, has since become the basis for government regulations which are strictly enforced. Family planning messages are conveyed through every possible type of media, and services are made available to the entire population. Various economic incentives and disincentives such as, monthly health care subsidies granted to couples who have only one child until he reaches the age of 14, grain allocations for an only child, and larger private plots, are used to help reward those who obey the family planning policy. All contraceptives are available free of charge: at the end of 1983, 69.5% of fertile couples were using some form of modern contraceptive method. The China Family Planning Association was formed in 1980 with the objective of assisting the government program by motivating people to accept family planning. The Association's 3 year plan for 1985-1987 is: 1) to strengthen family planning publicity; 2) to increase the management and professional skills of the personnel; 3) to strengthen the Association's organization at central and branch level; and 4) to participate in international conferences and other activities.
[Unpublished] 1984 May 8. 31 p. (CE 92/12)This report shows how demographic information can be analyzed and used to identify and characterize the groups assigned priority in the Regional Plan of Action and that it is necessary for the improvement of the planning and allocation of health resources so that national health plans can be adapted to encompass the entire population. In discussing the connections between health and population characteristics in the countries of the region, the report covers mortality, fertility and health, and fertility and population increase; spatial distribution and migration; and the structure of the population. Focus then moves on to health, development, and population policies and family planning. The final section of the report considers the response of the health sector to population trends and characteristics and to development-related factors. The operations of the health sector must be revised in keeping with the observed demographic situation and the projections thereof so that the goal of health for all by the year 2000 may be realized. In several countries of the region mortality remains high. In 1/3 of them, infant mortality during the period 1980-85 exceeds 60/1000 live births. If measures are not taken to reduce mortality 55% of the population of Latin America in the year 2000 will still be living in countries with life expectancies at birth of under 70 years. According to the projections, in the year 2000 the birthrate will stand at around 29/1000, with wide differences between the countries of the region, within each of them, and between socioeconomic strata. High fertility will remain a factor hostile to the health of women and children and a determinant of rapid population growth. Some governments view the present or predicted growth rates as excessive; others want to increase them; and some take no explicit position on the matter. The countries would be well advised to assign values to their birthrate, natural increase, and periods for doubling their populations in relation to their development plans and to the prospects for improving the standard of living and health of their populations. An important factor in urban growth is internal migration. These migrants, like some of those who move to other countries, may have health problems requiring special care. Regardless of a country's demographic situation, the health sector has certain responsibilities, including: the need to promote the framing and adoption of population and development policies, in whose implementation the importance of health measures is not open to question; and the need to favor the intersector coordination and articulation required to ensure that population aspects are considered in national development planning.
In: Tras nuevas raices: migraciones internas y colonizacion en Bolivia [by] Carlos Garcia-Tornell, Maria Elena Querejazu, Jose Blanes, Fernando Calderon, Jorge Dandler, Julio Prudencio, Luis Lanza, Giovanni Carnibella, Gloria Ardaya, Gonzalo Flores [and] Alberto Rivera. La Paz, Bolivia, Ministerio de Planeamiento y Coordinacion, Direccion de Planeamiento Social, Proyecto de Politicas de Poblacion, 1984 Apr. 51-251.A study of colonization programs in Bolivia was conducted as part of a larger evaluation of population policy. The 1st of 8 chapters examines the history of colonization programs in Bolivia and the role of state and international development agencies. It sketches the disintegration of the peasant economy, and presents 5 variables that appear to be central to colonization processes: the directedness or spontaneity of the colonization, the distance to urban centers and markets, the diversification of production, the length of time settled, and the origin of the migrants. The 2nd chapter describes the study methodology. The major objective was to evaluate government policies and plans in terms of the realistic possibilities of settlement in colonies for peasants expelled from areas of traditional agriculture. Interviews and the existing literature were the major sources used to identify the basic features and problems of colonization programs. 140 structured interviews were held with colonists in the Chapare zone, 43 in Yapacari, and 51 in San Julian. The 3 zones were selected because of their diversity, but the sample was not statistically representative and the findings were essentially qualitative. The 3rd chapter examines the relationships between the place of origin and the stages of settlement. The chapter emphasizes the influence of place of origin and other factors on the processes of differentiation, proletarianization, and pauperization. The 4th chapter examines the productive process, profitability of farming, the market, and reproductive diversification. The next chapter analyzes the technology and the market system of the colonists, the dynamics of the unequal exchange system in which they operate, and aspects related to ecological equilibrium and environmental conservation. The 6th chapter concentrates on family relationships and the role played by the family in colonization. Some features of the population structure of the colonies are described. The 7th chapter assesses forms of organization, mechanisms of social legitimation, and the important role of peasant syndicates. The final chapter summarizes the principal trends encountered in each of the themes analyzed and makes some recommendations concerning the colonization program, especially in reference to the family economy and labor organizations.
POPULI. 1984; 11(4):4-12.The purposes of the 1984 International Conference on Population were to review the implementation of the World Population Plan of Action adopted in Bucharest in 1974, to sustain the momentum gained in population programs, and to make recommendations for future implementation of the plan that are deemed appropriate for the conditions of the next decade. The Bucharest Conference was the 1st one to bring together high-ranking governmental officials and experts to discuss the issues of population development. The Plan was the 1st international and comprehensive document on population policies, programs, and measures. The most tangible effect of the Conference was a growing interest in the UN population program, parallel with a rapid expansion of UN Fund for Population Activites (UNFPA) fund raising and project financing. Signs of hope and optimism could be found in the Plan as well as in the 2 General Assembly resolutions; international, political, and economic developments in the years that followed have hardly concurred with such expectations. As far as population policies are concerned, the situation in the developing world in 1984 is far different than it was in 1974. Research and study will have to be further promoted because 1) there are several new approaches to population issues and the relating policies adopted in the Recommendations, 2) research in reproductive physiology and contraception should be continued following new promising developments in those fields, and 3) studies on organzational, communicational, and psychological aspects of population programs will be essential for the successful implementation of those programs at levels significantly higher than in the past.
International Family Planning Perspectives. 1984 Jun; 10(2):43-8.In Mexico City from August 6-13, 1984, the UN will sponsor the International Conference on Population (ICP), 10 years after the UN's 1st worldwide governmental population conference on population. The ICP will reaffirm the World Population Plan of Action, assess the progress made in its implemention, and set priorities for the future. Issues to be discussed at the conference include 1) very slowly declining population growth rates, 2) a still increasing world population size, 3) strategies to meet the unmet need for family planning services, 4) intergrating population into development planning, 5) whether the ICP should set specific targets, and 6) whether other important issues not related to population, such as apartheid or disarmament, will be discussed. The 1974 Bucharest conference developed and approved the World Population Plan of Action, which placed population planning squarely in the development context, and endorsed family planning as a human right, but did not set targets for fertility decline. Perhaps most importantly, the Bucharest conference marked the end of the international political debate over whether governments should support family planning. The ICP, which has been more strongly supported by developing than developed countries, is charged with 1) reinforcing the momentum of population activities, 2) identifying emerging problems, and 3) initiating programs where none have yet had substantial impact. The Preparatory Committe for the ICP drafted 83 recommendations covering the relationship between population and development, and policies on morbidity and mortality, fertility, migration, aging, and the roles of governments and international organizations. The recommendations emphasize the urgency of the need to support family planning as well as mention family life and sex education, natural family planning, breast feeding, and male involvement in family planning for the 1st time. In addition, the recommendations support strong service goals, the integration of women in development, and increased funding for population activities.
["Census" in the twentieth century: on the indispensability of the census] Zensus im 20. Jahrhundert: uber die Unverzichtbarkeit einer Volkszahlung
Wirtschaftswissenschaftliches Studium. 1984 May; 13(5):253-7.This article focuses on the uses and limits of a population census from a scientific statistical viewpoint, with a geographic emphasis on the Federal Republic of Germany. Comparisons are made among the minimum census program recommended by the United Nations and the U.S. and German census programs. The role of the census in relation to population registers and surveys is also discussed. Finally, the indispensability of the census for economic and social policy is noted. (ANNOTATION)
Cooperation by UNICEF in the elimination of traditional practices affecting the health of women and children in Africa (Extract).
In: Report on a Seminar on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children in Africa, organized by the Senegal Ministry of Public Health and the NGO Working Group on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children. Dakar, Senegal, Ministry of Public Health and NGO Working Group on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women adn Children, 1984. 182-4.This contribution begins with a statement of praise for the efforts of the Senegal conference, complimenting the conference's recognition of positive and negative influencing practices. Positive practices should be encouraged with arguments and striking examples. Attention is drawn to UNICEF document PRO-71, the product of the 1980 Inter-Organization Consultation Meeting on Combating the Practice of Female Circumcision (FC), through the improvement of women's status, and the elimination of false ideologies such as those related to the necessity of FC for the preservation of female modesty, virginity, and chastity. Further attention is drawn to the efforts of a multi-disciplinary study group on FC set up in Ivory coast. Finally, the readiness of UNICEF to further female and child health development, and growth chart, oral rehydration, breastfeeding immunization, food supplementation, family spacing, and female education developments, are discussed.
[Ivory Coast: report of the Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance] Cote d'Ivoire: rapport de Mission sur l'Evaluation des Besoins d'Aide en Matiere de Population.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Sep. viii, 57 p. (Report No. 69)Conclusions and recommendations are presented of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) Mission which visited the Ivory Coast from February 20-March 15, 1983 to assess population assistance needs. Ivory Coast officials believe that the population, estimated at 8,034,000 in 1980, is insufficient given the country's economic needs. Its very rapid rate of growth is estimated at over 4.5%/year, of which 1.5% is due to foreign immigration. 42% of the population is urban. The country has undergone exceptional economic growth in the past 2 decades, and the per capita income is now estimated at over $US1000 annually. Social development does not seem to have kept pace, however, and the mortality rate of 15.4/1000 is that of a country with only 1/2 the per capital income. The 1981-85 Ivory Coast Plan proposes a change from a growth economy to a society in which individual and collective welfare is the supreme goal. Up to date data on the size, structure, and dynamics of the population will be needed to aid in preparation of the 1986-90 and 1991-95 plans. A 2nd national population census is planned for 1985. Until the present, rapid population growth had been considered a boon, but problems are arising of massive rural exodus, high rates of urban unemployment coupled with manpower shortages in agriculture, and growing demographic pressure on health, educational, and social infrastructures, especially in the cities. The government has maintained its pronatalist stance, and government health programs have been directed only to mortality and maternal and child health. The need to control fertility and to use birth spacing as a tool to combat maternal and infant mortality is being increasingly felt, and a private family welfare association was able to form in 1979. A policy of maternal and child health encouraging spacing to improve family welfare would probably be welcomed in the Ivory Coast. The Mission recommended that a population policy be formulated which would correspond to the national demographic reality and development objectives. Basic demographic data collection should focus on the 1985 general census, which should have high priority. The civil registration system should be reorganized. A planned migration survey should cover the whole year to take into acconnt seasonal variations, but preparations should not begin until the census is completed. A multiple objective survey could be undertaken in 1988 to determine the nature and scope of interrelationships between demographic variables and economic and sociocultural variables, and a survey of infant mortality on a small sample could be done in 1989. The planned manpower and employment survey should be completed. Population research should receive high government priority. In regard to maternal and child health, the government should take an official position on the problem of birth spacing as a means of combatting maternal and infant deaths. IEC activities should be expanded, and efforts should be made to encourage the participation of women in development.
A summary of the report on the evaluation of MEX/79/P04 "Integration of population policy with development plans and programmes".
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Jul. 19,  p.The objective of this UNFPA project was to build the institutional and methodological base for integration of population policy into and its harmonization with national, sectoral and state policies or socioeconomic development in Mexico. More specifically, the project was to achieve integration of population policy with 6 sectoral plans, 24 state plans and the Master Development Plan within 3 years. Although the Mission considers it an achievement that the project signed agreements with all 31 states and the Federal District, no formal contacts had been made with the 6 sectors. Mexico's National Population Council (CONAPO) coordinated the project. The Mission recommended that support to integration activities be continued on the basis of the experience that has been acquired. Therefore it is necessary 1) to strengthen the activities at the state level; 2) to support the development of methodologies considering the impact of socioeconomic plans and programs on demographic variables and to provide a comprehensive program of international technical experience; 3) to recognize that responses to ad hoc support activities are an important integration instrument for both sectors and states; and 4) to exact greater clarity concerning the role of the project in the National Population Program. A lack of aedquately trained personnel proved to be a continual obstacle to implementation. The Mission recommends that at an early stage in the development of such projects a thorough assessment of the human resource requirements and existing capacity for integration of demographic and socioeconomic variables be made and that, based on this assessment, a specific training strategy be developed and incorporated in the project's design. In addition to training, the project also included research support activities; the outputs, however, were descriptive rather than analytical, which can be traced to both the design and execution of the work plan for research activities. The UNFPA's funding constraints and its management of reduced funds further complicated the project's execution, which suffered from high personnel turnover and lack of coordination of project activities.
Women At Work. 1984; (2):1-71.This document describes the current status of maternity protection legislation in developed and developing countries and is based primarily on the findings of the International Labor Organization's (ILO's) global assessment of laws and regulations concerning working women before and after pregnancy. The global survey collected information from 18 Asian and Pacific countries, 36 African nations, 28 North and South American countries, 14 Middle Eastern countries, 19 European market economy countries, and 11 European socialist countries. Articles in 2 ILO conventions provide standards for maternity protection. According to the operative clauses of these conventions working women are entitled to 1) 12 weeks of maternity leave, 2) cash benefits during maternity leaves, 3) nursing breaks during the work day, and 4) protection against dismissal during maternity. Most countries have some qualifying conditions for granting maternity leaves. These conditions either state that a worker must be employed for a certain period of time or contributed to an insurance plan over a defined period of time before a maternity leave will be granted. About 1/2 of the countries in the Asia and Pacific region, the Americas, Africa, and in the Europe market economy group provide maternity leaves of 12 or more weeks. In all European socialist countries, women are entitled to at least 12 weeks maternity leave and in many leaves are considerably longer than 12 months. In the Middle East all but 3 countries provide leaves of less than 12 weeks. Most countries which provide maternity leaves also provide cash benefits, which are usually equivalent to 50%-100% of the worker's wages, and job protection during maternity leaves. Some countries extend job protection beyond the maternity leave. For example, in Czechoslovakia women receive job protection during pregnancy and for 3 years following the birth, if the woman is caring for the child. Nursing breaks are allowed in 5 of the Asian and Pacific countries, 30 of African countries, 18 of the countries in the Americas, 9 of the Middle East countries, 16 of European market economy countries, and in all of the European socialist countries. Several new trends in maternity protection were observed in the survey. A number of countries grant child rearing leaves following maternity leaves. In some countries these leaves can be granted to either the husband or the wife. Some countries have regulations which allow parents to work part time while rearing their children and some permit parents to take time off to care for sick children. In most of the countries, the maternity protection laws and regulations are applied to government workers and in many countries they are also applied to workers in the industrial sector. A list of the countries which have ratified the articles in the ILO convenants concerning maternity benefits is included.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 May. xii, 156 p. (Report No. 67)A Needs Assessment and Program Development Mission visited the People's Republic of China from March 7 to April 16, 1983 to: review and analyze the country's population situation within the context of national population goals as well as population related development objectives, strategies, and programs; make recommendations on the future orientation and scope of national objectives and programs for strengthening or establishing new objectives, strategies, and programs; and make recommendations on program areas in need of external assistance within the framework of the recommended national population program and for geographical areas. This report summarizes the needs and recommendations in regard to: population policies and policy-related research; demographic research and training; basic population data collection and analysis; maternal and child health and family planning services; management training support for family planning services; logistics of contraceptive supply; management information system; family planning communication and education; family planning program research and evaluation; contraceptive production; research in human reproduction and contraceptives; population education and dissemination of population information; and special groups and multisectoral activities. The report also presents information on the national setting (geographical and cultural features, government and administration, the economy, and the evolution of socioeconomic development planning) and demographic features (population size, characteristics, and distribution, nationwide and demographic characteristics in geographical core areas). Based on its assessment of needs, the Mission identified mjaor priorities for assistance in the population field. Because of China's size and vast needs, external assistance for population programs would be diluted if provided to all provincial and lower administrative levels. Thus, the Mission suggests that a substantial portion of available resources be concentrated in 3 provinces as core areas: Sichuan, the most populous province (100,220,000 people by the end of 1982); Guandong, the province with the highest birthrate (25/1000); and Jiangsu, the most densely populated province (608 persons/square kilometer. In all the government has identified 11 provinces needing special attention in the next few years: Anhui, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jilin, Shaanxi and Shandong, in addition to Guangdong, Jiangsu, and Sichuan.
[World population and development: an important change in perspective] Population mondiale et developpement: un important changement de perspective.
Problemes Economiques. 1984 Oct 24; (1895):26-32.The International Population Conference in Mexico City was much less controversial than the World Population Conference in Bucharest 10 years previously, in part because the message of Bucharest was widely accepted and in part because of changes that occurred in the demographic and economic situations in the succeeding decade. The UN medium population projection for 1985 has been proved quite accurate; it is not as alarming as the high projection but still represents a doubling of world population in less than 40 years. The control of fertility upon which the medium projection was predicated is well underway. The movement from high to low rates of fertility and mortality began in the 18th century in the industrial countries and lasted about 1 1/2 centuries during which the population surplus was dispersed throughout the world, especially in North and South America. The 2nd phase of movement from high to low rates currently underway in the developing countries has produced a far greater population increase. The proportion of the population in the developed areas of Europe, North America, the USSR, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand will decline from about 1/3 of the 2.5 billion world population of 1950 to 1/4 of the 3.7 billion of 1985, to 1/5 of the 4.8 billion of 2000, and probably 1/7 of the 10 billion when world population stabilizes at the end of the next century. The growth rates of developing countries are not homogeneous; the populations of China and India have roughly doubled in the past 35 years while that of Latin America has multiplied by 2 1/2. The population of Africa more than doubled in 35 years and will almost triple by 2025. The number of countries with over 50 million inhabitants, 9 in 1950, will increase from 19 in 1985 to 32 in 2025. The process of urbanization is almost complete in the industrialized countries, with about 75% of the population urban in 1985, but urban populations will continue to grow rapidly in the developing countries as rural migration is added to natural increase. The number of cities with 10 million inhabitants has increased from 2 to 13 between 1950 and 1985, and is expected to reach 25 by 2000, with Mexico City, Sao Paulo, and Shanghai the world's largest cities. The peak rate of world population growth was reached in the 1960s, with annual increases of 2.4%. In 1980-85 in the developed and developing worlds respectively the rates of population growth were .7% and 2.0%/year; total fertility rates were 2.05 and 4.2, and the life expectancies at birth were 72.4 and 57.0. Considerable variations occurred in individual countries. Annual rates of growth in 1980-85 were 2.4% in Latin America, 3.0% in Africa, 2.2% in South Asia and 1.2% in East Asia. Today only Iran among high fertility countries pursues a pronatalist policy. Since Bucharest, it has become evident to developing and developed countries alike that population control and economic development must go hand in hand.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Jul. vii, 59 p. (Report No. 68)This report of a Mission visit to Ghana from May 4-25, 1981 contains data highlights; a summary of findings; Mission recommendations regarding population and development policies, population data collection and analysis, maternal and child health and family planning, population education and communication programs, and women and development; and information on the following: the national setting; population features and trends (population size, growth rate, and distribution and population dynamics); population policy, planning, and policy-related research; basic data collection and anaylsis; maternal and child health and family planning (general health status, structure and organization of health services, maternal and child health and family planning activities, and family planning services in the private sector); population education and communication programs; women, youth, and development; and external assistance in population. Ghana gained independence in 1957. The country showed early promise of rapid development. Although well-endowed with natural and human resources, Ghana now suffers from food scarcity, inadequate infrastructure and services, inflation, inequities in income distribution, unemployment, and underemployment. Per capita gross national product (GNP) was $400 in 1981; between 1960-81 the average annual growth of GNP was -1.1%. A high rate of natural increase of the population has compounded development problems by intensifying demands for food, consumer goods, and social services while simultaneously increasing the constraints on productivity. The population, estimated at 13 million in mid-1984, is growing at a rate of 3.25% per annum. Immigration and emigration have contributed to changes in the size and composition of the population. Post-independence development policies favored the urban areas, encouraging a steady rural-to-urban shift in the population. At the same time, worsening socioeconomic conditions spurred the emigration of professional, managerial, and technical personnel and skilled workers. Ghana was the 1st sub-Saharan African nation to establish an official population policy. Since the formulation of the policy in 1969, successive governments have remained committed to its emphasis on fertility reduction while increasing attention to the problems of mortality and morbidity and rural/urban migration. Recognizing the need to intensify the commitment to population policies, the Mission recommends support for a program to further the awareness of policy makers of the relationship between population trends and their areas of responsibility. The Mission recommends the creation of a special permanent population committee and the strengthening of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning's Manpower division. The Mission also makes the following recommendations: the provision of training, technical assistance, and data processing facilities to ensure the timely provision of demographic data for socioeconomic planning; data collected in the pilot program of vital registration be evaluated before the system is expanded; the complete integration of maternal and child health and family planning and general health services within the primary health care system; and improvement in women's access to resources such as education, training, and agricultural inputs.
China Population Newsletter. 1984 Aug; 1(3):1-3.In seeking a solution to its population problem, China, as a developing socialist country, has been making unremitting efforts to develop economy while controlling the rapid growth. The objective is to control rapid population growth so that population growth may be in keeping with socioeconomic development and commensurate with utilization of natural resources and environmental protection. In the past decade, and particularly since 1979, China has made much progress in developing economy and gained remarkable successes in controlling population growth. The natural population growth rate dropped to 1.15% in 1983, from 2.089% in 1973. Living standards have improved with a gradual annual increase of per capita income. All this proves that the policy of promoting family planning to control population growth along with planned economic development is correct. In China family planning is a basic state policy. The government has advocated the practice of "1 couple, 1 child" since 1979. This does not mean that 1 couple could have 1 child only in every case. The government provides guidance for the implementation of family planning programs in the light of specific conditions such as economic developments, cultural background, population structure, and the wishes of the people in different localities. The requirements are more flexible in rural than in urban areas and more so among the people of national minorities than among the people of the Han Nationality. In rural areas, couples who have actual difficulties and want to have 2 children may have a 2nd birth with planned spacing. In carrying out its family planning program, China has consistently adhered to the principle of integrating state guidance with the masses' voluntariness. The government has always emphasized the importance of encouraging the people's own initiatives, through publicity and education, which is the key link in implementing the family planning program.
In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 403-32. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)Relying on empirical work done by the Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA), this paper illustrates how the demographic dynamics of Latin America in the last 2 decades and the environmental problems being faced by the people of the region are related to the specific productive structures and consumption patterns which, to different degrees depending on the country, prevailed during that time and are now even more widespread in Latin America. Analysis of the population/styles of development/life styles/environment relationships in Latin America provides some useful guidelines for future action in the field. The dominance of a development style in which transnational corporations play a key role demonstrates that many apparently local manifestations of the problems of population, resources, environment, and development have their cause elsewhere, in distant centers or decision making, or in a process triggered by someone else. A critical part of the interplay of these relationships in future years is likely to occur in the industrialized countries. This is so because of the global reach of many of their domestic and international policies and also because they act as centers which diffuse worldwide patterns and systems of production and consumption, transnational life styles, technologies, and so forth. What occurs in the developing countries is not likely to have such great influence worldwide, though in many instances it will be of critical importance for their domestic development. Everywhere, integrated/systems thinking, planning, policy, and decision making are a prerequisite for dealing with these interrelationships. In this context, different specific population policies will have a critical role to play. The remaining problem is that decision makers still need to learn how to think and act in an integrated and systematic manner. The gap between the desired schemes, models, and plans and the real world tends to be considerable. There are a number of things that could be undertaken internationally and by the UN system to fill the gap, and these are identified.
In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 359-81. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)This discussion focuses on the prospective impact of population growth, within the context of global constraints on resources and the environment, on certain basic conditions of socioeconomic development, i.e., food, education, health, housing, and income distribution. A table presents a basic summary of world demographic conditions as of 1980. About 3/4 of the world population of 4.4 billion is in the less developed countries. The population of these countries grows at an annual rate of about 3 1/2 times that of the more developed countries. Compared to the latter, the LDCs' birthrate is more than double, and its total fertility rate is nearly 2 1/2 times as large. The problem of hunger and undernutrition is serious, and continued population growth only makes the task of dealing with it more difficult over time. According to the US Presidential Commission on World Hunger (1980), 1 out of every 8 persons in the world is malnourished, and the number is rising. Poverty is the root cause of undernutrition. The rate of growth of food production has been slightly above that of population. The influence of population growth on food demand has been far greater than that of income growth. New sources of growth in food supply do not portend to be as readily available as before. In some ways current demographic trends will tend to improve the education, health, and housing (EHH) capital. Parents will be able to afford schooling for their children more easily because of later marriages, wider spacing of children, and fewer children. Lower fertility will make for fewer health risks particularly to mothers and infants. The problem of providing basic services for a rapidly growing population could be made more manageable by concentrating more on the human than on the material linkages between inputs and outputs, between the capital formers and the formed home capital. Population growth helps to perpetuate poverty by restraining the growth of wages. There has been a widening gap in per capita income between the richest and the poorest countries and between the middle income and the poorest. The burden of population growth is lessened through any means that raises factor productivity. 1 means would be the removal of conventions restricting the use of any factor below full capacity.
In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 125-43. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)4 overlapping and interrelated concerns appear to influence, if unevenly and in varying combinations, the approaches towards international population phenomena embodied in national policies. The concerns have to do with shifts in relative demographic size within the family of nations, international economic and political stability, humanitarian and welfare considerations, and narrowing options with regard to longterm social development. Each of these concerns is a reflection of measurable or perceived consequences of the extraordinarily rapid growth of the world population during the 20th century and in particular of the marked acceleration of that growth since the end of World War 2. None of these concerns has been adequately articulated, either in the academic literature or in international and national forums in which population policies are considered. International action in the population field has become a subset of international development assistance. Among the motivating concerns, humanitarian and welfare considerations have received the most attention. Considerations of economic and political stability also have been often invoked. In contrast, shifts in relative demographic size and the narrowing options with respect to longterm social development have been seldom discussed. Yet, examination of the record of policy discussions of the last few decades confirms that the influence of these factors has been potent. The dramatic increase of the world population is possibly the single most spectacular event of modern history. During the last 100 years global numbers have tripled, and net population growth between 1900 and 2000 will most likely be of the order of 4.5 billion. Concern with the deleterious consequences of rapid population growth on domestic economic development and, by extension on the health of the world economy is a major factor in explaining international interest in population matters. Concern with poverty is another motivating force for international action involving unilateral resource transfers between nations. The potential role of 2 types of population policies -- relating to international migration and to mortality -- would seem to be narrowly circumscribed. The prospects for useful action in the matter of fertility are more promising.
Who Chronicle. 1984; 38(6):239-42.In his remarks to the International Conference on Population, the author identifies human development as the common theme underlying health, family planning, and economic progress. National policies should seek to stimulate people to develop their own material, intellectual, and spiritual potential. Attempts to force fertility control practices on populations can be expected to be met with resentment, resistance, and rejection. The World Health Organization's health for all by the year 2000 strategy views people as both the subject and object of their development. It goes beyond the struggle to remain alive to support people in adopting measures that will make their life progressively more pleasant. It is a strategy to support people in taking action, in ways understandable and acceptable to them, to assume growing responsibility for their own health destiny and thus contribute to their socioeconomic destiny. In addition, this strategy aims to ensure that each child is born truly wanted. The central condition for the success of population policies is their placement of the physical, social, and spiritual well-being of people at the highest rung of the developmental ladder.
The Tunis Declaration emanating from the Arab Parliamentary Conference on Development and Population, [May 8-11, 1984, Tunis, Tunisia].
[Unpublished] 1984. 12 p.Parliamentarians from 16 Arab countries met in Tunis, Tunisia, on May 8-11, 1984, to discuss the current demographic and development situation in the Arab nations. The participants agreed that currently income is poorly distributed both within and between Arab countries (per capita income varies from US$500-US$30,000), life expectancy varies markedly between countries, international migration is extensive, the annual population growth rate is 2.9%, and population policies in most Arab countries are poorly formulated. The participants recognized the reciprocal relationship between development and population. They noted that the development process includes meeting the moral, material, health, and fertility needs of all segments of society; development requires broad participation; cooperation with other 3rd World countries is essential; industrialized nations should limit their use of resources; and Arab nations should act on the recommendations of international conferences on population and development and adhere to the agreements between Arab countries on migration issues. The participants recommended that participants continue to actively promote social equality in the Arab world and that Arab nations 1) formulate policies to keep resources and population within balance and to reduce mortality differentials in their own countries; 2) establish fertility goals that take into account population growth, the health and welfare of mothers and children, human rights, and social equality; 3) promote policies which preserve the traditions of the Arab world; 4) improve women's rights by increasing economic and educational opportunities for women, expanding the decision-making role of women, and ensuring that women are presented in a favorable light in the mass media; 5) address the needs of the most vulnerable members of society; 7) improve services for the urban poor and reduce urban growth through rural development and the establishment of small cities; 8) establish policies to reduce the brain drain, to ensure the welfare and rights of migrants, to encourage Arab investment in the development of Arab countries, and to encourage trained Arabs to return to their country of origin; and 9) to mobilize world opinion against Zionist expansionist and forced migration policies. Furthermore, the participants call for action on the part of the delegates, Arab nations, and interational organizations to facilitate the operationalizing of these recommendations by focusing attention on population and development issues, by collecting, analyzing, and disseminating information on population and development, and by providing financial support.
Washington, D.C., Environmental Fund, 1984 Oct. 18 p. (Monograph Series)This paper sets forth an ecolate view of the population problem based on an understanding of the world as a complex of intricately interconnected systems. It is suggested that world poverty is more a problem of "longages" of demand than shortages of supply. The desired standard of living of a population and the carrying capacity are inversely related. When a large population living at a low standard transgresses the carrying capacity of its environment, both the population and the standard of living go down. The practice of attrition offers a means of bringing population growth to a halt. The normal mortality rate will reduce population size as long as the fertility rate is sufficiently reduces. International relations should be based on the assertion that national sovereignty mandates national responsibility. A nation freed of the responsibility of taking care of its own problems through foreign aid has little motivation to put an end to its population growth. Similarly, countries such as the US are urged to resist the invasion of immigrants or both natives and immigrants will be reduced to poverty. Although poverty can be shared, wealth cannot, suggesting that redistribution policies are doomed to failure. It is concluded that if the threat to the balance between population and resources is not seriously addressed, all nations will experience "the tragedy of the commons."
Jakarta, Indonesia, U.S. Agency for International Development, Office of Population and Health, 1984 Jun. 32 p.This booklet, intended to provide a brief introduction to the Indonesian Family Planning Program and US Agency for International Development (USAID) assistance to this program, describes Indonesia's population problem, population policy and government goals, population strategy, and results. The data were compiled from numerous sources, including the National Family Planning Coordinating Board and USAID Office of Population and Health. Based on Indonesian census figures, the annual average rate of population growth was 2.3% during the 1971-80 period. USAID currently projects a decrease in the average annual rate of natural increase to 1.6% during the 1980-90 period and to 1.1% during the 1990-2000 period. The population policy goal is to institutionalize the small, happy, prosperous family norm. The strategy is to reduce significantly the rate of population growth through the family planning program and related population policies, to ameliorate population maldistribution through transmigration programs, and to improve socioeconomic conditions for all citizens through expanded development programs. The family planning target is to reduce the crude birthrate to 22/1000 population by March 1991. This represents a 50% reduction in the crude birthrate over the 1971-91 period. In 1970, the total of new family planning acceptors was 53,103 in Java-Bali; in 1984 3,895,120. For the Outer Islands I, acceptors numbered 117,875 in 1975 and 1,009,852 in 1984. For Outer Islands II, the acceptors numbered 56,705 in 1975 and 341,212 in 1984. The percent of married women 15-44 using modern contraceptives increased from 2% in 1972 to 58% in 1984. In Java-Bali, 32% of married women aged 15-44 were oral contraceptive (OC) users as of March 1984; 16% were IUD users, 2% condom users, 6% injectable acceptors, and 2% acceptors of other methods. For Outer Islands I, 33% were OC users, 8% IUD acceptors, 4% condom users, 3% injectable acceptors, and 2% acceptors of other methods. In the Outer Islands II, 12% were OC acceptors as of March 1984, 5% IUD acceptors, 1% condom users, 4% injectable acceptors, and 1% acceptors of other methods.
[Mortality and health policies in the international context: the main developments over the last 10 years] Mortalidad y politicas de salud en el ambito internacional: principales acciones en los ultimos diez anos
Comercio Exterior. 1984 Jul; 34(7):612-7.A review of global trends in morbidity and mortality since the World Population Conference held in Bucharest in 1974 is presented. Consideration is given to the goals outlined in the World Population Plan of Action and the extent to which they have been realized. The author also examines the extent to which social and health policies can affect mortality. (ANNOTATION)
Fertility and the family: highlights of the issues in the context of the World Population Plan of Action.
In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. Fertility and family. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 45-73. (International Conference on Popualtion, 1984; Statements)This paper uses as its organizing principle 5 major themes which run through the sections of the 1974 World Population Plan of Action (WPPA) devoted to fertility and the family. The purpose of this paper it to assure that their discussion is comprehensive and that it reviews all the major research and policy concerns with respect to fertility and the family that have played an important role in the general debate about these issues since 1974. Summerized here are the contributions included in this volumen, as each deals with at least 1 of these issues. The 1st major theme focuses on fertility response to modernization as a facet of the interrelationship between population and development. Discussed are aspects of modernization leading to fertility increases, in particular the reduced incidence and shorter duration of breastfeeding, and those leading to fertility decline, namely the decline in the value of children as a source of labor and old-age support. Freedom of choice, information and education are the principal approaches within which childbearing decision making is discussed. Women's reproductive and economic activity during their life cycle, and the relationship of family types and functions to fertility levels and change are equally addressed. Finally, demographic goals and policy alternatives with respect to fertility change are discussed in terms of a number of policy options: family planning programs, economic incentives and disincentives and more global socioeconomic measures. Although primary attention is given to the problems and policies of developing countries, the special problems of certrain developed countries which view their fertility as too low are also considered. The issues raised in this paper are put forward as an aid to assist in the identification of emderging areas of policy concern and of fruitful new research directions.
New York, Pergamon, 1984. 240 p.This book, a sequel to "International Population Assistance: The First Decade," characterizes the work of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) with the developing countries up to 1984, relating these experiences to the issues before the 1984 International Conference on Population. The 1st chapter provides an overview of the significant developments in population up to the 1984 International Conference on Population. The next 7 chapters discuss the following main issues before the Conference and generally reflect the arrangement of the document to be brought before the Conference concerning recommendations for further implementation of the World Population Plan of Action: fertility, status of women and the family; morbidity and mortality; population distribution, internal and international migration; population growth and structure; promotion of knowledge and implementation of policies and programs; international cooperation and the role of UNFPA; and the year 2000 and beyond. Within each of these chapters, excerpts have been arranged in an analytic order, with the aim of facilitating the flow of arguments presented. Appendices contain the 5 "State of World Population Reports" issued from 1980-84 and 7 Rafael M. Salas statements which, primarily due to their focus on the population issues of particular importance to the major regions of the globe, are reproduced in their entirety. This volume reflects the process of population policymaking of the UNFPA with the developing countries in support of their population programs in the past 15 years. These policies were sanctioned and validated, both nationally by the countries themselves and globally by UN deliberative bodies and conferences. The experience of UNFPA in policy formulation indicates that an effective population policy must have its proper time perspective and must be scientifically determined in its component elements, normative and applicable at different levels, multisectoral in its emphasis, and measurable in its impact and consequenes.