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  1. 1
    058684

    Family planning, the Lebanese experience. A study on the Lebanese Family Planning Association.

    Iliyya S

    [Unpublished] 1984 Jul. [4], 193 p.

    As of 1984, Lebanon had not yet formulated a clear and specific population policy because laws existed against contraception and political differences among the various ethnic groups also existed which culminated in a civil war. Nevertheless the government condoned the creation of the Lebanese Family Planning Association (LFPA) in August 1969 and its activities. The government also helped spread family planning through its own institutions such as the Ministry of Health and the Office of Social Development. Further some of LFPA's staff members have been part of the government itself. LFPA conducted a survey in June 1975 in Zahrani in rural south Lebanon and it showed that the people wished to limit their fertility, but could not since birth control was not available. Therefore LFPA established the 1st Community Based Family Planning Services Program in Zahrani which later spread to other villages. Wasitas (field workers) served as the major means of providing birth control and information to the women. They emphasized child spacing. The wasitas also served as a major adaptive and indigenous agent of social change and development. Initially they underwent intensive training lasting at least 1 week, but in 1979, LFPA hosted annual 1 month training sessions. The wasitas use of traditional communication methods resulted in not only an increase of contraceptive use, but also in meeting the elemental needs of the women for psychological comfort and self reliance. In some instances, however, some wasitas resorted to deception in encouraging the most uneducated women to use birth control because of strong incentives, e.g., the wasita received 50% of the money earned for the sale of each contraceptive. LFPA needed to reassess those measures which lead to possible encroachment of the dignity and freedom of choice of the women villagers.
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  2. 2
    268446

    Report on the evaluation of CPR/80/P14: population education in the secondary schools and teachers training of the People's Republic of China.

    Jayasuria JE; Wayland SR; Swindells H

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Nov. iv, 49 p.

    The objectives of the Population Education in Secondary Schools and Teachers Training of the People's Republic of China Projects were to provide the Chinese people, including young students, with the basic knowledge of population science and an understanding of why the Government considers family planning a fundamental national policy and why it is implementing the policy of controlling the number of the population and raising its quality. The 2 distinguishing features of this project are that the target group are middle school students rather than students of all grade levels, and that the existence of an established system for in-service training in the form of pedagogical institutes provides a fast and effective mechanism to introduce population education into the 2ndary school curriculum. The overall assessment of the Mission is that this project has been highly successful. The Mission's main recommendations are: 1) that the United Nations Fund for Population Activities and the Government increase their financial assistance; 2) future objectives be stated in terms that emphasize educational outcomes rather than operational tasks to permit objective monitoring and evaluation; 3) that a moratorium be place on the revision of population education curricula in order to concentrate on its diffusion; 4) that the posters and commentary be considered as a basis for instruction of junior middle school students as well as out-of-school youth and adults; 5) that questions on population content be included in the national examinations for university admission; 6) that a program for pre-service education in population education be initiated to supplement the in-service training; and 7) that substantial attention be given to different modes of training.
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