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  1. 1

    Social studies and population education. Book Three: man in his environment.

    University of Sierra Leone. Institute of Education

    Freetown, Sierra Leone, Ministry of Education, 1984. 93 p. (UNFPA/UNESCO Project SIL/76/POI)

    The National Programme in Social Studies in Sierra Leone has created this textbook in the social sciences, with an emphasis on population education, for 2ndary school students. Unit 1, "Man's Origin, Development and Characteristics," describes Darwin's theory of evolution and explains how overproduction causes problems of rapid population growth and poor quality of life. Special attention is given to the problem of high infant mortality in Sierra Leone. Unit 2, "Man's Environment," discusses the interrelationships and interdependence among elements in the ecosystem, the food pyramid, and the effects of man's activities and numbers on the ecosystem. Unit 3, "Man's Culture," focuses on the processes of socialization and the different agents of socialization: the family, the group, the school, and the community. Unit 4, "Population and Resources," discusses human and natural resources as well as conservation measures. It also discusses the population composition, its effect on resources, and the uses and significance of population data. Unit 5, "Communication in the Service of Man," covers land, water and air transport; the effects of transport developments in Sierra Leone; and implications for population of changes in transport activities. Unit 6, "Global Issues: Achievements and Problems," deals with the young population, characteristics of the adolescent, common social problems among young people, and the role of the family unit. National and international action is also discussed.
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  2. 2

    Social studies and population education. Book One: man in his environment.

    University of Sierra Leone. Institute of Education

    Freetown, Sierra Leone, Ministry of Education, 1984. 80 p. (UNFPA/UNESCO Project SIL/76/POI)

    The National Programme in Social Studies in Sierra Leone has created this text in social studies, with an emphasis on population education, for 2ndary school students. Unit 1, "Man's Origins, Development and Characteristics," covers traditional, religious and scientific explanations of man's origin; man's characteristics and the effects of these characteristics; and the beginnings of population growth and the characteristics of human population. In Unit 2, "Man's Environment," the word environment is defined and geographical concepts are introduced. Unit 3, "Man's Culture," defines institution and discusses family types, roles and cycles, as well as traditional ceremonies and cultural beliefs about family size. Unit 4, "Population and Resources," primarily deals with how the family meets its needs for food, shelter and clothing. It also covers the effects of population growth. Unit 5, "Communication in the Service of Man," discusses the means and growth of communication and collecting vital information about the population. The last unit defines global issues and discusses the interdependence of nations, issues affecting nations at the individual and world level, and the UN.
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  3. 3

    [Statistical country yearbook: members of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, 1984] Statisticheskii ezhegodnik stran--chlenov Soveta Ekonomicheskoi Vzaimopomoshchi, 1984.

    Sovet Ekonomicheskoi Vzaimopomoshchi

    Moscow, USSR, Finansy i Statistika, 1984. 456 p.

    This yearbook presents general statistical information for member countries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. A section on population (pp. 7-14) includes data on area and population; population according to the latest census; average annual population; birth, death, and natural increase rates; infant mortality; average life expectancy; marriages and divorces; urban and rural population; and population distribution by social group. (ANNOTATION)
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  4. 4

    Proposals for the improvement of international migration statistics in Africa within the context of the UN phased programme.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa


    Compared with the 2 other main demographic variables, fertility and mortality, the procedures for the collection and tabulation of migration statistics are not well developed or standardized. The 1980 UN recommendations on international migration proposed the identification of 4 major categories of arrivals, namely: 1) long-term term immigrants, 2) short-term immigrants, 3) short-term immigrants returning, and 4) nomads. The same statistics could also be collected for departures. In order for African countries to implement all or some aspects of the 1980 international recommendations, which are considered long-term goals, a step-by-step or phased approach has been proposed as the best stragegy to follow. This approach emphasizes border data collection rather than field investigations to generate statistics on a continuous basis. Another feature of the phased approach is that countries should formulate programs separately for the development of immigration, emigration, and stock international migration statistics. The following factors could be taken into account when devising the phased program: 1) whether the country is a net immigration or emigration country, 2) the extent and magnitude of immigration to the country, 3) the effects of the immigrant populations on the socioeconomic and demographic features of the population and their consequences for social amenities. The 1st step in the development of a phased program should involve a meticulous evaluation of the current state of the national statistics on immigration. The primary objective at the 1st stage should be the collection by all countries of information that will enable the identification of the internationally recommended categories of immigrants from among all persons entering the country. The next phases should have the objectives of collecting information on the characteristics of persons included in the recommended categories of immigrants.
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  5. 5

    A proposal for a core tabulation programme.

    Ruzicka LT

    [Unpublished] 1984. Paper presented at the Meeting on Analysis of Trends and Patterns of Mortality in the ESCAP Region, 13-19 November 1984, Bangkok. [20] p.

    This paper proposes a minimum core tabulation program for national mortality analyses to 1) provide a framework for comparative country mortality analyses and 2) to encourage countries to make the best possible use of information on mortality patterns, trends, and differentials. Basically, countries should 1) go beyond this minimum program, 2) pay attention to data quality, whatever the source of data, and 3) provide complete details of definitions and data collection methods. Deaths and crude death rates should be constructed for 3 time periods--1960, 1970, and 1980, for urban and rural populations, and for administrative divisions. This approach would be useful for infant mortality rates by sex and age; it would also be useful to have infant mortality rates by socioeconomic groups and by mother's education. Mortality rates should be constructed by age and sex. The 4 leading causes of death should be given for urban and rural populations. Countries using summary measures for differential mortality should use the Gini coefficient or the Atkinson index. Countries should develop their own cross-tabulation programs for differential mortality--for example, infant mortality by mother's education and rural or urban residence or infant mortality by maternal age and parity. This program proposes a core tabulation of mortality statistics that will make international comparisons possible and promote detailed assessments of national situations.
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  6. 6

    Availability and quality of mortality statistics in selected ESCAP countries.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    [Unpublished] 1984. Paper presented at the Meeting on Analysis of Trends and Patterns of Mortality in the ESCAP Region, 13-19 November 1984, Bangkok. [9] p.

    Since very few developing countries have complete vital registration, most base their mortality statistics on data from occasional demographic surveys and population censuses. Brass technics are used to estimate child mortality from data on children ever born and children still living by 5-year age groups of mothers. Many of the 1980 censuses included these questions. In view of the importance of vital statistics for development planning, the UN has recently listed data to be collected by a vital registration system. Because complete registration is so difficult to achieve, some countries--India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, for example--operate sample registration systems, which are mostly dual-method surveys, continuous registration systems coupled with periodic household surveys. Demographic survey data relies largely on indirect methods for estimating infant and child mortality. This type of survey underestimates childbearing at older ages and overestimates childbearing at younger ages. Tables 1 and 2 list information on mortality collected in the 1970 and 1980 censuses of countries in the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region by whether information was collected on children born alive, children living, the date of birth of the last child, and whether that child is still living. Table 3 lists the UN recommendations on data to be collected in death registration.
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  7. 7

    ["Census" in the twentieth century: on the indispensability of the census] Zensus im 20. Jahrhundert: uber die Unverzichtbarkeit einer Volkszahlung

    Esenwein-Rothe I

    Wirtschaftswissenschaftliches Studium. 1984 May; 13(5):253-7.

    This article focuses on the uses and limits of a population census from a scientific statistical viewpoint, with a geographic emphasis on the Federal Republic of Germany. Comparisons are made among the minimum census program recommended by the United Nations and the U.S. and German census programs. The role of the census in relation to population registers and surveys is also discussed. Finally, the indispensability of the census for economic and social policy is noted. (ANNOTATION)
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  8. 8

    Civil registration and vital statistics in the Africa region: lessons learned from the evaluation of UNFPA-assisted projects in Kenya and Sierra Leone.

    Kannisto V; Makannah TJ; Mehta DC; McWilliam J

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Dec. viii, 25 p.

    To review the experience of vital statistics and civil registration in the Africa Region, projects in 2 countries were evaluated in-depth: the Civil Registration Demonstration in Kenya and the Strengthening of the Civil Registration and Vital Statistics System in Sierra Leone. Based on these project evaluations and on experience in the area of data collection and project implementation in other parts of the Africa Region, specific observations/conclusions and recommendations are made in 5 areas. 1) United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) support for civil registration is justified if and when it can be expected to produce vital statistics which are not less reliable than estimates derived from censuses and surveys. 2) Regarding project strategy, a gradually expanding registration area is preferable in countries in the Africa Region which have extensive rural areas. 3) A thorough assessment of the registration hierarchy is required when establishing new methods and procedures for civil registration. In deciding upon the topics to be included in the region records, usefulness, collectability and neutrality of the inputs are important criteria. 4) Regarding project inputs, Governments may wish to choose an existing organization which has a large field staff and a bureaucratic hierarchy to undertake civil registration activities. In this way these activites could then be added on as new functions of existing posts. The careful selection of types of equipment and supplies greatly affects the implementation of civil registration activities and external resources are required in many projects for vehicles and paper for registration forms. 5) While the projects evaluated have followed the procedures for monitoring through the submission of Project Progress Reports and the holding of Tripartite Review Meetings, the monitoring system has not served as a triggering mechanism for actions. This is mainly due to the lack of follow-up by the governments, and executing and finding agencies of the monitoring reports, and at times, the absence of key technical and administrative persons at Tripartite Review Meetings. Recommendations made concerning these conclusions are addressed to the governments of the Region to improve their civil registration systems; some are addressed specifically to UNFPA and the United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development to improve their assistance to governments.
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  9. 9

    Report on the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to the civil registration demonstration project in Kenya: project KEN/79/P04.

    Kannisto V; Makannah TJ; Mehta DC; McWilliam J

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Dec. xi, 36 p.

    Kenya established a compulsory vital statistics and civil registration system in 1963 and it was extended nationwide in phases until it covered the whole country by 1971. Serious under-registration of births and deaths however, has persisted. In order to improve registration coverage, the government submitted a proposal to UNFPA to support experimentation with ways to promote registration in some model areas. The original project document included 4 immediate objectives: the strengthening of the civil registration system in the model areas including the creation of a new organizational structure, the training of project personnel and the decentralization of registration activities; the improvement of methods and procedures of registration through experimentation; the collection of reliable vital statistics in the model areas; and, the establishment of a public awareness program on the need for civil registration to ensure the continuation and extension of the new system. Of the 4 objectives of the project, 2 have been achieved--the strengthening of civil registration in the model areas and the improvement of methods and procedures of registration. The major deficiency during the project period was the lack of required staff in the field. The primary feature which distinguishes the project is that traditional birth attendants and village elders become key persons at the village level and act as registration informants after receiving training. The strong points of the project are the high quality of technical assistance provided by the executing agency, the close collaboration among various government departments, and the choice of project strategy and model area. Recommendations have been made to correct the problems of a lack of key personnel at the head office and in the field, and the expansion of registration to new areas before consolidation was completed in the old areas.
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  10. 10

    Report on the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to the strengthening of the civil registration and vital statistics system in Sierra Leone: project SIL/79/P03.

    Kannisto V; Mehta DC; McWilliam J

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Dec. x, 28 p.

    While Sierra Leone has a long tradition in registering births and deaths, dating back to the mid-1880s, registration has remained low. In order to improve registration coverage, the original project formulated in 1979 by the government included 3 immediate objectives; the strengthening of the civil registration system in a model area, the experimentation with field organization procedures most suitable for the registration system in the country, and the production of estimates of demographic variables in the model area and in the rest of the country. In the Tripartite Project Review held in 1981, 2 additional objectives were added to the project; the unification of the civil registration laws, including the provision of a uniform and universal legislation for the entire country, and the reorganization and training of the registration hierarchy. While the strategy to use a model area for the development was a sound one, without the law being enacted, new forms and registers could not be printed and thus few of the planned activities could take place. Of the 5 immediate objectives of the project, only one has been achieved--the passage of the Act of 1983 which provides the legal framework for registration to take place nationwide under the new system. Little progress has been made in the achievement of the 4 remaining objectives. The Evaluation Mission made recommendations concerning the need to reformulate the extension document early in 1985, taking into account the results of the Evaluation Mission, the concentration of government action on registration in the non-model areas, and thereafter the gradual expansion of registration to adjacent areas where more complete coverage is possible.
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  11. 11

    Population Commission: report on the twenty-second session, 18-20 January 1984.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Council

    New York, New York, United Nations 1984. 45 p. (Official Records, 1984, Supplement No. 2 E/1984/12 E./CN. 9/1984/9)

    The report of the 22nd session of the United Nations Population Commission includes the opening statements by the Under Secretary General for International Economic and Social Affairs, the Under Secretary General for Technical Cooperation for Development, the Director of the Population Division, and the Assistant Executive Director of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities. These are followed by a description of the actions taken by the United Nations to implement the recommendations of the World Population Conference, 1974. A report on the progress of ongoing work in the field of population summarized for the following categories: 1) world demographic analysis; 2) demographic projections; 3) population policies; 4) population and development; 5) monitoring of population trends and policies; 6) factors affecting patterns of reproduction; 7) dissemination of population information; 8) technical cooperation; and 9) demograpahic statistics. Programs of work in the field of population for the biennium 1984-1985 and medium-term plan for the period 1984-1989 are provided for each of the 9 preceding categories as well as a consideration of draft proposals and a report on the continuity of work. The report concludes with the organization, attendance, and agenda of the session.
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  12. 12

    Technical co-operation in the field of mortality and health policy.

    United Nations. Department of Technical Co-operation for Development

    In: Mortality and health policy. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Mortality and Health Policy, Rome, 30 May to 3 June 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 270-88. (International Conference on Population, 1984; ST/ESA/SER.A/91)

    This paper reviews the technical cooperation efforts undertaken by the United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development (DTCD) to help combat the high mortality levels in developing countries and to evolve policies in response to the World Population Plan of Action. Although the transfer of medical technology and the provision of drugs and other medical supplies remain important means of controlling death and disease, there is growing recognition of the need to develop national skills to deal with mortality, to maintain a continuous record of mortality and morbidity levels and their response to ameliorative programs, and to analyze the interrelationships between demographic, health, and socioeconomic variables. DTCD has focused on data collection and analysis, the integration of research findings into population policy formulation, and training and skill development to facilitate self-reliance. However, the lack of regular mechanisms for coordinating the activities of the various United Nations agencies that play a role in in technical cooperation in the areas of mortality and health policy has been a serious limitation. Another problem has been the dearth of tested alternative techniques for conducting simple health surveys whose results could be used in planning. Closer cooperation between United Nations agencies in this field is urged. It is also important that the recent reassignment of a low priority to data collection and analysis on the part of the United Nations Development Program be reversed. Unless data collection, analysis, and evaluation are reassigned a high priority, planners will be forced to depend on subjective judgments to evolve mortality policies. Finally, technical cooperation activities that aim to integrate mortality and morbidity control into population policies must be responsive to human rights.
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  13. 13

    [Reconciling censal and inter-censal data and determination of the population base] Conciliacion censal y determinacion de la poblacion base.

    Rincon MJ

    In: Metodos para proyecciones demograficas [compiled by] United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE]. San Jose, Costa Rica, Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, 1984 Nov. 13-42. (Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE] Series E, No. 1003)

    This work describes procedures used by the Latin American Demographic Center (CELADE) for establishing a base population for projection in quinquennial age groups by means of evaluation of population censuses and reconciliation of demographic data for 2 or more intercensal periods. Demographic reconciliation refers to the array of procedures through which the degree of coverage of successive censuses is evaluated; age and sex distributions resulting from incomplete coverage, differential omission, and poor age reporting are corrected; the demographic dynamics of intercensal periods are made coherent with estimates of mortality, fertility, and migration from all available sources; and a base population for population projection is established. There are no fixed rules for evaluation and reconciliation of census data, because the history and quality of data collection in each country are unique. The compensatory equation, in which 2 or more population censuses are reconciled in regard to fertility, mortality, and international migration in intermediate years usually in terms of age cohorts, is an indispensable tool for demographers in developing countries. The need to add children born in the years between censuses and the different types of errors typifying different age groups means that the process of census reconciliation should be carried out separately for at least 3 age groups: children under 5, the 5-9 year cohort, and those over 10 years of age. The age group 0-4 is often the most seriously underestimated. Because the age group 5-9 years is often the best enumerated in Latin American population censuses, it can serve as the basis for correction of the population aged 0-4. The data required include the population aged 5-9 in single years in the last census, the deaths in children under 10 by year of birth and age at death in single years, and the annual number of births in the 10 years preceding the last census. Data from Panama illustrate that the results of this technique are not always acceptable, in which case correction of the 0-4 cohort may be accomplished by means of correction of births and deaths using indirect methods. Corrections for the 5-9 cohort, if required, can be made in a similar manner to that for the youngest group. Evaluation and correction of errors of omission and misreporting of age of the population over 10 is the most difficult because data sources are most often inadequate, these age groups have the greatest age and sex differentials and poorest age reporting, and are most likely to be effected by emigration. All available data should be utilized to produce a group of alternative estimates for each cohort based on diverse basic data and assumptions about such variables as the sex ratios for age agroups. The most likely values must then be selected or calculated. The process by which census results from 1950-80 were used to estimate the base population for a projection by components in Panama illustrates the procedure used by CELADE.
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  14. 14

    Country statement--Liberia.

    [Unpublished] [1984]. Presented at the Second African Population Conference, Arusha, Tanzania, January 9-13, 1984. 3 p.

    Liberia's population characteristics and dynamics are briefly decribed, the current status of population data collection is noted, and the government's population policies and programs are summarized. National censuses were conducted in 1962 and 1974 with assistance from the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), and a 3rd census is planned for February 1984. National population growth surveys were conducted in 1969 and 1972, and demographic growth surveys were undertaken in 1978 and 1979. An administrative structure for registering births and deaths was recently created, however, most births occurring outside of hospitals and clinics will not be covered. In 1973, a demographic unit was established at the University of Liberia to develop the manpower needed to upgrade population data collection procedures. According to data collected in the 1974 censuses and subsequent surveys, the birthrate is 48.6, the death rate is 17.3, and the gross reproductive rate is 3.2. the total fertility rate is 6.7, and the infant mortality rate is 110.4. Life expectancy at birth is 49.1 for males and 52.5 for females. there are 97.3 males/100 females. The proprotion of the male population under 15 years of age is 47.9%, and the respective proportion for females is 46.9%. The total population is 1.8 million. Although Liberia does not have a population policy, the government recently established a National Population Committee to formulate a national policy and to coordinate population acitivities. 3.5% of Liberia's women of childbearing age currently use family planning services provided either by the International Planned Parenthood Federation or by the government with the assistance of UNFPA and the US Agency for International Development.
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