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Jakarta, Indonesia, University of Indonesia, Faculty of Public Health, 1984. 6 p. (Book - IA)This article is a summary of the results of the Community Incentive Project (CIP) in Indonesia. The CIP is a project to maintain and increase family planning acceptance as well as family planning practice through increasing the income of the acceptors. The fund for the project was originated from the World Bank under a loan agreement for the Indonesian government in 1977. The evaluation of the CIP has been carried out under an agreement between the Faculty of Public Health University of Indonesia and the National Family Planning Coordinating Board. The objective of the evaluation is to describe various objects of the project implementation, such as the planning/preparation process, training, loan provision, monitoring and control, recording and reporting, bookkeeping, assistance to the family planning acceptors who received the loan, the participation of the community and other sectors, and the impact of the project on family planning practice.
New York, New York, The Global Committee of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, 1984. 32 p.The International Parliamentary Assembly on Population and Development was held in Mexico City, immediately following the United Nations International Conference on Population in 1984. The implementation of the World Population Plan of Action adopted by the UN conference was discussed by 184 parliamentarians from 60 countries. The result was an action plan, affirming that the ultimate objective of development and population policies would be improvement of the quality of life and well-being of individuals and families; noting the agreement of the UN conference, that population is integral to development; placing population policies in the prerogative of each sovereign country; recognizing the achievements of parliamentarians; and reasserting the importance of parliamentarians in the formulation of policies and enactment of population and development laws. Since the 1979 Colombo, Sri Lanka Parliamentarians conference, achievements have included the holding of regional conferences; establishment of the Global Committee; Asian Forum, and Inter-American Parliamentary Group, and national groups in 40 countries; and encouraging participation of parliamentarians in the 1984 UN conference. As elected representatives of the people, the parliamentarians' role includes insuring population and development issues receive priority attention; alerting constituents to the importance and inter-relationship of population and development; securing a political concensus for action; initiating legislative measures; working for funding allocation; reviewing progress; and collaborating with other parliamentarians as well as diverse international organizations. Parliamentarians should, in future, work also for the improved status of women; the strengthening of primary health care and legislative strenghening of family planning; extending of educational opportunities to all, and assisting in protecting the physical environment, in alleviating the problems of migration, and fostering of community participation. Steering and drafting committee members and participating countries are listed.
In: Improving civil registration, edited by Forrest E. Linder and Iwao M. Moriyama. Bethesda, Maryland, International Institute for Vital Registration and Statistics, . 235-42.Because agencies responsible for vital statistics collection vary substantially among nations, the International Conference for the 6th Decennial Revision of the Inernational Lists of Disease and Causes of Death (Paris, 1948) recommended that all governments establish National Committees on Vital and Health Statistics. To promote international cooperation the conference suggested that: 1) the World Health Assembly establish an Experts Committee on Health Statistics and 2) governments establish national committees for statistical activities coordination to serve as links with the World Health Organization. The 1st International Conference of National Committees on Vital and Health Statistics (London, 1953), with 28 nations attending, introduced 8 objectives to define needs and stimulate statistical studies and encouraged governments that had not yet set up national committees to establish them. 59 countries participated in the 2nd International Conference (Copenhagen, 1973) to evaluate objectives and emphasize the need for national committees in developing countries. This study briefly discusses recent developments and changes within national committees for the African, American, Eastern Mediterranean, European, Southeast Asian, and Western Pacific Regions. Usefulness and productivity of national committees depend on: 1) strong commitment by civil registration, national vital statistics, and national health programs administrators, 2) clear understandings of the National Committee's objectives and limitations, 3) careful selection of Committee members, and 4) the administrative ability of the chairman. National committees have demonstrated their potential for improving statistics collection and usage; each country must find the most effective organization and operation for success.
Report of the third meeting of the Scientific Working Group on Bacterial Enteric Infections: Microbiology, Epidemiology, Immunology, and Vaccine Development.
[Unpublished] 1984. 17 p. (WHO/CDD/BEI/84.5)The scientific topic discussed in detail by the Scientific Working Group (SWG) was recent research advances in the field of cholera. The SWG reviewed new knowlenge in areas such as epidemiology and ecology, phage-typing, pathogenesis, immunization, and related pathogens, and made recommendations for future research. The Diarrhoeal Disease Control Pragramme was continuing to emphasize the implementation of oral rehydration therapy as a means of reducing diarrheal mortality, and research aimed at an improved case-management strategy. The Steering Committee granted support to a number of projects aimed at clarifying the epidemiology of diarrhea and the pathogenesis of bacterial agents of acute diarrhea. Support was provided by the Steering Committee to projects aimed at, or closely related to the development of new vaccines against typhoid fever, cholera, and Shigella dysentery.
WHO Programme in Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning. Report of the second meeting of the WHO Programme Advisory Committee in Maternal and Child Health, Geneva, 21-25 November 1983.
[Unpublished] 1984. 95 p. (MCH/84.5)The objectives of the 2nd meeting of the Program Advisory Committee (PAC) for the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Program in Maternal and Child Health, including Family Planning (MCH/FP) were to 1) assess the MCH/FP program's achievements since the 1st PAC meeting in June, 1982, 2) determine the level of scientific and financial resources available for the program, and 3) to examine the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the delivery of MCH/FP services. The committee reviewed the activities and targets of the program's 4 major areas (pregnancy and perinatal care, child health, growth, and development, adolescent health, and family planning and infertility), and developed a series of recommendations for each of these areas. Specific recommendations were also made for each of the major program areas in reference to the analysis and dessimination of information and to the development and use of appropriate health technologies. Upon reviewing the role of TBAs in the delivery of MCH/FP services, PAC recommended that all barriers to TBA utilization be removed and that training for TBAs should be improved and expanded. PAC's examination of financial support for MCH/FP activities revealed that for a sample of 26 countries, the average annual amount allocated to MCH activities was less than US$3/child or woman. This low level of funding must be taken into account when setting program targets. International funding agencies did indicate their willingness to increase funding levels for MCH programs. The appendices included 1) a list of participants, 2) an annotated agenda, 3) detailed information on the proposed activities of the program's headquarters for 1986-87, and 4) a description of the the function, organizational structure, and technical management of the MCH/FP program. Also included in the appendices was an overview of the current status of MCH and a series of tables providing information on infant, child, and maternal health indicators. Specifically, the tables provided information by region and by country on maternal, child, and infant mortality; causes of child deaths; maternal health care coverage; contraceptive prevalence; infant and child malnutrition; the number of low weight births; adolescent health; teenage births; breast feeding prevalence and duration; and the proportion of women and children in the population.
In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 1-60. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)The primary objective of the meeting of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment, and Development was to identify mechanisms through which poulation characteristics conditioned and were conditioned by resource use, environmental effects, and the development structure. This called for a systems approach in which all factors were treated simultaneously and in which the closing of loops through feedback effects was of foremost importance. The 1st item of the agenda called for a general discussion of past and future trends in population, resources, environment, and development. The Expert Group emphasized the need for better knowledge of how the trends of the various variables interacted and modified each other and particularly about the role of population within the interrelationships. The discussion of food and nutrition focused on the demographic, economic, social, political, and institutional aspects of meeting the needs for food and nutrition, while the physical aspects were given greater attention in the discussions of resources and environments. At the center of the deliberations were such concerns as poverty, the food versus feed controversy, food self sufficiency, and the role of population growth. The discussion on resources and the environment covered the resource base, environmental degradation, and nonrenewable resources. Attention was directed to the various mechanisms that could expand resource availability as well as those activities that had caused a degradation of the environment. The discussions of social and economic aspects of development involved 4 interrelated topics: income distribution, employment, health and education, and social security. The last items on the agenda addressed the issue of integrated planning and policy formation. Some members of the Expert Group were concerned with immediate problems. Viewing demographic trends as largely exogenous, they gave highest priority to finding the best way to accommodate the needs of growing populations. Others emphasized longrun problems and considered demographic trends as policy instruments for dealing with problems of resources, the environment, and development.
Bangkok, Thailand, ESCAP, 1984. 323 p. (ESCAP Programme on Health and Development Technical Paper No. 66/PHD 19; ST/ESCAP/286)This training manual describes the organization of the courses, the course syllabus, the 1983 course on planning, development and health, the follow-up evaluation of the training courses of 1976-82 and the specialized activities in planning for health and development at ESCAP. Planning for health is viewed as an integral part of overall development planning with the conscious incorporation of clear goals, to help ensure that development programs have a positive impact on the health of the region's poor. ESCAP's training program aims to amplify, in concrete terms, the close relationship between health and development and to build the capability to take an integrated and multisectoral approach to inproving health and accelerating development. The design and implementation of a training program oriented to strengthen capacities in planning, development and health is a function of these 3 terms. The basic frame has remained farily similar to the 1976 course. Training aims at behavior change--to strengthen capacity for action, rather than to accumulate knowledge and information for information's sake. Training objectives must be appraised in terms of relevance, adequacy, effectiveness, efficacy and impact before actual implementation beings. The course is conceived as a unified, multi-sectoral approach to assess the health situation and propose intervention measures aimed at the elimination of the social causes of ill-health and disease of a country. The focus is in the relationships between health and development through systems analysis and relevant planning tools. The aim of the courses is to produce a cadre of planners for health with an innovative and intersectoral outlook, consistent with the dynamic approaches in health, development and planning and with abilities to convince the higher planning structures, rally political support and enlist coummunity involvement with focus on Health for All by the Year 2000. Tables and charts facilitate understanding of concepts involved in this training.
International Workshop on Youth Participation in Population, Environment, Development at Colombo, 28th Nov. 83 to 2nd Dec. 83.
Maribo, Denmark, WAY, . 120 p.The objectives of the International Youth Workshop on Population and Development were to provide a forum to the leaders of national youth councils and socio-political youth organizations. These leaders were brought together to review national and local youth activities and their plans and action programs for the future. The outlook for these discussions was local, regional, and global. In addition the Workshop aimed at providing interaction among the youth organizations of the developing and the developed countries. These proceedings include an inaugural address by Gemini Atukorata, Minister of Youth Affairs, Government of Sri Lanka and presentations focusing on the following: youth and development; the key role of youth in production and reproduction -- important factors of development; 60% of the aid goes back to the giving country in several ways; adolescent fertility as a major concern; social development for the poor with particular reference to the well-being of children and women; commitment for the cause is the key to attract funds; and observance of the International Youth Year under the themes of participation, development, and peace. The 11th workshop session dealt with follow-up and the future direction of the World Assembly of Youth (WAY). The following points emerged in this most important session: WAY should emphasize "Youth Participation in Development" as the major program; WAY's population programs should not be limited to just information, education, and communication, and youth groups should be encouraged to become service delivery agents for contraceptives wherever possible; environment awareness should become an integral part of population and development programs; youth in the service of children, health for all, and drug abuse should be the new areas of operation for WAY; and programs of youth working in the service of disabled, especially disabled young people, and youth and crime prevention programs also found favor with the participants. Recommendations and action programs are outlined. Proceedings include a summary of WAY activities and resolutions.
[Unpublished] 1984. 51 p.This listing of research projects funded since 1980 by WHO's Diarrhoeal Diseases Control Programme, is arranged by project title, investigator and annual budget allocations. Project titles are listed by Scientific Working Grouping (SWG) and include research on bacterial enteric infections; parasitic diarrheas; viral diarrheas; drug development and management of acute diarrheas; global and regional groups and research strengthening activities. SWG projects are furthermore divided by geographical region: African, American, Eastern Medierranean, European, Southeast Asian and Western Pacific. The priority area for research within each SWG is specified.
Report of the third meeting of the scientific working group on viral diarrhoeas: microbiology, epidemiology, immunology and vaccine development, [held in] Geneva, 1-3, February 1984.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, . 19p.The current status of the Scientific Working Group Program is reviewed, showing an expansion of activities in both its health services component (planning, implementation and evaluation of national diarrheal diseases control programs) and its research component (biomedical and operational). Submission of research proposals is encouraged by the Steering Committee (SC), namely those investigating the etiological role of viral agents in diarrheal disease and the epidemiology of these agents. Recently, the SC has made a particular effort to stimulate research in the area of immunology of viral enteric infections, which has been a generally neglected area. Other important areas of Program activity include site visits to review progress made by its projects, to participate in the initial design or the analysis of studies, or to stimulate general interest among research workers in the activities of the SWG. Workshops have also been initiated and conducted in WHO regions. The SWG notes with satisfaction the progress of the Program and commends the SC's efforts to stimulate and support research activities. SWG recommendations bear on the need for more data on the etiology and epidemiology of diarrhea in the community and the encouragement of further community-based studies. Particular attention should also be given to the preparation of reagents for the serotyping and subgrouping of rotaviruses. Moreover, the Group recommends that research strengthening workshops be continously held. In addition to the review of the meeting and recommendations, this paper includes a report on active and passive immunity to viral diarrheas. Special attention is given to rotavirus diarrhea as it tends to be common and quite severe. Its epidemiology is briefly presented, showing its incidence, seasonality (winter) in temperate climates, age-specific occurrence (most severe in infants and young children) and transmission (fecal-oral, person-to-person). Neonatal ans sequential postneonatal rotavirus infection are addressed ans issues for further investigation clarified; e.g., the relationship between low birth weight and the occurrence and severity of infection. Much remains to be elucidated regarding the serotyping-specific epidemiology of rotaviruses. The Group notes that further immunological studies of rotaviruses are essential to elucidate the role of passive protection. The other area of study in which research activities need to concentrate is vaccine development.
Health and health services in Judaea, Samaria and Gaza 1983-1984: a report by the Ministry of Health of Israel to the Thirty-Seventh world Health Assembly, Geneva, May 1984.
Jerusalem, Israel, Ministry of Health, 1984 Mar. 195 p.Health conditions and health services in Judea, Samaria, and Gaza during the 1967-83 period are discussed. Health-related activities and changes in the social and economic environment are assessed and their impact on health is evaluated. Specific activities performed during the current year are outlined. The following are specific facets of the health care system that are the focus of many current projects in these districts; the development of a comprehensive network of primary care programs and centers for preventive and curative services has been given high priority and is continuing; renovation and expansion of hospital facilities, along with improved staffing, equipment, and supplies for basic and specialty health services increase local capabilities for increasingly sophisticated health care, and consequently there is a decreasing need to send patients requiring specialized care to supraregional referral hospitals, except for highly specialized services; inadequacies in the preexisting reporting system have necessitated a continuting process of development for the gathering and publication of general and specific statistical and demographic data; stress has been placed on provision of safe drinking water, development of sewage and solid waste collection and disposal systems, as well as food control and other environmental sanitation activities; major progress has been made in the establishment of a funding system that elicits the participation and financial support of the health care consumer through volunary health insurance, covering large proportions of the population in the few years since its inception; the continuing building room in residential housing along with the continuous development of essential community sanitation infrastructure services are important factors in improved living and health conditions for the people; and the health system's growth must continue to be accompanied by planning, evaluation, and research atall levels. Specific topics covered include: demography and vital statistics; socioeconomic conditions; morbidity and mortality; hospital services; maternal and child health; nutrition; health education; expanded program immunization; environmental health; mental health; problems of special groups; health insurance; community and voluntary agency participation; international agencies; manpower and training; and planning and evaluation. Over the past 17 years, Judea, Samaria, and Gaza have been areas of rapid population growth and atthe same time of rapid socioeconomic development. In addition there have been basic changes in the social and health environment. As measured by socioeconomic indicators, much progress has been achieved for and by the people. As measured by health status evaluation indicators, the people benefit from an incresing quantity and quality of primary care and specialty services. The expansion of the public health infrastructure, combined with growing access to and utilization of personal preventive services, has been a key contributor to this process.
[Unpublished] 1984. 27 p.The current status of the Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases (CDD) Program was reviewed, and activities related to the evaluation of country control programs, the assessment of potential diarrheal disease control interventions, and the program's operational research activities were examined. In the health services component, ciontinued efforts to promote the preparation of plans of operation for national CDD programs is recommended, as is continued use of the national CDD program managers training course. Concern was expressed that the level of use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) appeared to be modest. Case management was endorsed as the major program strategy. The series of studies on interventions for reducing diarrhea's mortality and morbidity were welcomed. For evaluation purposes, it is recommended that the program develop additional criteria for monitoring increased access to and usage of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and the reduction of diarrheal mortality. Continued accumulaton and publication of information yielded by the program's survey of the impact of ORT in hospitals was recommended. In the research component, the growth of research activities is satisfying. While biomedical aspects have developed well, it might be necessary to relate them gradually to specific control interventions in the future. Further studies of improved ORS formulatons were recommended. High priority should also be given to the promotion of breast feeding, immunization, and water supply and sanitation. The underlying mechanisms that cause the intervention to reduce diarrheal morbidity or mortality should be clarified. Research is recommended on the promotion of personal and domestic hygiene, food hygiene, and improved weaning practices. Emphasis on the development and evaluation of vaccines against the causes of diarrhea is supported. Some changes in the balance of research activities should be made. Epidemiological weak.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO,  27 p.This is the 1st interim report issued by the Diarrhoeal Diseases Control (CDD) Programme, summarizing progress in its main areas of activity during the previous calendar year. Most of the information is presented in the form of tables, graphs and lists. Other important developments are mentioned briefly in each section. The information is presented according to major program areas; health services; research; and program management. Within the health services component, national program planning, training, the production of Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS), health education and promotion are areas of priority activity. Progress in the rate of development of national programs, participants in the various levelsof training programs, and the countries producing their own ORS packets and developing promotional and educational materials are presented. An evaluation of the health services component, based on a questionnaire survey to determine the impact of Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT), indicates significant decreases in diarrheal admission rates and in overall diarrheal case-fatality rates. Data collected from a total of 45 morbidity and and mortality surveys are shown. Biomedical and operational research projects supported by the program are given. Thhe research areas in which there was the greatest % increase in the number of projects funded were parasite-related diarrheas, drug development and management of diarrheal disease. Research is also in progress on community attitudes and practices in relation to diarrheal disease and on the development of local educational materials. The program's organizational structure is briefly described and its financial status summarized. The report ends with a list of new publications and documents concerning health services, research and management of diarrheal diseases.
Regional resources. Resources available to African countries from UNFPA assistance to intercountry activities.
[Unpublished] 1984 Jul 1. 37 p.This 2nd edition of the booklet of regional resources is intended to improve the utilization of intercountry resources by making "user friendly" information available: short, regularly updated, translated (French and English) explanations of availability, obtainability and cost. It should be read in conjunction with the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) publication "Guide to Sources of International Population Assistance 1982." The following regional resources available to African countries from UNFPA assistance to intercountry activities are identified and described: regional advisory services (demographic statistics, Union Dounaiere et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale, demographic analysis, population and rural development, family health, population communication, population education, labor and family welfare education, and population policies and research); regional training institutes; other activities funded under UNFPA Africa regional programs; and intercountry activities from which African countries may benefit.
In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population projections: methodology of the United Nations. Papers of the United Nations Ad Hoc Expert Group on Demographic Projections, United Nations Headquarters, 16-19 November 1981. New York, United Nations, 1984. 4-6. (Population Studies No. 83 ST/ESA/SER.A/83)These recommendations refer specifically to the work of the Population Division of the UN and the regional commissions and more generally to the work of the specialized agenices, which prepare projections of labor force and school enroolment. The current recommendations may be regarded as updating an earlier detailed set that was issued by a similar group of experts who convened in New York in November 1977. The recommendations cover general considerations, sources and assumptions, evaluation of projections and their uses, and internal migration and urbanization. The Population Division should consider the question of an optimal time schedule for publishing new estimates and projections in order to avoid unduly long intervals between publications and intervals so short as to cause confusion. The UN Secretariat has an important role in pursuing work on methodology of projections and making it available to demographers in the developing countries. Unique problems of demographic projection exist for those countries with particularly small populations. It is proposed that the Population Division prepare special tabulations, whenever possible, giving the estimated age and sex distribution for these countries. Future publications of population projections prepared by the Population Division should indicate the major data sources on which the projections are based and note if the data were adjusted before inclusion. In addition, some grading of the quality of the base data should be presented. For the UN set of national and international population projections, a more comprehensive system of establishing assumptions about the future trends of fertility is needed. The Secretariat needs to focus more attention on the evaluation of its population projections. UN publications of projections should report on the main errors in recent past projections with respect to estimates of baseline levels and trends and provide some evaluation of the quality of the current estimates. It is recommended that the UN encourage countries to establish a standard definition of urban which would be used for international comparisons but generally not replace current national definitions. The Secretariat should review the techniques currently used to project urban-rural and city populations and search for methodologies appropriate to the level of urbanization and the quality of data which would improve the accuracy of the projections. The Division should regularly produce long range population projections for the world and major countries and should continue and expand its household estimates and projection series, which provides information essential to government administrators and planning agencies, businesses, and researchers in all countries.
Earthwatch. 1984; (16):7.The International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), cooperates with the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) and other agencies to: actively promote policies designed to attain a balance between population and resources, within national conservation strategies and through field activities to preserve nature and natural resources; take into account the fundamental issues of population and resources in its policies, programs, resolutions, and public statements, where appropriate; keep trends in population and resources under review, reporting back to each IUCN General Assembly; encourage nongovernment organizations, including local conservation groups and family planning associations, to work together to spread awareness of the links between population, resources, and the environment; encourage governments to undertake periodic assessments of population trends, natural resources, and likely economic conditions, their interrelationships and the implications for the achievement of national goals; encourage governments to establish a population policy and to consider the special environmental problems of the urban and rural poor and to promote sustainable rural development; encourage nations to take effective action to obtain the basic right of all couples to have access to safe and effective family planning methods, as established in the World Population Plan of Action; and generally encourage national and international development policies which help create the conditions in which human population can successfully be brought into balance with carefully conserved natural resources.
The poor quality of official socio-economic statistics relating to the rural tropical world: with special reference to South India.
MODERN ASIAN STUDIES. 1984; 18(3):491-514.Statistics relating to the sizes of farm-holdings, the output and yield of crops, household income and expenditure, occupation, cattle ownership, and the sizes of villages were considered, and some features of the Karnataka population census were criticized. The main reason for the extremely poor quality of so many official socioeconomic statistics relating to the rural tropical world is the failure to realize that statistical procedures are based on conditions peculiar to advanced countries. The All-India National Sample Survey is a rare example of a wasted exercise which runs into several hundred separate reports. Because of the inevitable unreliability of most statistics it should be assumed that all statistics covering whole countries or large states, which relate to agricultural yields, crop values, and production, are bound to include a large element of estimation. Organizations like the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) should provide some information on the basis of estimates, and statistical tables without notes should not be published, such as the regular Statistical Bulletins of the FAO. Far fewer figures of far higher quality should be produced. Owing to the diversity of agrarian systems, very few economic generalizations (any presumed inverse relationship between crop yield and size of farm-holding) can be of universal application. Organizations like the FAO should advise tropical countries that it is wasteful to collect statistics that are considered conventional in advanced countries because of the nature of their agrarian systems and systems of land tenure. Instead of estimating the proportions of households below poverty levels, economic indicators of living standards, such as agricultural wage rates and determinants of the distribution of household farmland, should be identified.
New York, New York, International Women's Tribune Center, 1984 Sep. iv, 116 p.The 1st 2 issues of newsletters in this volume, Women and Appropriate Technology, Parts I and II, emphasize resource materials and appropriate technology groups and projects from around the world that might be found useful. The 3rd issue, Women and Food Production, focuses specifically on the need for women to have greater access to land, technology, and capital in the production of food crops, whether for their own use or as crops for marketing. The last issues, Women MOving Appropriate Technology Ahead, concentrates on strategies for introducing appropriate technology ideas and approaches into one's own community. Together, these 4 issues combine several issues related to women's access to and uses of appropriate technologies, with practical information for concrete action and sample projects involving women from countries around the world. Originally published between 1978 and 1973, all 4 newsletters in this volume have been updated and edited in some parts to assure their continued relevance. Resource groups, UN news and conferences, available periodicals, training, credit and loan information, cash crops, international nongovernmental organizations, and government agencies are all discussed.
BULLETIN OF THE PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION. 1984; 18(2):188-92.Outbreaks of yellow fever in recent years in the Americas have prompted concern about the possible urbanization of jungle fever. Vaccination, using the 17D strain of yellow fever virus, provides an effective, practical method of large scale protection against the disease. Because yellow fever can reappear in certain areas after a 2-year dormancy period, some countries maintain routine vaccination programs in areas where jungle yellow fever is endemic. The size of the endemic area (approximately half of South America), transportation and communication difficulties, and the inability to ensure a reliable cold chain are problems facing these programs. In addition, the problem of reaching dispersed and isolated populations has been addressed by the use of mobile teams, radio monitoring, and educational methods. During yellow fever outbreaks, many countries institute massive vaccination campaigns, targeted at temporary workers and migrants. Because epidemics in South America may involve extensive areas, these campaigns may not effectively address the problem. The ped-o-jet injector method, used in Brazil and Colombia, should be used in outbreak situations, as it is effective for large-scale vaccination. Vaccine by needle, suggested for maintenance programs, should be administered to those above 1 year of age. An efficient monitoring method to avoid revaccination, and to assess immunity, should be developed. The 17D strain produces seroconversion in 95% of recipients, and most is prepared in Brazil and Colombia. But, problems with storage methods, instability in seed lots, and difficulties in large-scale production were identified in 1981 by the Pan American Health Organization and WHO. The group recommended modernization of current production techniques and further research to develop a vaccine that could be produced in cell cultures. Brazil and Colombia have acted on these recommendations, modernizing vaccine production and researching thermostabilizing media for yellow fever vaccine.
[Unpublished] 1984 May 8. 31 p. (CE 92/12)This report shows how demographic information can be analyzed and used to identify and characterize the groups assigned priority in the Regional Plan of Action and that it is necessary for the improvement of the planning and allocation of health resources so that national health plans can be adapted to encompass the entire population. In discussing the connections between health and population characteristics in the countries of the region, the report covers mortality, fertility and health, and fertility and population increase; spatial distribution and migration; and the structure of the population. Focus then moves on to health, development, and population policies and family planning. The final section of the report considers the response of the health sector to population trends and characteristics and to development-related factors. The operations of the health sector must be revised in keeping with the observed demographic situation and the projections thereof so that the goal of health for all by the year 2000 may be realized. In several countries of the region mortality remains high. In 1/3 of them, infant mortality during the period 1980-85 exceeds 60/1000 live births. If measures are not taken to reduce mortality 55% of the population of Latin America in the year 2000 will still be living in countries with life expectancies at birth of under 70 years. According to the projections, in the year 2000 the birthrate will stand at around 29/1000, with wide differences between the countries of the region, within each of them, and between socioeconomic strata. High fertility will remain a factor hostile to the health of women and children and a determinant of rapid population growth. Some governments view the present or predicted growth rates as excessive; others want to increase them; and some take no explicit position on the matter. The countries would be well advised to assign values to their birthrate, natural increase, and periods for doubling their populations in relation to their development plans and to the prospects for improving the standard of living and health of their populations. An important factor in urban growth is internal migration. These migrants, like some of those who move to other countries, may have health problems requiring special care. Regardless of a country's demographic situation, the health sector has certain responsibilities, including: the need to promote the framing and adoption of population and development policies, in whose implementation the importance of health measures is not open to question; and the need to favor the intersector coordination and articulation required to ensure that population aspects are considered in national development planning.
In: Tras nuevas raices: migraciones internas y colonizacion en Bolivia [by] Carlos Garcia-Tornell, Maria Elena Querejazu, Jose Blanes, Fernando Calderon, Jorge Dandler, Julio Prudencio, Luis Lanza, Giovanni Carnibella, Gloria Ardaya, Gonzalo Flores [and] Alberto Rivera. La Paz, Bolivia, Ministerio de Planeamiento y Coordinacion, Direccion de Planeamiento Social, Proyecto de Politicas de Poblacion, 1984 Apr. 51-251.A study of colonization programs in Bolivia was conducted as part of a larger evaluation of population policy. The 1st of 8 chapters examines the history of colonization programs in Bolivia and the role of state and international development agencies. It sketches the disintegration of the peasant economy, and presents 5 variables that appear to be central to colonization processes: the directedness or spontaneity of the colonization, the distance to urban centers and markets, the diversification of production, the length of time settled, and the origin of the migrants. The 2nd chapter describes the study methodology. The major objective was to evaluate government policies and plans in terms of the realistic possibilities of settlement in colonies for peasants expelled from areas of traditional agriculture. Interviews and the existing literature were the major sources used to identify the basic features and problems of colonization programs. 140 structured interviews were held with colonists in the Chapare zone, 43 in Yapacari, and 51 in San Julian. The 3 zones were selected because of their diversity, but the sample was not statistically representative and the findings were essentially qualitative. The 3rd chapter examines the relationships between the place of origin and the stages of settlement. The chapter emphasizes the influence of place of origin and other factors on the processes of differentiation, proletarianization, and pauperization. The 4th chapter examines the productive process, profitability of farming, the market, and reproductive diversification. The next chapter analyzes the technology and the market system of the colonists, the dynamics of the unequal exchange system in which they operate, and aspects related to ecological equilibrium and environmental conservation. The 6th chapter concentrates on family relationships and the role played by the family in colonization. Some features of the population structure of the colonies are described. The 7th chapter assesses forms of organization, mechanisms of social legitimation, and the important role of peasant syndicates. The final chapter summarizes the principal trends encountered in each of the themes analyzed and makes some recommendations concerning the colonization program, especially in reference to the family economy and labor organizations.
[Statistical country yearbook: members of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, 1984] Statisticheskii ezhegodnik stran--chlenov Soveta Ekonomicheskoi Vzaimopomoshchi, 1984.
Moscow, USSR, Finansy i Statistika, 1984. 456 p.This yearbook presents general statistical information for member countries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. A section on population (pp. 7-14) includes data on area and population; population according to the latest census; average annual population; birth, death, and natural increase rates; infant mortality; average life expectancy; marriages and divorces; urban and rural population; and population distribution by social group. (ANNOTATION)
[Institutions of youth promotion and services in La Paz, Bolivia: an analytical-descriptive study] Las instituciones de promocion y servicio a la juventud en La Paz, Bolivia. Un estudio analitico-descriptivo.
La Paz, Bolivia, Centro de Investigaciones Sociales, . 104 p. (Estudios de Recursos Humanos No. 8)This work presents the results of an evaluation of 30 institutions in La Paz, Bolivia, which offer recreational, nonformal educational, training, and sports programs to young people. The 1st chapter provides theoretical background on the psychological, social, and sexual problems and tasks of adolescents in modern societies. The 2nd chapter briefly discusses the roles of the family, friendships, and organizations in the development of adolescents, and briefly describes the goals, programs, and financing of 17 of the 20 organizations studied. 21 of the 30 had formal legal status. 16 of the organizations were public and 13 were private. 7 were national in scope and 15 had international ties. 2 were for women only, 23 were for both sexes, and 5 included children. The primary program objectives were educational in 11 cases, cultural in 8, and sports and religious in 5 cases each. 24 of the organizations reported that they fulfilled their objectives and 5 that they possibly did so. 9 of the organizations had vertical patterns of authority, 16 had horizontal, and 5 had other types. 26 reported that their personnel were qualified. 21 were financed by member contributions, 5 by donations, and 1 by parental contributions. 21 reported that attendance was normal and 5 that there was little participation or interest among members. None of the organizations provided more than very superficial sex education programs, although 26 organizations indicated their belief that sex education is important. 12 of the organizations had professionals on their staffs and 17 had volunteers only. 19 reported they had sufficient manpower and 2 that they did not. The material resources of the organizations were scarce; only 6 had their own meeting places. 15 relied on financing by members, 8 had governmental help or received donations from nonmembers, and 4 had international assistance.
LABOUR AND POPULATION ACTIVITIES IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC. 1984 Dec; (18):4.The International Labor Organization/UN Fund for Population Activities-assisted project, "Population/Family Life Education for Young Industrial Workers," reports that 1257 family welfare study groups have been created in 455 industrial establishments in Korea. The purpose of these study groups is to facilitate family welfare education among young workers and to help institutionalize the population/family welfare education and family planning services program in industries. The evaluation team emphasized in its report that labor counselors and training personnel require further training. They also recommended an increase in teaching and resource materials and ongoing support of the program on the part of the UNFPA.
Expanded Programme of Immunization Eastern Mediterranean Region. A report for the EPI Global Advisory Group Meeting, Alexandria, 21-25 October 1984.
[Unpublished] 1984. 10,  p. (EPI/GAG/84/WP.7.a)The strategy adopted by the Members States of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) to achieve the objective of the promotion of the Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) through primary health care (PHC) concentrates on strengthening synergistic integration of EPI with other services. Activities have been planned and implemented or are being implemented at the Regional Office and at the country level. 21 countries of the Region now have either a full-time or part-time manager or an EPI focal point. This is a considerable development, for in 1982 there were EPI managers in 9 countries. Except for 3 countries, all national EPI managers/focal points have received senior level training in EPI. At delivery points, vaccination is performed to a large extent by multipurpose health workers, but full-time vaccinators are available in about 6 countries. All field workers have received training at their respective regional levels. Limited financial resources continue to be 1 of the primary constraints of the program in the Region. Plans to resolve this problem include: counteracting wastage factors; close collaboration with the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and other international agencies at the country level to standardize approaches and avoid overlap; tapping regional and international voluntary agencies to increase their contributions; and increased use of associate experts, UN volunteers, and national technical staff. The overall information system is to some extent weak and suffers from irregularity and a lack of continuity. Regular reports are received from 9 countries which have World Health Organization staff. Repeated requests from other countries yield incomplete and at times contradicting data. Research efforts are directed towards operational areas, and research in strategies, integration, community, and surveillance areas is being encouraged.