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Report of the Regional Awareness Conference on Population and Development, Castries, Saint Lucia, 30 April - 1 May 1984.
[Unpublished] 1984. , 53,  p.The Population and Development Project of the Caribbean region aims to increase the awareness of regional leaders on population issues, explain the consequences of continued demographic trends upon socioeconomic development, present up-to-date medical protocols for family planning services to medical practitioners, and improve family planning service delivery in selected countries. Proceedings from a Regional Awareness Conference on Population and Development and presented. Opening remarks of the conference were made by the Minister of Health of Saint Lucia, the Secretary-General of the Caribbean Community, and representatives from the UNFPA and CARICOM. Chairmen for conference sessions were elected, an agenda adopted, and procedural matters settled. An abstract of the regional population policy paper is discussed, followed by consideration of the benefits of population programs for family planning and health, and presentation of the medical steering committee's work. National population task force reports are included for Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Monsterrat, St. Christopher-Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Anguilla, Bermuda, the British Virgin Islands, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos, and the Bahamas. Jamaica's experience in formulating and implementing its population policy follows, preceding presentations on migration and adolescent fertility. Concluding sections cover resources for the awareness of population impacts on development, a suggested draft model of national population policy, information on the development law and policy program, a panel discussion of population policy implications, and proposals and recommendations for a plan of action to implement population policy. A list of participants is included among the annexes.
New York, New York, The Global Committee of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, 1984. 32 p.The International Parliamentary Assembly on Population and Development was held in Mexico City, immediately following the United Nations International Conference on Population in 1984. The implementation of the World Population Plan of Action adopted by the UN conference was discussed by 184 parliamentarians from 60 countries. The result was an action plan, affirming that the ultimate objective of development and population policies would be improvement of the quality of life and well-being of individuals and families; noting the agreement of the UN conference, that population is integral to development; placing population policies in the prerogative of each sovereign country; recognizing the achievements of parliamentarians; and reasserting the importance of parliamentarians in the formulation of policies and enactment of population and development laws. Since the 1979 Colombo, Sri Lanka Parliamentarians conference, achievements have included the holding of regional conferences; establishment of the Global Committee; Asian Forum, and Inter-American Parliamentary Group, and national groups in 40 countries; and encouraging participation of parliamentarians in the 1984 UN conference. As elected representatives of the people, the parliamentarians' role includes insuring population and development issues receive priority attention; alerting constituents to the importance and inter-relationship of population and development; securing a political concensus for action; initiating legislative measures; working for funding allocation; reviewing progress; and collaborating with other parliamentarians as well as diverse international organizations. Parliamentarians should, in future, work also for the improved status of women; the strengthening of primary health care and legislative strenghening of family planning; extending of educational opportunities to all, and assisting in protecting the physical environment, in alleviating the problems of migration, and fostering of community participation. Steering and drafting committee members and participating countries are listed.
London, England, IPPF, 1984. 3 p. (IPPF Fact Sheet)Long term problems of population growth in China are indicated by the fact that 65% of the 1,024,950,000 1983 population is under 30 years of age; 50% is under 21. Although family planning was started in the 1950s, it was neglected during the 1960s Cultural Revolution, and did not become a national program until 1971. The one child per family policy, proposed in 1978, has since become the basis for government regulations which are strictly enforced. Family planning messages are conveyed through every possible type of media, and services are made available to the entire population. Various economic incentives and disincentives such as, monthly health care subsidies granted to couples who have only one child until he reaches the age of 14, grain allocations for an only child, and larger private plots, are used to help reward those who obey the family planning policy. All contraceptives are available free of charge: at the end of 1983, 69.5% of fertile couples were using some form of modern contraceptive method. The China Family Planning Association was formed in 1980 with the objective of assisting the government program by motivating people to accept family planning. The Association's 3 year plan for 1985-1987 is: 1) to strengthen family planning publicity; 2) to increase the management and professional skills of the personnel; 3) to strengthen the Association's organization at central and branch level; and 4) to participate in international conferences and other activities.
The world population plan of action and the Mexico draft recommendations: analytical comparisons and index.
[Unpublished] 1984 Jul 23. 136 p. (ESA/P/WP/85)This document, prepared primarily for use within the UN Secretariat, systematically compares the recommendtions of the World Population Plan of Action (WPPA) and the Mexico Draft recommendations for the implementation of the WPPA. There are 109 recommendations in the WPPA, and 85 in the Mexico Draft; they are compared using a 2-column format. An index provides cross referencing. Topics covered include the family and the staus of women, population characteristics (addressing, in particular, the implications of the increasing proportion of young persons in populations of developing countries), and the links between morbidity and mortality and family planning. For example, the WPPA notes that "mortality reduction may be a prerequisite to a decline in fertility." In light of this, the Mexico Draft recommends that governments take immediate action to increase infant survival by expanding the use of oral rehydration therapy, immunization, and the promotion of breast feeding. In addition, nutrient supplements and appropriate day-care facilities should be provided for nursing mothers in the labor force. Other areas addressed include the need to promote the development of management in all fields related to population. This need can be met with a worldwide system of institutions designed totrain personnel. Present educational institutions should expand their curricula to include the study of population dynamics and policy. Developing countries should be provided with technical equipment and financial support to improve library facilities, computer services, data-gathring, and analysis. While international cooperation is considered crucial to the implementation of the WPPA, national governments are urged to make the attainment of self-reliance in the management of their population programs a high priorit. In recognition of the diversity of national goals, no recommendations are made regarding a world family-size norm.
Statement by the leader of the Ethiopian Delegation to the International Conference on Population, Mexico City, 6-13 August, 1984.
[Unpublished] 1984 Aug. Presented at the International Conference on Population, Mexico City, August 6-13, 1984. 6 p.Since Ethiopia's land reform act of 1975 and the nationalization of its major industrial and financial institutions, the government has organized society, has raised the level of literacy from 7% to 63%, and has conducted a 1st population and housing census. Now, in a 10-Year Perspective Plan, population policy is identified as a major issue, reflecting the country's concern over its present high rate of population growth--2.9%/year--and its infant mortality rate of 144/1000 live births, with life expectancy at only 46 years. Health care stratgy, including safe drinking water, is another top government priority, as is improving the status of women. Family planning services are offered, and Ethiopia holds that international assistance should reflect national sovereignty rather than being conditional to any particular family planning policy.
Earthwatch. 1984; (16):7.The International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), cooperates with the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) and other agencies to: actively promote policies designed to attain a balance between population and resources, within national conservation strategies and through field activities to preserve nature and natural resources; take into account the fundamental issues of population and resources in its policies, programs, resolutions, and public statements, where appropriate; keep trends in population and resources under review, reporting back to each IUCN General Assembly; encourage nongovernment organizations, including local conservation groups and family planning associations, to work together to spread awareness of the links between population, resources, and the environment; encourage governments to undertake periodic assessments of population trends, natural resources, and likely economic conditions, their interrelationships and the implications for the achievement of national goals; encourage governments to establish a population policy and to consider the special environmental problems of the urban and rural poor and to promote sustainable rural development; encourage nations to take effective action to obtain the basic right of all couples to have access to safe and effective family planning methods, as established in the World Population Plan of Action; and generally encourage national and international development policies which help create the conditions in which human population can successfully be brought into balance with carefully conserved natural resources.
The state of the environment 1985. Environmental aspects of emerging agricultural technologies. Population and the environment.
Nairobi, Kenya, UNEP, 1984. , vi, 43 p.World production of food crops has basically increased from 1945-1985 due to the emergence of agricultural technologies such as petroleum- based chemical fertilizers and pesticides, efficient and sophisticated farm equipment, hybridization, and, recently, genetic engineering. However, only developed countries and a few developing countries, for example India, have experienced this growth. Social, economic, environmental, and political factors such as inequitable access to resources have prevented this phenomenon from occurring in developing countries where the people often experience famine and malnutrition. Nevertheless the technical path which lead to high food crop yields cannot always be adapted by many poor farmers and landless laborers in developing countries. Further, this path is energy intensive and destroys the environment. To increase production in developing countries, the governments must encourage environmentally sound agricultural development, such as integrated pest management and minimum tillage. Despite any attempts at increasing food production in these countries, however, rapid population growth hampers any increases. As population grows, the availability of fertile, tillable land for food crops decreases. In addition, soil degradation and deforestation occur because more trees and plants are cleared to grow crops and, immediately following harvest, a new set of crops are grown quickly thereby depleting the topsoil and its nutrients. Further, people gather more wood for cooking. These governments, with cooperation and aid from developed countries and international agencies, need to address a multitude of problems such as poverty, population growth, environmental degradation, and women's status, in order to bring food production, the status of the environment, and population growth into balance.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 1984. viii, 60 p. (Report No. 79)This report presents the findings of a mission from the UN Fund for Population Activities to ascertain the needs for population assistance for the Republic of Botswana. Botswana's population is growing at a rate of 3.46% (1980-1985), a consequence of continuing high fertility and decreasing death rates. While there is an awareness of the implications of he high growth rate for development, the government appears to have relaxed its emphasis on controlling population growth, limiting its role to maternal and child health, and concentrating on the family welfare aspects of fertility control. The Mission expressed concern about the absence of a clearly articulated policy on population. However, it is hoped that the creation of the Botswana Population Council will result in the inclusion of such a policy in future national development plans. Migration is a major problem facing planners. The high rate of rural to urban migration and the reduction of migration to the Republic of South Africa for employment, have resulted in high unemployment rates within Botswana, particularly among unskilled workers. Critical gaps have been identified in the collection, analysis, and dissemination of population data, which are essential for the formulation of appropriate development strategies in this area. The Mission recommends that support in the form of training and technical assistance be provided to both the Central Statistics Office and the Registry of Births and Deaths, in the case of the latter to promote the establishment of a nation-wide civil registration system. Present health policy focuses on the concept of primary health care, with an emphasis on preventive health and community participation. Due to the shortage of health manpower and heavy dependence on expatriate personnel, the Mission's recommendations in this area stress support for the training of health workers at all levels and the inclusion of population components in this training. A high proportion of households, particularly in rural areas, are headed by women, and many of these households are poor. The Mission's recommendations seek to enhance women's economic status and improve their access to resources such as vocational training and agricultural extension services.
[Unpublished] 1984 May 8. 31 p. (CE 92/12)This report shows how demographic information can be analyzed and used to identify and characterize the groups assigned priority in the Regional Plan of Action and that it is necessary for the improvement of the planning and allocation of health resources so that national health plans can be adapted to encompass the entire population. In discussing the connections between health and population characteristics in the countries of the region, the report covers mortality, fertility and health, and fertility and population increase; spatial distribution and migration; and the structure of the population. Focus then moves on to health, development, and population policies and family planning. The final section of the report considers the response of the health sector to population trends and characteristics and to development-related factors. The operations of the health sector must be revised in keeping with the observed demographic situation and the projections thereof so that the goal of health for all by the year 2000 may be realized. In several countries of the region mortality remains high. In 1/3 of them, infant mortality during the period 1980-85 exceeds 60/1000 live births. If measures are not taken to reduce mortality 55% of the population of Latin America in the year 2000 will still be living in countries with life expectancies at birth of under 70 years. According to the projections, in the year 2000 the birthrate will stand at around 29/1000, with wide differences between the countries of the region, within each of them, and between socioeconomic strata. High fertility will remain a factor hostile to the health of women and children and a determinant of rapid population growth. Some governments view the present or predicted growth rates as excessive; others want to increase them; and some take no explicit position on the matter. The countries would be well advised to assign values to their birthrate, natural increase, and periods for doubling their populations in relation to their development plans and to the prospects for improving the standard of living and health of their populations. An important factor in urban growth is internal migration. These migrants, like some of those who move to other countries, may have health problems requiring special care. Regardless of a country's demographic situation, the health sector has certain responsibilities, including: the need to promote the framing and adoption of population and development policies, in whose implementation the importance of health measures is not open to question; and the need to favor the intersector coordination and articulation required to ensure that population aspects are considered in national development planning.
In: Tras nuevas raices: migraciones internas y colonizacion en Bolivia [by] Carlos Garcia-Tornell, Maria Elena Querejazu, Jose Blanes, Fernando Calderon, Jorge Dandler, Julio Prudencio, Luis Lanza, Giovanni Carnibella, Gloria Ardaya, Gonzalo Flores [and] Alberto Rivera. La Paz, Bolivia, Ministerio de Planeamiento y Coordinacion, Direccion de Planeamiento Social, Proyecto de Politicas de Poblacion, 1984 Apr. 51-251.A study of colonization programs in Bolivia was conducted as part of a larger evaluation of population policy. The 1st of 8 chapters examines the history of colonization programs in Bolivia and the role of state and international development agencies. It sketches the disintegration of the peasant economy, and presents 5 variables that appear to be central to colonization processes: the directedness or spontaneity of the colonization, the distance to urban centers and markets, the diversification of production, the length of time settled, and the origin of the migrants. The 2nd chapter describes the study methodology. The major objective was to evaluate government policies and plans in terms of the realistic possibilities of settlement in colonies for peasants expelled from areas of traditional agriculture. Interviews and the existing literature were the major sources used to identify the basic features and problems of colonization programs. 140 structured interviews were held with colonists in the Chapare zone, 43 in Yapacari, and 51 in San Julian. The 3 zones were selected because of their diversity, but the sample was not statistically representative and the findings were essentially qualitative. The 3rd chapter examines the relationships between the place of origin and the stages of settlement. The chapter emphasizes the influence of place of origin and other factors on the processes of differentiation, proletarianization, and pauperization. The 4th chapter examines the productive process, profitability of farming, the market, and reproductive diversification. The next chapter analyzes the technology and the market system of the colonists, the dynamics of the unequal exchange system in which they operate, and aspects related to ecological equilibrium and environmental conservation. The 6th chapter concentrates on family relationships and the role played by the family in colonization. Some features of the population structure of the colonies are described. The 7th chapter assesses forms of organization, mechanisms of social legitimation, and the important role of peasant syndicates. The final chapter summarizes the principal trends encountered in each of the themes analyzed and makes some recommendations concerning the colonization program, especially in reference to the family economy and labor organizations.
POPULI. 1984; 11(4):4-12.The purposes of the 1984 International Conference on Population were to review the implementation of the World Population Plan of Action adopted in Bucharest in 1974, to sustain the momentum gained in population programs, and to make recommendations for future implementation of the plan that are deemed appropriate for the conditions of the next decade. The Bucharest Conference was the 1st one to bring together high-ranking governmental officials and experts to discuss the issues of population development. The Plan was the 1st international and comprehensive document on population policies, programs, and measures. The most tangible effect of the Conference was a growing interest in the UN population program, parallel with a rapid expansion of UN Fund for Population Activites (UNFPA) fund raising and project financing. Signs of hope and optimism could be found in the Plan as well as in the 2 General Assembly resolutions; international, political, and economic developments in the years that followed have hardly concurred with such expectations. As far as population policies are concerned, the situation in the developing world in 1984 is far different than it was in 1974. Research and study will have to be further promoted because 1) there are several new approaches to population issues and the relating policies adopted in the Recommendations, 2) research in reproductive physiology and contraception should be continued following new promising developments in those fields, and 3) studies on organzational, communicational, and psychological aspects of population programs will be essential for the successful implementation of those programs at levels significantly higher than in the past.
International Family Planning Perspectives. 1984 Jun; 10(2):43-8.In Mexico City from August 6-13, 1984, the UN will sponsor the International Conference on Population (ICP), 10 years after the UN's 1st worldwide governmental population conference on population. The ICP will reaffirm the World Population Plan of Action, assess the progress made in its implemention, and set priorities for the future. Issues to be discussed at the conference include 1) very slowly declining population growth rates, 2) a still increasing world population size, 3) strategies to meet the unmet need for family planning services, 4) intergrating population into development planning, 5) whether the ICP should set specific targets, and 6) whether other important issues not related to population, such as apartheid or disarmament, will be discussed. The 1974 Bucharest conference developed and approved the World Population Plan of Action, which placed population planning squarely in the development context, and endorsed family planning as a human right, but did not set targets for fertility decline. Perhaps most importantly, the Bucharest conference marked the end of the international political debate over whether governments should support family planning. The ICP, which has been more strongly supported by developing than developed countries, is charged with 1) reinforcing the momentum of population activities, 2) identifying emerging problems, and 3) initiating programs where none have yet had substantial impact. The Preparatory Committe for the ICP drafted 83 recommendations covering the relationship between population and development, and policies on morbidity and mortality, fertility, migration, aging, and the roles of governments and international organizations. The recommendations emphasize the urgency of the need to support family planning as well as mention family life and sex education, natural family planning, breast feeding, and male involvement in family planning for the 1st time. In addition, the recommendations support strong service goals, the integration of women in development, and increased funding for population activities.
[Ivory Coast: report of the Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance] Cote d'Ivoire: rapport de Mission sur l'Evaluation des Besoins d'Aide en Matiere de Population.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Sep. viii, 57 p. (Report No. 69)Conclusions and recommendations are presented of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) Mission which visited the Ivory Coast from February 20-March 15, 1983 to assess population assistance needs. Ivory Coast officials believe that the population, estimated at 8,034,000 in 1980, is insufficient given the country's economic needs. Its very rapid rate of growth is estimated at over 4.5%/year, of which 1.5% is due to foreign immigration. 42% of the population is urban. The country has undergone exceptional economic growth in the past 2 decades, and the per capita income is now estimated at over $US1000 annually. Social development does not seem to have kept pace, however, and the mortality rate of 15.4/1000 is that of a country with only 1/2 the per capital income. The 1981-85 Ivory Coast Plan proposes a change from a growth economy to a society in which individual and collective welfare is the supreme goal. Up to date data on the size, structure, and dynamics of the population will be needed to aid in preparation of the 1986-90 and 1991-95 plans. A 2nd national population census is planned for 1985. Until the present, rapid population growth had been considered a boon, but problems are arising of massive rural exodus, high rates of urban unemployment coupled with manpower shortages in agriculture, and growing demographic pressure on health, educational, and social infrastructures, especially in the cities. The government has maintained its pronatalist stance, and government health programs have been directed only to mortality and maternal and child health. The need to control fertility and to use birth spacing as a tool to combat maternal and infant mortality is being increasingly felt, and a private family welfare association was able to form in 1979. A policy of maternal and child health encouraging spacing to improve family welfare would probably be welcomed in the Ivory Coast. The Mission recommended that a population policy be formulated which would correspond to the national demographic reality and development objectives. Basic demographic data collection should focus on the 1985 general census, which should have high priority. The civil registration system should be reorganized. A planned migration survey should cover the whole year to take into acconnt seasonal variations, but preparations should not begin until the census is completed. A multiple objective survey could be undertaken in 1988 to determine the nature and scope of interrelationships between demographic variables and economic and sociocultural variables, and a survey of infant mortality on a small sample could be done in 1989. The planned manpower and employment survey should be completed. Population research should receive high government priority. In regard to maternal and child health, the government should take an official position on the problem of birth spacing as a means of combatting maternal and infant deaths. IEC activities should be expanded, and efforts should be made to encourage the participation of women in development.
Report on the evaluation of UNFPA-sponsored country programme in Democratic Yemen, 1979-1984 and role of women in it.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Apr. xiii, 101 p.The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA)-sponsored Country Program was the 1st comprehensive effort in the field of population in Democratic Yemen, following earlier sub-sectoral interventions which benefitted from UNFPA assistance. This evaluation covers 1) the country program as such, focusing on the results achieved in terms of building national capacity for formulating and implementing population policies and programs; 2) the 7 component projects, one in data collection and analysis, a maternal child health/family planning project, and 5 in population education for different audiences; and 3) the women's dimension of the program. At the end of the 4th year of implementation, little had been done by the Country Program in terms of institution building and population policy. The program's achievements were hindered by factors such as an extreme shortage of national qualified staff, training facilities, poor program design, insufficient technical leadership and support, as well as unrealistic objectives. The 7 component projects were plagued with similar problems and made only modest acheivements. The Evaluation Mission expressed the view that long term international expertise to serve all projects would have been advisable as well as long term training abroad for a few people who could become leaders/advisors/administrators. In evaluating the role of women, the Mission found that women had participated in the implementation of all the projects evaluated but were mainly to be found in junior positions. The program as a whole contained a substantial portion of women among its direct beneficiaries comprising those who had been trained, employed and targeted as recipients of the services of the projects, although this varied considerably between projects. In general, the Mission was of the view that in the future a country program document should be prepared specifying the long term and immediate objectives for the population program as a whole.
Report on the evaluation of SEN/77/P04: population/socio-spatial/regional planning (population/amenagement du territoire).
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Dec. xiii, 34,  p.The Senegal population/socio-spatial/regional planning project illustrates a truly integrated approach to population and development planning. The evaluation Mission concluded overall that the project's achievements are positive. The project's main accomplishments have been the establishment of a sophisticated population data bank, the preparation of national and regional population projections, an analysis of migration movements, and the production of related maps and tables using primarily 2ndary data sources. The technical quality and detail of the work undertaken, as well as its potential usefulness, were high. However, the Mission also found that various constraints specific to this project have considerably limited its achievements. These include inadequately formulated project objectives and planned activities, poorly defined conceptual framework, low absorptive capacity of the implementing agency, and severe United Nations Fund for Population Activities budget reductions. The value of the work was found to be lessened because the data assembled have not yet been systematically integrated into other relevant data banks, properly disseminated or utilized. The Mission recommended measures which will help conserve the valuable data bank and other results of the project and will assist in the transfer to nationals of the knowledge and skills to update and utilize the data bank. Limited outside assistance--financial and technical--is needed for some of the recommended measures.
A summary of the report on the evaluation of MEX/79/P04 "Integration of population policy with development plans and programmes".
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Jul. 19,  p.The objective of this UNFPA project was to build the institutional and methodological base for integration of population policy into and its harmonization with national, sectoral and state policies or socioeconomic development in Mexico. More specifically, the project was to achieve integration of population policy with 6 sectoral plans, 24 state plans and the Master Development Plan within 3 years. Although the Mission considers it an achievement that the project signed agreements with all 31 states and the Federal District, no formal contacts had been made with the 6 sectors. Mexico's National Population Council (CONAPO) coordinated the project. The Mission recommended that support to integration activities be continued on the basis of the experience that has been acquired. Therefore it is necessary 1) to strengthen the activities at the state level; 2) to support the development of methodologies considering the impact of socioeconomic plans and programs on demographic variables and to provide a comprehensive program of international technical experience; 3) to recognize that responses to ad hoc support activities are an important integration instrument for both sectors and states; and 4) to exact greater clarity concerning the role of the project in the National Population Program. A lack of aedquately trained personnel proved to be a continual obstacle to implementation. The Mission recommends that at an early stage in the development of such projects a thorough assessment of the human resource requirements and existing capacity for integration of demographic and socioeconomic variables be made and that, based on this assessment, a specific training strategy be developed and incorporated in the project's design. In addition to training, the project also included research support activities; the outputs, however, were descriptive rather than analytical, which can be traced to both the design and execution of the work plan for research activities. The UNFPA's funding constraints and its management of reduced funds further complicated the project's execution, which suffered from high personnel turnover and lack of coordination of project activities.
[Mexico, 1984. Toward a new demographic consensus] Mexico, 1984. Hacia un nuevo consenso demografico
Revista Espanola de Investigaciones Sociologicas. 1984 Jul-Sep; (27):187-99.The world population conferences of Bucharest in 1974 and Mexico in 1985 are described, with emphasis on changes in national attitudes toward population issues during the intervening 10-year period. The author detects a general change in official attitudes from radical pessimism to moderate pessimism concerning population questions. The main recommendations of the Mexico City conference are summarized. (ANNOTATION)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 May. xii, 156 p. (Report No. 67)A Needs Assessment and Program Development Mission visited the People's Republic of China from March 7 to April 16, 1983 to: review and analyze the country's population situation within the context of national population goals as well as population related development objectives, strategies, and programs; make recommendations on the future orientation and scope of national objectives and programs for strengthening or establishing new objectives, strategies, and programs; and make recommendations on program areas in need of external assistance within the framework of the recommended national population program and for geographical areas. This report summarizes the needs and recommendations in regard to: population policies and policy-related research; demographic research and training; basic population data collection and analysis; maternal and child health and family planning services; management training support for family planning services; logistics of contraceptive supply; management information system; family planning communication and education; family planning program research and evaluation; contraceptive production; research in human reproduction and contraceptives; population education and dissemination of population information; and special groups and multisectoral activities. The report also presents information on the national setting (geographical and cultural features, government and administration, the economy, and the evolution of socioeconomic development planning) and demographic features (population size, characteristics, and distribution, nationwide and demographic characteristics in geographical core areas). Based on its assessment of needs, the Mission identified mjaor priorities for assistance in the population field. Because of China's size and vast needs, external assistance for population programs would be diluted if provided to all provincial and lower administrative levels. Thus, the Mission suggests that a substantial portion of available resources be concentrated in 3 provinces as core areas: Sichuan, the most populous province (100,220,000 people by the end of 1982); Guandong, the province with the highest birthrate (25/1000); and Jiangsu, the most densely populated province (608 persons/square kilometer. In all the government has identified 11 provinces needing special attention in the next few years: Anhui, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jilin, Shaanxi and Shandong, in addition to Guangdong, Jiangsu, and Sichuan.
[World population and development: an important change in perspective] Population mondiale et developpement: un important changement de perspective.
Problemes Economiques. 1984 Oct 24; (1895):26-32.The International Population Conference in Mexico City was much less controversial than the World Population Conference in Bucharest 10 years previously, in part because the message of Bucharest was widely accepted and in part because of changes that occurred in the demographic and economic situations in the succeeding decade. The UN medium population projection for 1985 has been proved quite accurate; it is not as alarming as the high projection but still represents a doubling of world population in less than 40 years. The control of fertility upon which the medium projection was predicated is well underway. The movement from high to low rates of fertility and mortality began in the 18th century in the industrial countries and lasted about 1 1/2 centuries during which the population surplus was dispersed throughout the world, especially in North and South America. The 2nd phase of movement from high to low rates currently underway in the developing countries has produced a far greater population increase. The proportion of the population in the developed areas of Europe, North America, the USSR, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand will decline from about 1/3 of the 2.5 billion world population of 1950 to 1/4 of the 3.7 billion of 1985, to 1/5 of the 4.8 billion of 2000, and probably 1/7 of the 10 billion when world population stabilizes at the end of the next century. The growth rates of developing countries are not homogeneous; the populations of China and India have roughly doubled in the past 35 years while that of Latin America has multiplied by 2 1/2. The population of Africa more than doubled in 35 years and will almost triple by 2025. The number of countries with over 50 million inhabitants, 9 in 1950, will increase from 19 in 1985 to 32 in 2025. The process of urbanization is almost complete in the industrialized countries, with about 75% of the population urban in 1985, but urban populations will continue to grow rapidly in the developing countries as rural migration is added to natural increase. The number of cities with 10 million inhabitants has increased from 2 to 13 between 1950 and 1985, and is expected to reach 25 by 2000, with Mexico City, Sao Paulo, and Shanghai the world's largest cities. The peak rate of world population growth was reached in the 1960s, with annual increases of 2.4%. In 1980-85 in the developed and developing worlds respectively the rates of population growth were .7% and 2.0%/year; total fertility rates were 2.05 and 4.2, and the life expectancies at birth were 72.4 and 57.0. Considerable variations occurred in individual countries. Annual rates of growth in 1980-85 were 2.4% in Latin America, 3.0% in Africa, 2.2% in South Asia and 1.2% in East Asia. Today only Iran among high fertility countries pursues a pronatalist policy. Since Bucharest, it has become evident to developing and developed countries alike that population control and economic development must go hand in hand.
Genus. 1984 Jul-Dec; 40(3-4):191-200.This article is a report on the U.N.-sponsored International Conference on Population, held in Mexico City in August 1984. The author distinguishes between the "demographic pseudo-problems", which are basically political in nature, and the "real demographic problems" discussed at the conference. Changes in attitudes since the Bucharest conference of 1974 are described, and it is noted that most countries now favor a population policy involving both birth control and economic development. Demographic problems examined at the conference are briefly outlined, and the human rights focus of the conference recommendations is discussed. (summary in FRE, ITA)
New York, New York, United Nations 1984. 45 p. (Official Records, 1984, Supplement No. 2 E/1984/12 E./CN. 9/1984/9)The report of the 22nd session of the United Nations Population Commission includes the opening statements by the Under Secretary General for International Economic and Social Affairs, the Under Secretary General for Technical Cooperation for Development, the Director of the Population Division, and the Assistant Executive Director of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities. These are followed by a description of the actions taken by the United Nations to implement the recommendations of the World Population Conference, 1974. A report on the progress of ongoing work in the field of population summarized for the following categories: 1) world demographic analysis; 2) demographic projections; 3) population policies; 4) population and development; 5) monitoring of population trends and policies; 6) factors affecting patterns of reproduction; 7) dissemination of population information; 8) technical cooperation; and 9) demograpahic statistics. Programs of work in the field of population for the biennium 1984-1985 and medium-term plan for the period 1984-1989 are provided for each of the 9 preceding categories as well as a consideration of draft proposals and a report on the continuity of work. The report concludes with the organization, attendance, and agenda of the session.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Jul. vii, 59 p. (Report No. 68)This report of a Mission visit to Ghana from May 4-25, 1981 contains data highlights; a summary of findings; Mission recommendations regarding population and development policies, population data collection and analysis, maternal and child health and family planning, population education and communication programs, and women and development; and information on the following: the national setting; population features and trends (population size, growth rate, and distribution and population dynamics); population policy, planning, and policy-related research; basic data collection and anaylsis; maternal and child health and family planning (general health status, structure and organization of health services, maternal and child health and family planning activities, and family planning services in the private sector); population education and communication programs; women, youth, and development; and external assistance in population. Ghana gained independence in 1957. The country showed early promise of rapid development. Although well-endowed with natural and human resources, Ghana now suffers from food scarcity, inadequate infrastructure and services, inflation, inequities in income distribution, unemployment, and underemployment. Per capita gross national product (GNP) was $400 in 1981; between 1960-81 the average annual growth of GNP was -1.1%. A high rate of natural increase of the population has compounded development problems by intensifying demands for food, consumer goods, and social services while simultaneously increasing the constraints on productivity. The population, estimated at 13 million in mid-1984, is growing at a rate of 3.25% per annum. Immigration and emigration have contributed to changes in the size and composition of the population. Post-independence development policies favored the urban areas, encouraging a steady rural-to-urban shift in the population. At the same time, worsening socioeconomic conditions spurred the emigration of professional, managerial, and technical personnel and skilled workers. Ghana was the 1st sub-Saharan African nation to establish an official population policy. Since the formulation of the policy in 1969, successive governments have remained committed to its emphasis on fertility reduction while increasing attention to the problems of mortality and morbidity and rural/urban migration. Recognizing the need to intensify the commitment to population policies, the Mission recommends support for a program to further the awareness of policy makers of the relationship between population trends and their areas of responsibility. The Mission recommends the creation of a special permanent population committee and the strengthening of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning's Manpower division. The Mission also makes the following recommendations: the provision of training, technical assistance, and data processing facilities to ensure the timely provision of demographic data for socioeconomic planning; data collected in the pilot program of vital registration be evaluated before the system is expanded; the complete integration of maternal and child health and family planning and general health services within the primary health care system; and improvement in women's access to resources such as education, training, and agricultural inputs.
China Population Newsletter. 1984 Aug; 1(3):14-16.The International Parliamentary Assmebly on Population and Development took place on August 15-16, 1984, with the participation of more than 300 parliamentarians from 60 countries. The aim was to promote an exchange of views on population programs and policies among parliamentarians, and to support the recommendations adopted by the UN International Conference on Population. The assembly held discussion in 3 subcommittees on the subjects of 1) policies of population and development; 2) the legal and social status of women; and 3) the improvement of family planning service. On population policy, parliamentarians generally agreed that policy formulation is the prerogative of each sovereign country, stressing that such policies and programs should be integrated with social and economic development. The developing countries stronly demanded that a new international economic order be established and international aid increased to help them in solving the popultion problem. Concerning the status of women, the assembly unanimously agreed that both men and women should not only be legally equal, but should also have de facto equality for employment, education and social life. Attention should be given particularly to the rights and status of rural women. Examples of how the status of Chinese women has improved were offered by Chinese representative and were appreciated by the assembly. On improving family planning services, participants urged provision of information about birth control to people of marriageable age and of access to contraceptives to eligible couples; moreover, they advocated the strengthening of medical care for women and children and the lowering of infant and maternal mortality rates. Dr. Qian Xinzhong described the priorities and goals of family planning programs in China. Finally, the assembly unanimously adopted the "Action Plan," whose contents embody independence, respect for national sovereignty, and the spirit of cooperation and conformity to the interest of the international community, particularly the developing nations.
China Population Newsletter. 1984 Aug; 1(3):1-3.In seeking a solution to its population problem, China, as a developing socialist country, has been making unremitting efforts to develop economy while controlling the rapid growth. The objective is to control rapid population growth so that population growth may be in keeping with socioeconomic development and commensurate with utilization of natural resources and environmental protection. In the past decade, and particularly since 1979, China has made much progress in developing economy and gained remarkable successes in controlling population growth. The natural population growth rate dropped to 1.15% in 1983, from 2.089% in 1973. Living standards have improved with a gradual annual increase of per capita income. All this proves that the policy of promoting family planning to control population growth along with planned economic development is correct. In China family planning is a basic state policy. The government has advocated the practice of "1 couple, 1 child" since 1979. This does not mean that 1 couple could have 1 child only in every case. The government provides guidance for the implementation of family planning programs in the light of specific conditions such as economic developments, cultural background, population structure, and the wishes of the people in different localities. The requirements are more flexible in rural than in urban areas and more so among the people of national minorities than among the people of the Han Nationality. In rural areas, couples who have actual difficulties and want to have 2 children may have a 2nd birth with planned spacing. In carrying out its family planning program, China has consistently adhered to the principle of integrating state guidance with the masses' voluntariness. The government has always emphasized the importance of encouraging the people's own initiatives, through publicity and education, which is the key link in implementing the family planning program.
In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 403-32. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)Relying on empirical work done by the Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA), this paper illustrates how the demographic dynamics of Latin America in the last 2 decades and the environmental problems being faced by the people of the region are related to the specific productive structures and consumption patterns which, to different degrees depending on the country, prevailed during that time and are now even more widespread in Latin America. Analysis of the population/styles of development/life styles/environment relationships in Latin America provides some useful guidelines for future action in the field. The dominance of a development style in which transnational corporations play a key role demonstrates that many apparently local manifestations of the problems of population, resources, environment, and development have their cause elsewhere, in distant centers or decision making, or in a process triggered by someone else. A critical part of the interplay of these relationships in future years is likely to occur in the industrialized countries. This is so because of the global reach of many of their domestic and international policies and also because they act as centers which diffuse worldwide patterns and systems of production and consumption, transnational life styles, technologies, and so forth. What occurs in the developing countries is not likely to have such great influence worldwide, though in many instances it will be of critical importance for their domestic development. Everywhere, integrated/systems thinking, planning, policy, and decision making are a prerequisite for dealing with these interrelationships. In this context, different specific population policies will have a critical role to play. The remaining problem is that decision makers still need to learn how to think and act in an integrated and systematic manner. The gap between the desired schemes, models, and plans and the real world tends to be considerable. There are a number of things that could be undertaken internationally and by the UN system to fill the gap, and these are identified.