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London, England, IPPF, 1984. 3 p. (IPPF Fact Sheet)Long term problems of population growth in China are indicated by the fact that 65% of the 1,024,950,000 1983 population is under 30 years of age; 50% is under 21. Although family planning was started in the 1950s, it was neglected during the 1960s Cultural Revolution, and did not become a national program until 1971. The one child per family policy, proposed in 1978, has since become the basis for government regulations which are strictly enforced. Family planning messages are conveyed through every possible type of media, and services are made available to the entire population. Various economic incentives and disincentives such as, monthly health care subsidies granted to couples who have only one child until he reaches the age of 14, grain allocations for an only child, and larger private plots, are used to help reward those who obey the family planning policy. All contraceptives are available free of charge: at the end of 1983, 69.5% of fertile couples were using some form of modern contraceptive method. The China Family Planning Association was formed in 1980 with the objective of assisting the government program by motivating people to accept family planning. The Association's 3 year plan for 1985-1987 is: 1) to strengthen family planning publicity; 2) to increase the management and professional skills of the personnel; 3) to strengthen the Association's organization at central and branch level; and 4) to participate in international conferences and other activities.
[Unpublished] 1984 Jul. , 193 p.As of 1984, Lebanon had not yet formulated a clear and specific population policy because laws existed against contraception and political differences among the various ethnic groups also existed which culminated in a civil war. Nevertheless the government condoned the creation of the Lebanese Family Planning Association (LFPA) in August 1969 and its activities. The government also helped spread family planning through its own institutions such as the Ministry of Health and the Office of Social Development. Further some of LFPA's staff members have been part of the government itself. LFPA conducted a survey in June 1975 in Zahrani in rural south Lebanon and it showed that the people wished to limit their fertility, but could not since birth control was not available. Therefore LFPA established the 1st Community Based Family Planning Services Program in Zahrani which later spread to other villages. Wasitas (field workers) served as the major means of providing birth control and information to the women. They emphasized child spacing. The wasitas also served as a major adaptive and indigenous agent of social change and development. Initially they underwent intensive training lasting at least 1 week, but in 1979, LFPA hosted annual 1 month training sessions. The wasitas use of traditional communication methods resulted in not only an increase of contraceptive use, but also in meeting the elemental needs of the women for psychological comfort and self reliance. In some instances, however, some wasitas resorted to deception in encouraging the most uneducated women to use birth control because of strong incentives, e.g., the wasita received 50% of the money earned for the sale of each contraceptive. LFPA needed to reassess those measures which lead to possible encroachment of the dignity and freedom of choice of the women villagers.
[Planning and management of community programs. Handbook on program development, formation of leadership, and and management of group programs] Planification et gestion des programmes communautaires. Manuel sur l'elaboration des programmes, la formation aux fonctions d'animation et la gestion des programmes de groupe.
London, England, IPPF, 1984. , iv, 116 p. (Planification Familiale et Amelioration de la Condition Feminine)This manual is based on the experiences of a training seminar for directors of the Planned Parenthood and Women's Development (PPWD) project organized by the International Planned Parenthood Federation's regional bureau for Africa in Nairobi. The chief objective of the seminar was to strengthen the PPWD program by improving the programming and management capabilities of its directors. The need for training and for training materials affects all field programs at various levels and is particularly acute in Africa. The principal objective of the manual is to prepare workers of all levels for activities at different stages of program development using the participatory techniques of the Nairobi seminar. The manual also seeks to share experiences of the PPWD program and to suggest other useful training materials and resources. The manual is in the form of teaching notes with references. The material is divided into 2 parts, the 1st considering the origins, objectives, philosophy, and program activities of family planning and improvement of women's conditions and the experiences acquired by the PPWD program. This material forms the content for the approaches, methods, and techniques recommended in the 2nd part of the manual. Each section of the 2nd part contains brief observations of the reasons for undertaking various activities and procedures. Procedures relative to program and project development and motivation of groups are then explained and accompanied by exercises to aid the motivator and group members in applying the procedures. The most opportune moment for introducing each exercise is indicated, but the final decision always depends on the needs of the group and the time available.
New York, New York, FPIA, . 227 p.This report summarizes the work of Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA) since its inception in 1971, with particular emphasis on activities carried out in 1983. The report's 6 chapters are focused on the following areas: Africa Regional Report, Asia and Pacific Regional Report, Latin America Regional Report, Inter-Regional Report, Program Management Information, and Fiscal Information. Included in the regional reports are detailed descriptions of activities carried out by country, as well as tables on commodity assistance in 1983. Since 1971, FPIA has provided US$54 million in direct financial support for the operation of more than 300 family planning projects in 51 countries. In addition, family planning commodities (including over 600 million condoms, 120 million cycles of oral contraceptives, and 4 million IUDs) have been shipped to over 3000 institutions in 115 countries. In 1982 alone, 1 million contraceptive clients were served by FPIA-assisted projects. Project assistance accounts for 52% of the total value of FPIA assistance, while commodity assistance comprises another 47%. In 1983, 53% of project assistance funds were allocated to projects in the Asia and Pacific Region, followed by Africa (32%) and Latin America (15%). Of the 1 million new contraceptive acceptors served in 198, 42% selected oral contraceptives, 27% used condoms, and 8% the IUD.
[Unpublished] 1984 Jun. 10,  p.105 developing country projects dealing primarily or exclusively with adolescent fertility were analyzed in an attempt to determine the nature and level of adolescent fertility programming in the developing world. There were 37 projects in Asia, 21 in Sub-Saharan Africa, 8 in North Africa and the Middle East, 22 in the Caribbean, and 17 in Latin America. About 27% of the programs were exclusively urban, 16% exclusively rural, and the remainder operated in both rural and urban settings. Various types of organizations sponsored projects, but the majority were sponsored by International Planned Parenthood Federation affiliates and other private organizations. There were marked regional differences in sponsorship. Only 11 of the 105 programs were conducted by government agencies, but 14 programs received some support from national governments and local governments also sometimes contributed support. Family life education for both in and out of school youth was the predominant project activity in 66 of the 105 projects. 20 projects focused on training of professionals in family life education such as educators, counselors, and health personnel. Curricula primarily concentrated on sex education, responsible parenthood, the importance of delayed 1st birth and child spacing, and general population concerns. 25 projects conduct youth training sessions and teach teams to serve as peer counselors and cators, motivating their peers toward acceptance of family planning and the small family and providing accurate information on sexuality. About 21 projects have a specific counseling component, with most counseling services teaching family planning, distributing condoms, or referring clients to clinics. Only 16 projects had as a stated objective provision for adolescents of diagnostic or clinical health services related to contraceptive use, family planning, or venereal disease. 18 projects offered training in vocational or income-generating skills integrated with family planning, sex education, and family life education. Over 20 projects described educational materials preparation and production as an activity. Innovative approaches observed in the 105 projects included adoption of the multiservice center concept, integration of family planning education with self-help initiatives to improve young women's socioeconomic status, participation of adolescents in program decision making, and innovative promotional activities. Factors contributing to program success identified by project staff include conducting a needs assessment survey, securing parental and community support, solid funding, a flexible program design, skilled personnel, availability of adequate materials, good cooperation with other community agencies, active participation of young people in planning and running the program, good publicity, and use of innovative teaching methods. Projects are increasingly tending toward less formal kinds of communication in family life education.
Implementation of action area four ("Meeting the Needs of Young People") of the IPPF three year plan 1985-87.
[Unpublished] 1984 Dec. 11,  p. (PC/3.85/4)The objective of this paper is to assist the Central Council of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in monitoring the implementation of the IPPF 1985-87 plan. Baseline information is provided on all 1985 youth projects proposed by grant receiving family planning associations (FPAs) in their 1985-87 Three Year Plans. Detailed analysis was confined to the 67 FPA 1985-87 Three Year Plans received at the International Office by September 1984. This number covers most of the Associations in the region; the exception is the Western Hemisphere where several of their plans arrived in London too late to be included in the analysis. For nongrant receiving Associations, summary information was extracted from regional bureau sources and a list of youth activities in these countries is shown in an appendix. A summary of 1985 youth activities supported by the IPPF Secretariat at both regional and international level is shown in a 2nd appendix. To provide the necessary background to an analysis of 1985 youth projects, all strategies proposed by FPAs in their 1985-87 Plans were examined. A total of 360 strategies were classified according to their main purpose. A further classification into 14 categories was then used to demonstrate their relationship to the IPPFs 1985-87 Action Areas. Information about the purpose of youth projects, the types of activity carried out, and whether the project was new or ongoing was also extracted from the FPA Plans. For the 67 FPAs whose Three Year Plans were reviewed, a total of 360 strategies were proposed for the 1985-87 period. The largest number of strategies were concerned with providing family planning services; male involvement was the least mentioned. A total of 34 FPAs specifically mentioned young people in their list of strategies. A further 17 FPAs proposed youth projects but did not as yet devote a special youth strategy for them. Taking into account all regions, a total of 51 Associations in 1985 intended to spend almost $2 million implementing 169 youth projects. The projects fell into 4 main types: family life and population education; training; increasing awareness of issues affecting young people; and family planning services. The number of new youth projects in 1985 varies from region to region, the highest number being in Africa. FPAs still have much to do to meet the new objective of involving parents and the community in preparing young people for responsible sexuality and family life.
Hong Kong, Family Planning Association of Hong Kong, 1984.  p.This 1983-84 Annual Report of the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong lists council and executive members as well as subcommittee members and volunteers for 1983 and provides information on the following: administration of the Association; clinical services; education; information; International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) activities; laboratory services; library service; motivation; personnel resource development and production; the Sexually Assualted Victims Service; studies and evaluation; subfertility service; surgical service; training; the Vietnamese Refugees Project; women's clubs; the Youth Advisory Service; and youth volunteer development. In 1983, there was a total of 45,384 new cases; total attendance at clinics was 261,992. A series of thirteen 5-minute segments on sex education was produced as part of a weekly television youth program. An 8-session sexual awareness seminar continued to receive a very good response. To meet the increasing demand of young couples for better preparation towards satisfactory sexual adjustment in marriage, a 3-session seminar on marriage was regularly conducted every month during 1983. 13 seminars were held, reaching a total of 374 participants. Other education efforts included a family planning talk, the Kwun Tong Population and Family Life Education Week, and 39 sessions of talks and lectures on various topics related to family planning and sex education. The year-long information campaign was organized in response to the 1982 Knowledge, Attitude, Practice findings that many couples still fail to recognize the concept of shared responsibility in family planning. Laboratory services include hepatitis screening, premarital check-up examinations, pap smear, the venereal disease research laboratory test (VDRL), and seminal fluid examinations. Throughout the year, 256 interviews were given to sexually assaulted victims. To arouse the awareness of the public with regard to preventing rape through education, counselors conducted talks and gave radio and television interviews on the Sexually Assaulted Victims Service. The records of the 3 sub-fertility clinics showed that altogether in 1983 there were 1355 new cases and 561 old cases, with a total attendance of 6682. 144 pregnancies also were recorded. Training programs included sex education seminars for social workers, a sex education course for secondary school teachers, a sex education seminar for student guidance officers, and an advanced course on human sexuality for teachers and social workers.
[Unpublished] .  p.Tables are presented that show the number of youth projects that Family Planning Associations (FPAs) intend to implement during 1985. The information was derived from the 63 Three Year Plans for 1985-87 received at the International Office by September 1984. This number covers most of the FPAs in each region. The exception is the Western Hemisphere where several of their plans arrived in London too late to be included in the analysis. 4 main types of youth work were identified, and this is shown for each country in the tables: to provide family life and population education for young people; to train teachers/youth leaders in the promotion of youth work; to provide family planning/counseling services for young people; and to promote increased awareness of issues affecting young people. The total number of youth projects planned for 1985 is 30 for the 15 countries of Africa. 24 projects are planned for the 13 countries of the Caribbean, Central, and South America. 59 projects are planned for 12 Asian countries.
Africa Region Planned Parenthood and Women's Development Programme: report of the December 1983 Anglophone Project Manager's Workshop.
London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Africa Region, Planned Parenthood and Women's Development Programme, 1984. 34 p.The Planned Parenthood and Women's Development (PPWD) workshop, held in Mombasa, Africa in 1983, was designed so that participants would: 1) acquire additional knowledge of the PPWD program, 2) develop skills to initiate, plan, manage, and evaluate PPWD projects, 3) identify constraints and problems affecting project management, 4) assess the viability of the projects they have formulated in their countries, 5) acquire skills in integrating family planning components into development activities, and 6) develop plans to improve their PPWD projects back home. Some of the common problems were: 1) problems and needs addressed by women's groups--such as women's economic and social status; 2) current problems of project development, implementation, and management; 3) factors which lead to success; 4) operational, financial, and leadership problems in organizations; 5) collaboration; 6) integration of family planning into the project; and 7) problems of monitoring and evaluation. The major needs identified were health, water, sanitation, housing, and education. In addition, the social factors such as communication, beliefs, influential groups, religious influences, relations and conflicts, language problems, and types of resources available are also part of the factors involved in participatory development. The workshop discussed the steps of project planning and prepared participants for the group encounters which facilitate the testing of some of the concepts discussed. Therefore, 2 women's groups were selected for the case studies, one in Makiwo, and one in Kibuyuni. The main objective of the visit was to give the participants a chance to study an on-going project, exchange ideas with the group, and test some of the concepts learned against real life situations in the community. Group members discussed at length the problem of leadership--identified as being key to group project success: 5 types of leaders were identified. It was concluded that training could help alleviate some of the prevalent leadership problems; rotating leadership would also be an alternative. A checklist for monitoring and evaluation of projects was drawn up and could also be used to assess project proposals. Workshop evaluation, issues raised and recommendations, and general comments are given.
Psychosocial aspects of involuntary infertility. Report of a Regional Seminar, Espoo, Finland, September 1984.
London, IPPF, Europe Region, 1984. 27 p.This report of a regional seminar conducted by the Planned Parenthood Federation of Finland focuses on the psychosocial aspects of involuntary infertility and their implications for counseling. The seminar was the culmination of a project launched by the Europe Regional Council with the aim of stimulating public awareness of the plight of infertile couples, emphasizing the role of psychosocial counseling in infertility problems, and supporting the role of planned parenthood associations as a resource. It was noted that infertility imposes profound emotional and social stress, in turn evoking feelings of denial, anger, grief, and guilt. However, in most cases the provision of psychosocial support is not given as much attention as the medical management of the problem. There is a need to combine the psychosocial and medical dimensions of infertility treatment through a division of labor between planned parenthood associations and hospitals. Counseling should be aimed initially at identifying the costs and benefits of infertility treatment from the client's perspective. Acceptance of childlessness, as well as becoming able to bear a child, are both valuable results of infertility treatment. Finally, the rapid development of technologic breakthroughs in infertility treatment (e.g., in vitro fertilization, embryo transfer, artificial insemination by donor) raises important legal and ethical considerations that must be addressed. The seminar articulated 5 general conclusions: 1) both the emotional and medical dimensions of infertility require attention, 2) personnel involved with infertility problems need special education and training, 3) there is a need for international guidelines regarding infertility clients and their offspring, 4) legislation to protect all partners involved should be considered, and 5) planned parenthood associations can make a major contribution in this area as a result of their expertise in human fertility, counseling, sex education, and information dissemination.
London, England, IPPF, 1984 Aug. 50  p.The need for family life education today is urgent. The rapid social changes taking place around the world are altering traditional family and community structures and values, and the task of preparing young people to cope with adult life has become more difficult. If family life education is to succeed, it must meet the needs of the young people for whom it is designed. Some common needs of young people are: coping with the physical and emotional changes of adolescence; establishing and maintaining satisfying personal relationships; understanding and responding positively to changing situations, e.g. the changing roles of men and women; and developing the necessary values and skills for successful marriage, child-rearing and social participation in the wider community. The potential scope for family life education programs encompasses psychological and emotional, social, developmental, moral, health, economic, welfare and legal components. The integration of these perspectives into family life education programs are issues which are explored in many of the materials listed in this bibliography. The bibliography is divided into 5 sections. It includes a listing of materials which discuss the definition, content and scope of family life education. It also presents family life bibliographies, curriculum guides, and training manuals and handbooks. Finally, it deals with studies of family life education programs and projects. Publishers' addresses are listed at the end of the bibliography.
In: Population and natural resources and other reports. Gland, Switzerland, IUCN Commission on Ecology, 1984. 1-4. (Commission on Ecology Occasional Paper, No. 3.)The International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and the Members' assembly of the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) statement on the world's conservation strategy is a guide to sustain development through the careful use of natural resources. Continuing rapid population growth may force societies to take measures that limit social and environmental options, thus reducing the quality of human existence. UN projections show the world population surpassing 10 billion before stabilizing in about 2100. The links between human numbers and natural resources have great regional differences. Some communities have adopted ways of life that involve high levels of resource comsumption. Almost entirely through loss of habitat, caused by the upsurge in human numbers and consumption, species are becoming extinct at a rate of hundreds and perhaps thousands each year. Such extinction means a loss of crucial ecological services such as the control of pests. Another effect of our growing population is the quality of arable land that is being impaired by a combination of urbanization, desertification, erosion, and salinization. In most countries the rate of soil loss from croplands far exceeds the rate of soil formation. Other resources affected by the growing population are: 1) lack of food resources--65 countries will not be able to feed their projected population from their own lands by 2000 if farming methods remain at their present low levels; 2) the demand for water is growing several times faster than the population, as agricultural, industrial and domestic uses increase; and 3) global output of the most convenient fossil fuel, petroleum, has peaked, and the per capita supply will continue to fall as the global population rises. Population and conservation policies must be part of broader efforts to evolve ecologically sustainable patterns of development in countries at all economic levels. It is the view of IUCN that all nations should take steps to stabilize populations at levels which will permit improvements in the quality of life, in ways which do not damage biological and physical support systems.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1984. 153 p. (World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 688; Population and Development Series No. 13)The 5 chapters of this document, which traces the sources of assiastance for family planning and other population programs from developed countries and the flow of assistance through principal channel organizations to developing countries, focus on the following: population assistance flows; rationales for population assistance; the shape of population programs; the major channels; and the future of population assistance. Official development assistance for population comes primarily from the US, the Nordic countries, and more recently from the Federal Republic of Germany and Japan. Population assistance is channeled primarily through the UN Fund for Population Assistance (UNFPA), nongovernmental organizations, bilateral programs, and the World Bank. In discussing why developing countries seek and why developed countries provide population assistance, this paper concentrates on official views of how population growth and high fertility affect economic development, environment, maternal and child health, and women's welfare. It explains why some countries are reluctant to seek or provide more population assistance. The paper also analyzes what population assistance does to extend reliable and affordable family planning services and information and to improve understanding of population growth, its causes, and consequences. It summarizes current population policies and family planning programs in major regions of the 3rd world and considers the role of assistance. This paper identifies the comparative advantages of principal organizations providing population assistance, focusing on UNFPA, the major nongovernment organizarions, and the major bilateral programs. Finally, it discusses the evolution of "policy issues" affecting population assistance, particularly donors' concern for "demand" for family planning, cost effectiveness of family planning services, safety, and voluntarism.
London, Eng., International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1984. 32 p.Add to my documents.
Planned parenthood and women's development in the Indian Ocean Region: experience from Bangladesh, India and Pakistan.
London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1984 Sep. 43 p.The Indian Ocean Region (IOR) of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) has been involved in Planned Parenthood and Women's Development (PPWD) since the program was launched in 1976. This paper, which brings together the experience of the projects and approaches from 3 countries of the region -- Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan, aims to help the region analyze the progress made and assess strategies which can be more widely replicated. The Bangladesh Family Planning Association (BFPA) initiated PPWD projects in mid-1977, the majority in collaboration with well-established women's organizations. These projects generally provide income-generating activities, including training and assistance in the marketing of the products resulting from such activities. In 1979, together with the Mahila Samity (the national women's organization), the FPA was able to integrate women's development into its programs in 19 unions. Each union has a population of 20,000 and the FPA undertakes family planning motivation and services committees. Since 1977 the FPA has collaborated with the Chandpur Dedicated Women to promote family planning and women's development activities. A project to reach women through child-centered activities was initiated by the FPA in 1979 in response to the International Year of the Child. A case study is included of the Sterilized Women's Welfare Samity Project in Mymensingh. For some years the Family Planning Association of India (FPAI) has worked through existing women's clubs or Mahila Mandals as a way of reaching rural and semirural women. The Mahila Mandals have been instrumental in involving young women in development activities and in establishing youth clubs and also have been a focal point for mobilizing community resources. The use of government facilities by the integrated projects in Malur and Karnataka and the cooperation with various extension services is noteworthy. In 1977 the FPAI decided to launch a number of specific projects, including as the Pariwar Pragati Mandals (family betterment clubs) popularly know as PPM, and the Young Women's Development Program. Project case studies are included. The Family Planning Association of Pakistan launched its PPWD program in 1978 with the objective of creating conditions within which responsible parenthood could become a way of life, particularly among underprivileged rural women, and to strengthen links between family planning and other individual and community problems. Most of the original PPWD projects were initiated in 1978 and were conducted with other community development and womens's organizations. Since 1978, the PPWD program has undergone several changes and more emphasis is now placed on family planning and on involving young women. Case studies are included. Common features of the PPWD programs of Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan are identified.
British Journal of Family Planning. 1984 Jul; 10(37):37.This editorial takes a broad, international look at the worldwide implications of decisions taken in the United Kingdom (U.K.) and the US with regard to family planning. National authorities, like the U.K. Committee for Safety of Medicines (CSM) of the US Food and Drug Administration, address issues concerning the safety of pharmaceutical products in terms of risk/benefit ratios applicable in their countries. International repercussions of US and U.K. decision making must be considered, especially in the area of pharmaceutical products, where they have an important world leadership role. Much of the adverse publicity of the use of Depo-Provera has focused on the fact that it was not approved for longterm use in the U.K. and the US. It is not equally known that the CSM, IPPF and WHO recommeded approval, but were overruled by the licensing agencies. The controversy caused by the Lancet articles of Professors with family planning doctors. At present several family planning issues in the U.K., such as contraception for minors, have implications for other countries. A campaign is being undertaken to enforce 'Squeal' laws in the U.K. and the US requiring parental consent for their teenagers under 16 to use contraceptives. In some developing countries, urbanization heightens the problem of adolescent sexuality. Carefully designed adolescent programs, stressing the need for adequate counseling, are needed. Many issues of international interest go unnoticed in the U.K. International agencies, like the WHO and UNiCEF, have embarked on a global program to promote lactation both for its benficial effects on an infant's growth and development and for birth spacing effects. It may be of benefit to family planning professionals in the U.K. to pay attention to international activity in such issues.
Outlook. 1984 Dec; 2(4):4.Recent recommendations and statements issued by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA), and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) on the prescribing of oral contraceptives (OC) are briefly summarized. These statements reflect a growing concern about the effect of OCs on lipid metabalism. The FDA recommended prescribing OCs with the lowest effective dosage levels of progresterone and estrogen. According to the FDA's Fertility and Maternal Health Drugs Advisory Committee, OCs containing high doese of estrogens and progestins increse the risk of vascular disease. The National _medical Committee of PPFA recommede that the prescribing of high dosages of progestogens should be avoided whenever possible. The committee identified maximum dosage levels for progestogens. These maximum dosages were 1 mg for norethindrone, .5 mg for norethindrone acetate, 1 mbg for ethynodiol diacetate, .3 mg for norgestrel, and .15 mg for levonorgestrel. The committee noted that if progestogen levels are too low, breakthrough bleeding and contraceptive failure are more likely to occur. The International Medical Advisory Panel of IPPF recently issued a statement on lipid changes associated with progestogens. The panel noted that recent studies have shown that progestogens are associated with a decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and an increse in low density lipoprotein cholesterol; however, the panel also noted that the subjects in the studies were given high doses of progestogens and that the studies were conducted in developed countries with high rates of obesity, alcohol consumption, and smoking.
Africa Link. 1984 Sep; 18-25.Male responsibility with regard to family planning and its practice is a major action focus of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. The campaign has been aimed at developing programs to educate men about family planning, encouraging men to practice contraception, and changing the attitudes of male opinion leaders. Since the African male's opinion is paramount within the family unit, the village, and the broader society, this approach is considered essential to the success of family planning efforts in Africa. Although a wide range of programs in Anglophone Africa are now oriented toward men, little progress has been made in the Francophone countries. Obstacles include traditionalism, pro-natalism, illiteracy, religion, and a hostility to Western concepts. Efforts have further been hindered by the way that family planning has been promoted in the region in the past: as a birth spacing method to improve maternal and child health. Medical and paramedical personnel in the region have been trained to treat only mothers and children, not couples or families. However, women's changing status and increased awareness of the connection between demography and development have created an atmosphere more favorable to well designed family welfare programs that are integrated with other development activities. If family planning is to become entrenched in the African region, attention must be given to 3 areas: information and education, integrated development, and research and training. Within the framework of educational activities, men can be made aware that they may practice contraception without any threat to their virility. Given the complexity of the task of introducing family planning on a broad scale in Africa, an integrated appraoch (social, cultural, health, economic, political, and legislative), involving both governments and voluntary organizations as well as the population, is required. Decision makers must be convinced to give family planning a central role in primary health care. Key to the implementation of this strategy is the selection of promoters who have a knowledge of the area in which they work, a commitment to family planning, and the necessary communication skills.
London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Europe Region, 1984 Jun. 122 p.Reflections, speculations, and partial evaluations of work already undertaken in the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) Europe Region concerning migrants and planned parenthood are presented. This project, initiated by the Federal Republic of Germany Planned Parenthood Association (PPA), PRO FAMILIA, stemmed from the practical experiences and problems of 1 family planning association in the Europe region. The original substantive framework, consisting of data collection and correspondence, plenary meetings, and subworking group meetings on specific areas of interest, was not altered. Throughout the project, as the work was accomplished, the emphasis shifted to different aspects to migrant work. The 1st questionnaire was intended to provide a sociodemographic profile of the participating countries, a show European migratory movements, and ascertain the ethnicity of the target groups in the different countries. The 2nd questionnaire was related specifically to PPA and/or other family planning center's data and activities and attempted to explore PPA attitudes toward migrant clients, when special facilities for migrants were provided, and whether PPAs felt there was a particular need for such services. The report provides a sociodemographic background of migration in Europe. In addition it includes information from donor countries and recipient countries, examining family planning services in the Federal Republic of Germany and the UK. It also covers training; information, education, and communication; adolescence and 2nd generation migrants; and migrant work. It is necessary to be particularly aware of political sensitivities in treating immigrant fertility regulation. Ideally, the aim is to provide an integrated service for migrants and natives both, catering to individual needs. Until this is feasible, the goal must be to work toward an integrated service, recognizing the needs and providing special services where possible if this is judged tobe the best approach to catering to those needs. Migrant needs must be discovered rather than assumed. Better use should be made of the available printed material, which should be utilized to complement oral information where possible. Experience has shown that family planning personnel working with migrants need additional training. The main components of this training should include self-awareness, insight, and knowledge.
[Unpublished] 1984 Aug. Background note prepared for the International Conference on Population, held in Mexico City, August 6-13, 1984. 2 p.The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc. (PPFA), advocate of reproductive rights that safeguard health for every individual, is the largest national voluntary family planning agency in the US. It provides medical, educational, and counseling services to more than 3 million persons each year, and its international division has assisted over 3000 agencies in 100 countries. The Federation believes that no one should be coerced to practice family planning or to use any particular method of fertility regulation, nor should anyone be denied information and the means to determine family size. The Federation calls upon all governments to increase participation in and financial support for voluntary family planning programs and to recognize and encourage the conttributions of non-governmental voluntary organizations (NGOs).
[Unpublished] 1984 Aug. Background note presented at the International Conference on Population held in Mexico City, August 6-13, 1984. 4 p. (E/CONF.76/NGO/3)Now 32 years old, the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) is currently working through Family Planning Associations in 119 countries on all 5 continents. Its primary programs and concerns are voluntary informed choice aboutt parenthood; the relationship of family planning programs to national policy; availability of information concerning family planning in terms of options; maternal and infant health; the status of women; male responsibility; and the quality of human life. It emphasizes the need for other non-governmental organizations (MGOs to promote and implement the World Population Plan of Action.
London, England, IPPF, 1984 Feb. 20 p.The promotion of "Male Responsibility for and Practice of Family Planning" was established as a federation-wide Action Area in the IPPF 1982-84 Plan in response to recongizing the need for positive male involvement in family planning programs. Specific identified goals for this action area include the development of programs to educate men about family planning, the need to motivate them to use contraception, and changing the attitudes of male opinion leaders. Implementing the plan and promoting effective male involvement programs are in progress. The Secratariat is undertaking activities to identify Federation and regional strategies and directions and to develop support activities. Program Committee discussion and examination of the issue with subsequent publications are examples of Secretariat involvements. An International Staff Consultation on Male Involvement was held at the IPPF International Office in 1983 to review progress in developing male programs in IPPF; to analyze issues and problems in IPPF programs with regard to men's needs; to examine strategies for increasing male involvement in family planning and to formulate guidelines for program development; and to develop short and longer-term action plans to strengthen male programs within the Federation. The Consultation maded valuable contribution by identifying specific historical, economica, socio-cultural, legal, policy and technological perspectives on male involvement in family planning, as well as providing background papers presented by each participant. Working groups identified and developed a "Strategy for Action of Male Involvement in Family Planning" for the IPPF on 3 strategic levels: policy-makers, service providers and the community. Additionally, Consultation members reviewed audio-visual materials to assess their effectiveness as comunication means. Participants endorsed the need for program review and "strategic planning" by the IPPF. The value in the consultation in examining male programs and in promoting the exchange of ideas within the Federation was affirmed by both the Secretariat and association reoresentativees.
London, England, IPPF, 1984 May. ii, 59 p.The Bellagio consultation was held in July, 1983 on the initiative of the Programme Committee of International Medical Advisory Panel to consider more closely what the needs of adolescents are and what more should be done to meet them. Participants from several countries--within and outside of IPPF--were invited. Before the Consultation, participants exchanged information, experience and ideas in writing as a basis for their discussion. 3 topics were focused on: 1) needs and problems; 2) information, education, and counselling; and 3) reproductive health management. An action plan for the next 3 to 5 years was drawn up. It offers broad suggestions about the kind of activities that would be appropriate for family planning associations and IPPF to take. Adolescents all over the world are in need of much better education and health care related to fertility, these are not the same in each society. A comprehensive approach to adolescent needs is favored. The recommendations form part of a broad discussion about how adolescents can best be helped to behave responsibly. Adolescent fertility has implications for health, psychological, social and economic well being. General program and operational guidelines are given, as are 8 areas for action: 1) creation of awareness and advocacy; 2) youth leadership and participation in adolescent programs; 3) information and education; 4) counseling; 5) fertility-related services; 6) sharing of experience, information and resources; 7) training and skill development; and 8) research. A list of participants and background papers is given.
Shared sexual responsibility: a strategy for male involvement in United States Family Planning clinics.
In: International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Male involvement in family planning: programme initiatives. London, England, IPPF, . 167-76.Reviewed here are the efforts of the Planned Parenthood affiliates in the United States, showing that their focus is on female contraception. The author argues that if family planning is to be seen as a basic human right, then far more attention needs to be given to shared sexual responsibility. Although major strides have been made through federal grants and education programs, the history of meaningful male involvement has been a feeble one. It is argues that the alarming rate of teenage pregnancies, the falling statistics in vasectomy services across the country and the overall image of family planning programs, are indicative of the need for a new strategy. The little research data that is available shows that the earlier young men and boys are reached with accurate sexuality information, the more successful family planning and education services will be. The most successful sex education programs seem to be those which see sexuality education as a life-long process. More recently, research has concluded that programs working with parents and children are by far the most successful in ensuring ongoing dialogue and most meaningful behavior change. An important strategy for reaching males, partucularly with condoms, is to build on current strength in reaching female populations. Active promotion of vasectomy services, increased availability of comdom products suitably packaged and promoted, and attention-getting public service announcements, have combined to help change the image of a family planning program too often thought of as exclusively female. A representative sample of educational materials for men is included in the appendix.
In: International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Male involvement in family planning: programme initiatives. London, England, IPPF, . 9-12.Deliberate involvement of men in family planning matters has only caught on in the Africa Region at the onset of the 1980s. Prior to this, family planning had been of cooperation from their partners, women have sometimes tended to go about family planning matters secretly. Such an approach is undesirable and may have some serious consequences and implications, since family planning involves health matters. Involving men and obtaining their support and commitment to family planning is of crucial importance in the Africa Region, given men's elevated position in African society. The involvement of men in family planning matters will also accelerate the understanding and practice of family planning in general. Regional activities of Family Planning Associations (FPA) in Africa are still in their infancy. A major activity was a Tegional Consultation held in Nairobi, Kenya in February 1983 to formulate appropriate approaches and channels based on actual experiences in a number of countries. This Consultation clearly showed that men could be most profitable reached not as a distinct group but through family life education programs, community education programs and related organizations. Information, materials, approaches and guidelines on male responsibility are being acquired and developed on a continuing basis for distribution to FPAs and Field Offices. A review of FPA activities indicates that practically all FPAs will have some kind of activity aimed at reaching men. However, Anglophone FPAs have greater explicit male orientedd projects than the Francophone ones. Challenges facing this program area will be found in Francophone countriees and countries with concertrations of Muslim culture. Rigid policy and legal systems which favor male domination present anothr challenge. Major efforts, such as small-scale research studies, study visits to successful projects, training in project development and implementation, will be made to enhance the capability of FPAs in devloping and managing projects relating to male involvement in family planning.