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In: Improving civil registration, edited by Forrest E. Linder and Iwao M. Moriyama. Bethesda, Maryland, International Institute for Vital Registration and Statistics, . 235-42.Because agencies responsible for vital statistics collection vary substantially among nations, the International Conference for the 6th Decennial Revision of the Inernational Lists of Disease and Causes of Death (Paris, 1948) recommended that all governments establish National Committees on Vital and Health Statistics. To promote international cooperation the conference suggested that: 1) the World Health Assembly establish an Experts Committee on Health Statistics and 2) governments establish national committees for statistical activities coordination to serve as links with the World Health Organization. The 1st International Conference of National Committees on Vital and Health Statistics (London, 1953), with 28 nations attending, introduced 8 objectives to define needs and stimulate statistical studies and encouraged governments that had not yet set up national committees to establish them. 59 countries participated in the 2nd International Conference (Copenhagen, 1973) to evaluate objectives and emphasize the need for national committees in developing countries. This study briefly discusses recent developments and changes within national committees for the African, American, Eastern Mediterranean, European, Southeast Asian, and Western Pacific Regions. Usefulness and productivity of national committees depend on: 1) strong commitment by civil registration, national vital statistics, and national health programs administrators, 2) clear understandings of the National Committee's objectives and limitations, 3) careful selection of Committee members, and 4) the administrative ability of the chairman. National committees have demonstrated their potential for improving statistics collection and usage; each country must find the most effective organization and operation for success.
Report of the third meeting of the Scientific Working Group on Bacterial Enteric Infections: Microbiology, Epidemiology, Immunology, and Vaccine Development.
[Unpublished] 1984. 17 p. (WHO/CDD/BEI/84.5)The scientific topic discussed in detail by the Scientific Working Group (SWG) was recent research advances in the field of cholera. The SWG reviewed new knowlenge in areas such as epidemiology and ecology, phage-typing, pathogenesis, immunization, and related pathogens, and made recommendations for future research. The Diarrhoeal Disease Control Pragramme was continuing to emphasize the implementation of oral rehydration therapy as a means of reducing diarrheal mortality, and research aimed at an improved case-management strategy. The Steering Committee granted support to a number of projects aimed at clarifying the epidemiology of diarrhea and the pathogenesis of bacterial agents of acute diarrhea. Support was provided by the Steering Committee to projects aimed at, or closely related to the development of new vaccines against typhoid fever, cholera, and Shigella dysentery.
[Unpublished] 1984. 51 p.This listing of research projects funded since 1980 by WHO's Diarrhoeal Diseases Control Programme, is arranged by project title, investigator and annual budget allocations. Project titles are listed by Scientific Working Grouping (SWG) and include research on bacterial enteric infections; parasitic diarrheas; viral diarrheas; drug development and management of acute diarrheas; global and regional groups and research strengthening activities. SWG projects are furthermore divided by geographical region: African, American, Eastern Medierranean, European, Southeast Asian and Western Pacific. The priority area for research within each SWG is specified.
Report of the third meeting of the scientific working group on viral diarrhoeas: microbiology, epidemiology, immunology and vaccine development, [held in] Geneva, 1-3, February 1984.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, . 19p.The current status of the Scientific Working Group Program is reviewed, showing an expansion of activities in both its health services component (planning, implementation and evaluation of national diarrheal diseases control programs) and its research component (biomedical and operational). Submission of research proposals is encouraged by the Steering Committee (SC), namely those investigating the etiological role of viral agents in diarrheal disease and the epidemiology of these agents. Recently, the SC has made a particular effort to stimulate research in the area of immunology of viral enteric infections, which has been a generally neglected area. Other important areas of Program activity include site visits to review progress made by its projects, to participate in the initial design or the analysis of studies, or to stimulate general interest among research workers in the activities of the SWG. Workshops have also been initiated and conducted in WHO regions. The SWG notes with satisfaction the progress of the Program and commends the SC's efforts to stimulate and support research activities. SWG recommendations bear on the need for more data on the etiology and epidemiology of diarrhea in the community and the encouragement of further community-based studies. Particular attention should also be given to the preparation of reagents for the serotyping and subgrouping of rotaviruses. Moreover, the Group recommends that research strengthening workshops be continously held. In addition to the review of the meeting and recommendations, this paper includes a report on active and passive immunity to viral diarrheas. Special attention is given to rotavirus diarrhea as it tends to be common and quite severe. Its epidemiology is briefly presented, showing its incidence, seasonality (winter) in temperate climates, age-specific occurrence (most severe in infants and young children) and transmission (fecal-oral, person-to-person). Neonatal ans sequential postneonatal rotavirus infection are addressed ans issues for further investigation clarified; e.g., the relationship between low birth weight and the occurrence and severity of infection. Much remains to be elucidated regarding the serotyping-specific epidemiology of rotaviruses. The Group notes that further immunological studies of rotaviruses are essential to elucidate the role of passive protection. The other area of study in which research activities need to concentrate is vaccine development.
[Unpublished] 1984. 27 p.The current status of the Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases (CDD) Program was reviewed, and activities related to the evaluation of country control programs, the assessment of potential diarrheal disease control interventions, and the program's operational research activities were examined. In the health services component, ciontinued efforts to promote the preparation of plans of operation for national CDD programs is recommended, as is continued use of the national CDD program managers training course. Concern was expressed that the level of use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) appeared to be modest. Case management was endorsed as the major program strategy. The series of studies on interventions for reducing diarrhea's mortality and morbidity were welcomed. For evaluation purposes, it is recommended that the program develop additional criteria for monitoring increased access to and usage of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and the reduction of diarrheal mortality. Continued accumulaton and publication of information yielded by the program's survey of the impact of ORT in hospitals was recommended. In the research component, the growth of research activities is satisfying. While biomedical aspects have developed well, it might be necessary to relate them gradually to specific control interventions in the future. Further studies of improved ORS formulatons were recommended. High priority should also be given to the promotion of breast feeding, immunization, and water supply and sanitation. The underlying mechanisms that cause the intervention to reduce diarrheal morbidity or mortality should be clarified. Research is recommended on the promotion of personal and domestic hygiene, food hygiene, and improved weaning practices. Emphasis on the development and evaluation of vaccines against the causes of diarrhea is supported. Some changes in the balance of research activities should be made. Epidemiological weak.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO,  27 p.This is the 1st interim report issued by the Diarrhoeal Diseases Control (CDD) Programme, summarizing progress in its main areas of activity during the previous calendar year. Most of the information is presented in the form of tables, graphs and lists. Other important developments are mentioned briefly in each section. The information is presented according to major program areas; health services; research; and program management. Within the health services component, national program planning, training, the production of Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS), health education and promotion are areas of priority activity. Progress in the rate of development of national programs, participants in the various levelsof training programs, and the countries producing their own ORS packets and developing promotional and educational materials are presented. An evaluation of the health services component, based on a questionnaire survey to determine the impact of Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT), indicates significant decreases in diarrheal admission rates and in overall diarrheal case-fatality rates. Data collected from a total of 45 morbidity and and mortality surveys are shown. Biomedical and operational research projects supported by the program are given. Thhe research areas in which there was the greatest % increase in the number of projects funded were parasite-related diarrheas, drug development and management of diarrheal disease. Research is also in progress on community attitudes and practices in relation to diarrheal disease and on the development of local educational materials. The program's organizational structure is briefly described and its financial status summarized. The report ends with a list of new publications and documents concerning health services, research and management of diarrheal diseases.
In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population projections: methodology of the United Nations. Papers of the United Nations Ad Hoc Expert Group on Demographic Projections, United Nations Headquarters, 16-19 November 1981. New York, United Nations, 1984. 4-6. (Population Studies No. 83 ST/ESA/SER.A/83)These recommendations refer specifically to the work of the Population Division of the UN and the regional commissions and more generally to the work of the specialized agenices, which prepare projections of labor force and school enroolment. The current recommendations may be regarded as updating an earlier detailed set that was issued by a similar group of experts who convened in New York in November 1977. The recommendations cover general considerations, sources and assumptions, evaluation of projections and their uses, and internal migration and urbanization. The Population Division should consider the question of an optimal time schedule for publishing new estimates and projections in order to avoid unduly long intervals between publications and intervals so short as to cause confusion. The UN Secretariat has an important role in pursuing work on methodology of projections and making it available to demographers in the developing countries. Unique problems of demographic projection exist for those countries with particularly small populations. It is proposed that the Population Division prepare special tabulations, whenever possible, giving the estimated age and sex distribution for these countries. Future publications of population projections prepared by the Population Division should indicate the major data sources on which the projections are based and note if the data were adjusted before inclusion. In addition, some grading of the quality of the base data should be presented. For the UN set of national and international population projections, a more comprehensive system of establishing assumptions about the future trends of fertility is needed. The Secretariat needs to focus more attention on the evaluation of its population projections. UN publications of projections should report on the main errors in recent past projections with respect to estimates of baseline levels and trends and provide some evaluation of the quality of the current estimates. It is recommended that the UN encourage countries to establish a standard definition of urban which would be used for international comparisons but generally not replace current national definitions. The Secretariat should review the techniques currently used to project urban-rural and city populations and search for methodologies appropriate to the level of urbanization and the quality of data which would improve the accuracy of the projections. The Division should regularly produce long range population projections for the world and major countries and should continue and expand its household estimates and projection series, which provides information essential to government administrators and planning agencies, businesses, and researchers in all countries.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 1984. viii, 60 p. (Report No. 79)This report presents the findings of a mission from the UN Fund for Population Activities to ascertain the needs for population assistance for the Republic of Botswana. Botswana's population is growing at a rate of 3.46% (1980-1985), a consequence of continuing high fertility and decreasing death rates. While there is an awareness of the implications of he high growth rate for development, the government appears to have relaxed its emphasis on controlling population growth, limiting its role to maternal and child health, and concentrating on the family welfare aspects of fertility control. The Mission expressed concern about the absence of a clearly articulated policy on population. However, it is hoped that the creation of the Botswana Population Council will result in the inclusion of such a policy in future national development plans. Migration is a major problem facing planners. The high rate of rural to urban migration and the reduction of migration to the Republic of South Africa for employment, have resulted in high unemployment rates within Botswana, particularly among unskilled workers. Critical gaps have been identified in the collection, analysis, and dissemination of population data, which are essential for the formulation of appropriate development strategies in this area. The Mission recommends that support in the form of training and technical assistance be provided to both the Central Statistics Office and the Registry of Births and Deaths, in the case of the latter to promote the establishment of a nation-wide civil registration system. Present health policy focuses on the concept of primary health care, with an emphasis on preventive health and community participation. Due to the shortage of health manpower and heavy dependence on expatriate personnel, the Mission's recommendations in this area stress support for the training of health workers at all levels and the inclusion of population components in this training. A high proportion of households, particularly in rural areas, are headed by women, and many of these households are poor. The Mission's recommendations seek to enhance women's economic status and improve their access to resources such as vocational training and agricultural extension services.
Expanded Programme of Immunization Eastern Mediterranean Region. A report for the EPI Global Advisory Group Meeting, Alexandria, 21-25 October 1984.
[Unpublished] 1984. 10,  p. (EPI/GAG/84/WP.7.a)The strategy adopted by the Members States of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) to achieve the objective of the promotion of the Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) through primary health care (PHC) concentrates on strengthening synergistic integration of EPI with other services. Activities have been planned and implemented or are being implemented at the Regional Office and at the country level. 21 countries of the Region now have either a full-time or part-time manager or an EPI focal point. This is a considerable development, for in 1982 there were EPI managers in 9 countries. Except for 3 countries, all national EPI managers/focal points have received senior level training in EPI. At delivery points, vaccination is performed to a large extent by multipurpose health workers, but full-time vaccinators are available in about 6 countries. All field workers have received training at their respective regional levels. Limited financial resources continue to be 1 of the primary constraints of the program in the Region. Plans to resolve this problem include: counteracting wastage factors; close collaboration with the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and other international agencies at the country level to standardize approaches and avoid overlap; tapping regional and international voluntary agencies to increase their contributions; and increased use of associate experts, UN volunteers, and national technical staff. The overall information system is to some extent weak and suffers from irregularity and a lack of continuity. Regular reports are received from 9 countries which have World Health Organization staff. Repeated requests from other countries yield incomplete and at times contradicting data. Research efforts are directed towards operational areas, and research in strategies, integration, community, and surveillance areas is being encouraged.
Proposals for the improvement of international migration statistics in Africa within the context of the UN phased programme.
STATISTICAL INFORMATION BULLETIN FOR AFRICA. 1984; (17):43-50.Compared with the 2 other main demographic variables, fertility and mortality, the procedures for the collection and tabulation of migration statistics are not well developed or standardized. The 1980 UN recommendations on international migration proposed the identification of 4 major categories of arrivals, namely: 1) long-term term immigrants, 2) short-term immigrants, 3) short-term immigrants returning, and 4) nomads. The same statistics could also be collected for departures. In order for African countries to implement all or some aspects of the 1980 international recommendations, which are considered long-term goals, a step-by-step or phased approach has been proposed as the best stragegy to follow. This approach emphasizes border data collection rather than field investigations to generate statistics on a continuous basis. Another feature of the phased approach is that countries should formulate programs separately for the development of immigration, emigration, and stock international migration statistics. The following factors could be taken into account when devising the phased program: 1) whether the country is a net immigration or emigration country, 2) the extent and magnitude of immigration to the country, 3) the effects of the immigrant populations on the socioeconomic and demographic features of the population and their consequences for social amenities. The 1st step in the development of a phased program should involve a meticulous evaluation of the current state of the national statistics on immigration. The primary objective at the 1st stage should be the collection by all countries of information that will enable the identification of the internationally recommended categories of immigrants from among all persons entering the country. The next phases should have the objectives of collecting information on the characteristics of persons included in the recommended categories of immigrants.
[Expanded Programme on Immunization: Global Advisory Group] Programme Elargi de Vaccination: Groupe consultatif mondial.
Weekly Epidemiological Record / Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire. 1984 Mar 23; 59(12):85-9.In addition to the conclusions and recommendations reached at the 6th meeting of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) Global Advisory Group and summarized in this report, the Group reviewed at length the status of the program in the Western Pacific Region and made a series of recommendations specifically directed to activities in the Region. Of particular significance for the operational progress of the global program are the recommendations concerning "Administration of EPI Vaccines," which were subsequently endorsed by the Precongress workshop on Immunization held before the XVIIth International Congress of Pediatrics in Manila in November 1983. These recommendations are not listed here. In his report to the World Health Assembly in 1982, the Director-General summarized the major problems which threaten the success of efforts to achieve the World Health Organization (WHO) goal of reducing morbidity and mortality by providing immunization for all children of the world by 1990. The 5-Point Action Program adopted at that time remains a relevant guide for countries and for WHO as they work to resolve those problems. The EPI is concerned about the prevention of the target diseases, not merely with the administration of vaccine. In addition to working toward increases in immunization coverage, the EPI must assure the strenghtening of surveillance systems so that the magnitude of the health problem represented by the target diseases is known at the community, district, regional, and national levels; immunization strategies are continuously adapted in order to reach groups at highest risk; and the target diseases are reduced to a minimum. The development of surveillance systems is one of the priorities in the development of effective primary health care services. Disease surveillance in its various forms should be used at all management levels for monitoring immunization programs performance and for measuring program impact. Specific recommendations regarding disease surveillance to be undertaken at global and regional levels and at the national level are listed. The results of more than 100 lameness surveys conducted in 25 developing countries confirm that paralytic poliomyelitis constitutes an important public health problem in any area in which the disease is endemic. In most programs, initial emphasis should be placed on the develpment of sentinel surveillance sites to monitor disease incidence trends. Some progress has been made in acting on the recommendations made at the meeting on the prevention of neonatal tetanus held in Lahore in 1982, but intensification of activities is required. In many developing countries, the surveillance and control of diphtheria must be improved. All aspects of progress and problems in the global program are reflected at least somewhere in the Western Pacific Region, and most of the findings and recommendations generally are valid beyond the regional boundaries.
[Recommendations of the Population World Plan of Action and of the United Nations Expert Group on Population Distribution, Migration and Development] Recomendaciones del Plan de Accion Mundial sobre Poblacion y del Grupo de Expertos de la Organizacion de las Naciones Unidas sobre Distribucion de la Poblacion, Migracion y Desarrollo.
In: Reunion Nacional sobre Distribucion de la Poblacion, Migracion y Desarrollo, Guadalajara, Jalisco, 11 de mayo de 1984, [compiled by] Mexico. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion [CONAPO]. Mexico City, Mexico, CONAPO, 1984. 21-31.Highlights are presented of the expert meeting on population distribution, migration, and development held in Hammamet, Tunisia, in March 1983 to prepare for the 1984 World Population Conference. Rafael Salas, Secretary General of the World Population Conference, indicated in the inaugural address of the meeting that changes in the past 10 years including the increasing importance of short-term movements, illegal migrations, and refugees would require international agreements for their resolution. In the area of internal migrations, Salas suggested that in addition to migration to metropolitan areas which continues to predominate, short-term movements of various kinds need to be considered in policy. Improvement in the quality of life of the urban poor is an urgent need. Leon Tabah, Adjunct Secretary General of the World Population Conference, pointed out that population distribution and migration had received insufficient attention in the 1975 World Population Conference, and that the World Population Plan of Action should be modified accordingly. Among the most important findings of the meeting were: 1) The Plan of Action overstressed the negative effects of urbanization and rural migration. Available evidence suggests that migration and urbanization are effects rather than causes of a larger process of unequal regional and sectorial development 2) The historical context of each country should be considered in research and planning regarding population movements. 3) Analyses of the determinants and consequences of migration were reexamined in light of their relationship to the processes of employment, capital accumulation, land tenure, technological change, ethnic and educational aspects, and family dynamics. 4) The need to consider interrelationships between urban rural areas in formulation of policy affecting population distribution was emphasized. 5) National development strategies and macroeconomic and sectoral policies usually have stronger spatial effects than measures specifically designed to influence population distribution, and should be examined to ensure compatability of goals. 6) Population distribution policies should not be viewed as ends in themselves but as measures to achieve larger goals such as reducing socioeconomic inequalities. 7) Multiple levels of analysis should be utilized for understanding the causes and consequences of population movements. 8) Programs of assistance should be organized for migrants and their families. 9) The human and labor rights of migrants and nonmigrants should be considered in policy formulation. 10) Policies designed to improve living and working conditions of women are urgently needed.
[National Conference on Fertility and Family, Oaxaca de Juarez, Oaxaca, April 13, 1984] Reunion Nacional sobre Fecundidad y Familia, Oaxaca de Juarez, Oax., a 13 de abril de 1984.
Mexico City, Mexico, CONAPO, 1984. 228 p.Proceedings of a national conferences on the family and fertility held in April 1984 as part of Mexico's preparation for the August 1984 World Population Conference are presented. 2 opening addresses outline the background and objectives of the conference, while the 1st paper details recommendations of a 1983 meeting on fertility and the family held in New Delhi. The main body of the report presents 2 conference papers and commentary. The 1st paper, on fertility, contraception, and family planning, discusses fertility policies; levels and trends of fertility in Mexico from 1900 to 1970 and since 1970; socioeconomic and geographic fertility differentials; the relationship of mortality and fertility; contraception and the role of intermediate variables; the history and achievements of family planning activities of the private and public sectors in Mexico; and the relationship between contraception, fertility, and family planning. The 2nd paper, on the family as a sociodemographic unit and subject of population policies, discusses the World Population Plan of Action and current sociodemographic policies in Mexico; the family as a sociodemographic unit, including the implications of formal demography for the study of family phenomena, the dynamic sociodemographic composition of the family unit, and the family as a mediating unit for internal and external social actions; and steps in development of a possible population policy in which families would be considered an active part, including ideologic views of the family as a passive object of policy and possible mobilization strategies for families in population policies. The conference as a whole concluded by reaffirming the guiding principles of Mexico's population policy, including the right of couples to decide the number and spacing of their children, the fundamental objective of the population policy of elevating the socioeconomic and cultural level of the population, the view of population policy as an essential element of development policy, and the right of women to full participation. Greater efforts were believed to be necessary in such priority areas as integration of family planning programs with development planning and population policy, creation of methodologies for the analysis of families in their social contexts, development and application of contraceptive methodologies, promotion of male participation in family planning, coordination of federal and state family planning programs, and creation of sociodemographic information systems to ensure availability of more complete date on families in specific population sectors. The principles of the World Population Plan of Action were also reaffirmed.
[Unpublished] 1984 Jan. 13 p.The UN Development Program (UNDP) began a special drive in the mid-1970s to ensure that women would enjoy greater benefits from its programs of technical cooperation. Efforts have increased steadily since 1975 when UNDP's Governing Council declared that "the integration of women in development should be a continuous consideration in the formulation, design, and implementation of UNDP projects and programs." They involve: promotion to create a greater awareness of women's needs and approaches which can meet them effectively; orientation and training to enhance skills in developing, implementing, and monitoring programs of benefit to women; improving the data base to provide better information on women's productive roles; programming to address women's concerns and generate self-sustaining activities, replicable nationally, regionally, and interregionally; and personnel action to increase the number of women professionals within UNDP. A number of projects supported by UNDP are directly benefiting women, especially those in rural and poor urban areas of developing countries. Among other things, these projects are helping to reduce women's workloads; addressing needs for clean water, health care, and education; providing training in basic skills; and helping to develop income-earning potentials. Examples are cited for the countries of Indonesia, Mali, Mexico, Yemen Arab Republic, Nepal, Rwanda, Honduras, Papua New Guinea, Liberia, Bolivia, and the Philippines.
[Unpublished] 1984. Paper presented at the Meeting on Analysis of Trends and Patterns of Mortality in the ESCAP Region, 13-19 November 1984, Bangkok.  p.This paper proposes a minimum core tabulation program for national mortality analyses to 1) provide a framework for comparative country mortality analyses and 2) to encourage countries to make the best possible use of information on mortality patterns, trends, and differentials. Basically, countries should 1) go beyond this minimum program, 2) pay attention to data quality, whatever the source of data, and 3) provide complete details of definitions and data collection methods. Deaths and crude death rates should be constructed for 3 time periods--1960, 1970, and 1980, for urban and rural populations, and for administrative divisions. This approach would be useful for infant mortality rates by sex and age; it would also be useful to have infant mortality rates by socioeconomic groups and by mother's education. Mortality rates should be constructed by age and sex. The 4 leading causes of death should be given for urban and rural populations. Countries using summary measures for differential mortality should use the Gini coefficient or the Atkinson index. Countries should develop their own cross-tabulation programs for differential mortality--for example, infant mortality by mother's education and rural or urban residence or infant mortality by maternal age and parity. This program proposes a core tabulation of mortality statistics that will make international comparisons possible and promote detailed assessments of national situations.
[Unpublished] 1984. Paper presented at the Meeting on Analysis of Trends and Patterns of Mortality in the ESCAP Region, 13-19 November 1984, Bangkok.  p.Since very few developing countries have complete vital registration, most base their mortality statistics on data from occasional demographic surveys and population censuses. Brass technics are used to estimate child mortality from data on children ever born and children still living by 5-year age groups of mothers. Many of the 1980 censuses included these questions. In view of the importance of vital statistics for development planning, the UN has recently listed data to be collected by a vital registration system. Because complete registration is so difficult to achieve, some countries--India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, for example--operate sample registration systems, which are mostly dual-method surveys, continuous registration systems coupled with periodic household surveys. Demographic survey data relies largely on indirect methods for estimating infant and child mortality. This type of survey underestimates childbearing at older ages and overestimates childbearing at younger ages. Tables 1 and 2 list information on mortality collected in the 1970 and 1980 censuses of countries in the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region by whether information was collected on children born alive, children living, the date of birth of the last child, and whether that child is still living. Table 3 lists the UN recommendations on data to be collected in death registration.
[Papers presented at the First Study Director's Meeting on Comparative Study on Demographic-Economic Interrelationship for Selected ESCAP Countries, 29 October-2 November 1984, Bangkok, Thailand]
[Unpublished, 1984].  p.This study group report 1) investigates quantitatively the process of population change and socioeconomic development to identify policy recommendations for Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand and 2) examines the application of the "systems approach" and econometric technics for population and development planning. These country-specific studies will help to clarify the interrelationships between demographic and socioeconomic factors in the development process of each participating country and the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region in general. The meeting 1) reviewed major demographic and economic issues in each participating country, 2) reviewed extant work on model building in each country, and 3) outlined a preliminary system design. Several economic-demographic models are discussed. The participants recommended that 1) the models focus of similar issues such as migration and income distribution and 2) countries should adopt, whenever possible, a similar modeling methodology. Participants agreed that models should be based, where possible, on a base-year Social Accounting Matrix (SAM). This poses no problems in Thailand or Malaysia as SAMs are already available for these countries. However, no SAM is currently available for the Philippines. Participants further recommended that the 3 models could be improved by greater collaboration among study directors during model formulation and estimation. Participants also expressed concern about the size of the computing budget and thought that models could be improved by an increased budget for computer time.
Implementation of action area four ("Meeting the Needs of Young People") of the IPPF three year plan 1985-87.
[Unpublished] 1984 Dec. 11,  p. (PC/3.85/4)The objective of this paper is to assist the Central Council of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in monitoring the implementation of the IPPF 1985-87 plan. Baseline information is provided on all 1985 youth projects proposed by grant receiving family planning associations (FPAs) in their 1985-87 Three Year Plans. Detailed analysis was confined to the 67 FPA 1985-87 Three Year Plans received at the International Office by September 1984. This number covers most of the Associations in the region; the exception is the Western Hemisphere where several of their plans arrived in London too late to be included in the analysis. For nongrant receiving Associations, summary information was extracted from regional bureau sources and a list of youth activities in these countries is shown in an appendix. A summary of 1985 youth activities supported by the IPPF Secretariat at both regional and international level is shown in a 2nd appendix. To provide the necessary background to an analysis of 1985 youth projects, all strategies proposed by FPAs in their 1985-87 Plans were examined. A total of 360 strategies were classified according to their main purpose. A further classification into 14 categories was then used to demonstrate their relationship to the IPPFs 1985-87 Action Areas. Information about the purpose of youth projects, the types of activity carried out, and whether the project was new or ongoing was also extracted from the FPA Plans. For the 67 FPAs whose Three Year Plans were reviewed, a total of 360 strategies were proposed for the 1985-87 period. The largest number of strategies were concerned with providing family planning services; male involvement was the least mentioned. A total of 34 FPAs specifically mentioned young people in their list of strategies. A further 17 FPAs proposed youth projects but did not as yet devote a special youth strategy for them. Taking into account all regions, a total of 51 Associations in 1985 intended to spend almost $2 million implementing 169 youth projects. The projects fell into 4 main types: family life and population education; training; increasing awareness of issues affecting young people; and family planning services. The number of new youth projects in 1985 varies from region to region, the highest number being in Africa. FPAs still have much to do to meet the new objective of involving parents and the community in preparing young people for responsible sexuality and family life.
ESCAP/POPIN Working Group on Development of Population Information Centres and Network: report on the meeting held from 20 to 23 June 1984.
Popin Bulletin. 1984 Dec; (6-7):99-102.The Expert Working Group on the Development of Population Information Centers and Networks met in June 1984 to consider the organizational and technical aspects of the development of national population information centers in the countries in the Bangkok region, as well as national, regional and global networking. Representatives from China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, the philippines, the Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam participated in the meeting. POPIN was represented by its coordinator. Among the major issues considered by the Working Group were the role and functions of population information centers with special reference to the positioning of centers in national population programs user-oriented products to facilitate the utilization of research findings for policy formulation and program implementation, and the possible approaches to be developed by population centers in facilitating in-country networking to extend population information services beyond capital cities to the local level. The mandate and responsibilities of national population information centers should be explicitly stated by the highest authority. Centers should contribute to the national population programs by collecting, processing and disseminating population information effectively. Greater flexibility in performing activities should be given to centers. Training of staff should be expanded; external funding should be continued; and research and evaluation techniques should be developed. Surveys of users and their needs should be periodically undertaken to determine needs. Systematic user education programs should be provided and policy makers should be informed of current research findings and policy implications. Automation of bibliographic information should be undertaken. The Asia-Pacific POPIN Newsletter produced by ESCAP should be institutionalized as a channel of information centers in the region. ESCAP should take the initiative in establishing a South Asian network along the lines of ASEAN-POPIN to facilitate exchange of ideas and information. Efforts should be directed at linking the WHO Health Literature Library and Information Serivces (HELLIS) and POPIN in the Asian and Pacific region.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 May. xii, 156 p. (Report No. 67)A Needs Assessment and Program Development Mission visited the People's Republic of China from March 7 to April 16, 1983 to: review and analyze the country's population situation within the context of national population goals as well as population related development objectives, strategies, and programs; make recommendations on the future orientation and scope of national objectives and programs for strengthening or establishing new objectives, strategies, and programs; and make recommendations on program areas in need of external assistance within the framework of the recommended national population program and for geographical areas. This report summarizes the needs and recommendations in regard to: population policies and policy-related research; demographic research and training; basic population data collection and analysis; maternal and child health and family planning services; management training support for family planning services; logistics of contraceptive supply; management information system; family planning communication and education; family planning program research and evaluation; contraceptive production; research in human reproduction and contraceptives; population education and dissemination of population information; and special groups and multisectoral activities. The report also presents information on the national setting (geographical and cultural features, government and administration, the economy, and the evolution of socioeconomic development planning) and demographic features (population size, characteristics, and distribution, nationwide and demographic characteristics in geographical core areas). Based on its assessment of needs, the Mission identified mjaor priorities for assistance in the population field. Because of China's size and vast needs, external assistance for population programs would be diluted if provided to all provincial and lower administrative levels. Thus, the Mission suggests that a substantial portion of available resources be concentrated in 3 provinces as core areas: Sichuan, the most populous province (100,220,000 people by the end of 1982); Guandong, the province with the highest birthrate (25/1000); and Jiangsu, the most densely populated province (608 persons/square kilometer. In all the government has identified 11 provinces needing special attention in the next few years: Anhui, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jilin, Shaanxi and Shandong, in addition to Guangdong, Jiangsu, and Sichuan.
In: Quantitative approaches to analyzing socioeconomic determinants of Third World fertility trends: reviews of the literature. Project final report: overview, by Indiana University Fertility Determinants Group, George J. Stolnitz, director. [Unpublished] 1984. 79-91.Simple no-work/work distinctions are an unreliable basis for estimating causal linkages connecting female employment/work-status patterns to fertility. World Fertility Survey (WFS) data show about 3/4, 1/2, and 1/4 child differentials for over 20, 10-19, and under 10 years marital duration grouss respectively, for women employed since marriage. Effects on marriage seem strongest in Latin America and weakest in Asia. Controlling for age, marital duration, urban-rural residence, education, and husband's work status. But from the results of a number of WFS and other studies, it seems relationships of work status and fertility are difficult to confirm beyond directional indications, even in Latin America. A UN study using proximate determinants such as contraception and work status including a housework category indicated differentials in contraceptive practice were not significant net of control for education. Philippine data indicates low-income employment might increase fertility by decreasing breastfeeding, while WFS data from 5 Asian countries indicated pre-marital work encourages increased marriage age, without being specific about effects. Also, female employment must affect a large population to have a real impact on aggregate fertility, since female labor force activity is likely to change slowly if at all. Data presently available do not cover micro-level factors that may be important, such as effects of work on breastfeeding, nor do they lend themselves to examination by multi-equation analysis. More work is needed to isolate effects of work-status attributes like male employment, and to analyze intra-cohort mid-course fertility objective changes, as well as new theoretical process models such as competing time use and maternal role incompatibility.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Jul. vii, 59 p. (Report No. 68)This report of a Mission visit to Ghana from May 4-25, 1981 contains data highlights; a summary of findings; Mission recommendations regarding population and development policies, population data collection and analysis, maternal and child health and family planning, population education and communication programs, and women and development; and information on the following: the national setting; population features and trends (population size, growth rate, and distribution and population dynamics); population policy, planning, and policy-related research; basic data collection and anaylsis; maternal and child health and family planning (general health status, structure and organization of health services, maternal and child health and family planning activities, and family planning services in the private sector); population education and communication programs; women, youth, and development; and external assistance in population. Ghana gained independence in 1957. The country showed early promise of rapid development. Although well-endowed with natural and human resources, Ghana now suffers from food scarcity, inadequate infrastructure and services, inflation, inequities in income distribution, unemployment, and underemployment. Per capita gross national product (GNP) was $400 in 1981; between 1960-81 the average annual growth of GNP was -1.1%. A high rate of natural increase of the population has compounded development problems by intensifying demands for food, consumer goods, and social services while simultaneously increasing the constraints on productivity. The population, estimated at 13 million in mid-1984, is growing at a rate of 3.25% per annum. Immigration and emigration have contributed to changes in the size and composition of the population. Post-independence development policies favored the urban areas, encouraging a steady rural-to-urban shift in the population. At the same time, worsening socioeconomic conditions spurred the emigration of professional, managerial, and technical personnel and skilled workers. Ghana was the 1st sub-Saharan African nation to establish an official population policy. Since the formulation of the policy in 1969, successive governments have remained committed to its emphasis on fertility reduction while increasing attention to the problems of mortality and morbidity and rural/urban migration. Recognizing the need to intensify the commitment to population policies, the Mission recommends support for a program to further the awareness of policy makers of the relationship between population trends and their areas of responsibility. The Mission recommends the creation of a special permanent population committee and the strengthening of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning's Manpower division. The Mission also makes the following recommendations: the provision of training, technical assistance, and data processing facilities to ensure the timely provision of demographic data for socioeconomic planning; data collected in the pilot program of vital registration be evaluated before the system is expanded; the complete integration of maternal and child health and family planning and general health services within the primary health care system; and improvement in women's access to resources such as education, training, and agricultural inputs.
Geneva, WHO, 1984 Dec. ix, 152 p.88 recommendations were formulated by the International Conference on Population held in Mexico City in 1984. 4 of these dealt specifically with research requirements in the population field and are reproduced in this report in their entirety. As a result of the changing perspectives and requirements of the scientific fields in which the Special Program of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction operates and taking into account the various suggestions resulting from recent reviews of the Program, several new developments have occurred. First is the attempt to distinguish more clearly between activities related to research and development and those related to resources for research. These 2 distinct but closely connected activities will be reorganized to interact in a complementary fashion. In the research and development component, the most notable changes relate to the creation of new Task Forces on the Safety and Efficacy of Fertility Regulating Methods and on Behavioral and Social Determinants of Fertility Regulation. The Program has been actively promoting coordination with other programs which support and conduct research in human reproduction. The research and development section of this report provides a technical review of the activities and plans of the various task forces, covering the following: new and improved methods of fertility regulation (long-acting systemic methods, oral contraceptives, post-ovulatory methods, IUDs, vaccines, plants, male methods, female sterilization, and natural methods), safety and efficacy of fertility regulating methods, infertility, and service and psychosocial research. The section devoted to resources for research describes some features of the network of centers, reviews the Program's institution strengthening activities in the different regions, and also considers research training and the program of standardization and quality control of laboratory procedures. The section covering special issues in drug development focuses on relations with industry, patents, and the role of the Special Program in the drug regulatory process.
[Health costs and financing and the work of WHO] Cout et financement de la sante et activities de l'OMS.
World Health Statistics Quarterly. Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales. 1984; 37(4):339-50.This discussion examines the international responses to issues and problems in the cost and financing of the health sector, focusing on the work of the World Health Organization (WHO). It describes the growth of attention to these concerns beginning in the 1970s, reviews methods and applications of financial analysis in greater detail, and summarizes progress to date and the agenda for work. Emphasis is on the developing countries, for they face the most urgent problems regarding costs and financing, and more attention is directed to their needs for support in this area. By the early 1970s it was clear that progress in health development particularly in the most underprivileged countries was unsatisfactory and that changes were needed if services were to have an appreciable impact on the health problems of developing populations. A major study conducted jointly by the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) and WHO identified several of the critical problems associated with resources. The essential financial concerns requiring attention in connection with primary health service coverage, the need for more equitable distribution of existing resources for health and the priority of resources allocation to peripheral health services were examined in detail by a WHO Study Group on Financing Health Services which met in 1977. Among the problems of health finance, those of the overall lack of funds, the maldistribution of health resources, rising health care costs, and the lack of coordination were found to be particularly important. The Study Group concluded that, despite difficulties, it was possible to collect information of sufficient reliability for planners' needs and at a modest cost, even for the private sector. To help bring this about, it recommended that research centers and universities, in collaboration with national health authorities of their country, devote considerable attention to data collection methods. The reports, studies, and papers prepared at various meetings deal in general with specific aspects of health cost and financing. A major element, and evolving product, of the meetings and studies related to developing countries was a manual on financing health services, originally based on the recommendations of the 1st Study Group meeting. This draft document served as background material for a series of further meetings and was used to guide many of the country financing studies. A number of other health financing manuals were also developed between 1979-81. In its final published form the WHO manual attempts to be relevant to all developing countries. The manual describes health policies and their financial aspects and outlines techniques for data collection. If the recommendations of the 1st Study Group are compared with the achievements recorded thus far, the following facts come to light: many countries have undertaken surveys of health sector financing and resource allocation; increased interest in this subject has been shown by other international organizations; much progress has been made in the development and refinement of methodologies for collecting and using financial data; international activities and country studies have made it possible to provide reports for country leadership; and issues of financial planning and management often appear in medium and longterm plans.
In: Mortality and health policy. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Mortality and Health Policy, Rome, 30 May to 3 June 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 289-303. (International Conference on Population, 1984; ST/ESA/SER.A/91)The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) assistance program encompasses basic data collection, population dynamics, formulation of population policies, implementation of general policies, family planning activities, communication and education programs, and special programs and multisector activities. This paper focuses on UNFPA assistance in the area of mortality. The Fund does not provide support for activities related to the reduction of mortality per se; rather, it contributes indirectly to the improvement of infant, child, and maternal health through assistance to family planning programs integrated with maternal-child health care. The types of activities UNFPA supports in this area include prenatal, delivery, and postnatal care of mothers and infants; infant and child care; health and nutrition education; promotion of breastfeeding; monitoring of infant malnutrition; and diagnostic studies and treatment of infertility and subfecundity. The Fund has cumulatively expended about US$87.3 million for activities in the area of mortality and health policy. The Fund is currently providing collaborative assistance to the World Health Organization and the UN for a comprehensive project aimed at measuring mortality trends and examining the roles of socioeconomic development and selected interventions in the mortality decline in certain developing countries. At present there is a need for research on the persistence of high mortality in the least developed countries, the early levelling off of life expectancies in many countries, and the determinants of socioeconomic differentials in mortality. Understanding of the mortality situation in many developing countries has been hindered by a lack of descriptive data on mortality by socioeconomic, regional, and occupational status. The real challenge lies in the implementation of policies designed to reduce mortality; political, managerial, and cultural factors unique to each country, as well as pervasive poverty, make this a difficult process.