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  1. 1

    Statement of the International Movement ATD Fourth World, an NGO in consultative status category ii with ECOSOC.

    International Movement ATD Fourth World

    [Unpublished] 1984 Aug. Background note prepared for the International Conference on Population, held in Mexico City, August 6-13, 1984. 4 p. (E/CONF.76/NGO/15)

    This appeal on behalf of the world's poorest families seeks: the destruction of misery in order to build peace and ensure dignity; fair distribution of resources; guarantees of freedom and the right to self-determination for all, especially the poorest; the widest possible choices for all in family planning; and regular public evaluation of demographic policies and programs, especially for the most deprived.
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  2. 2

    Africa Region Planned Parenthood and Women's Development Programme: report of the December 1983 Anglophone Project Manager's Workshop.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Africa Region. Planned Parenthood and Women's Development Programme

    London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Africa Region, Planned Parenthood and Women's Development Programme, 1984. 34 p.

    The Planned Parenthood and Women's Development (PPWD) workshop, held in Mombasa, Africa in 1983, was designed so that participants would: 1) acquire additional knowledge of the PPWD program, 2) develop skills to initiate, plan, manage, and evaluate PPWD projects, 3) identify constraints and problems affecting project management, 4) assess the viability of the projects they have formulated in their countries, 5) acquire skills in integrating family planning components into development activities, and 6) develop plans to improve their PPWD projects back home. Some of the common problems were: 1) problems and needs addressed by women's groups--such as women's economic and social status; 2) current problems of project development, implementation, and management; 3) factors which lead to success; 4) operational, financial, and leadership problems in organizations; 5) collaboration; 6) integration of family planning into the project; and 7) problems of monitoring and evaluation. The major needs identified were health, water, sanitation, housing, and education. In addition, the social factors such as communication, beliefs, influential groups, religious influences, relations and conflicts, language problems, and types of resources available are also part of the factors involved in participatory development. The workshop discussed the steps of project planning and prepared participants for the group encounters which facilitate the testing of some of the concepts discussed. Therefore, 2 women's groups were selected for the case studies, one in Makiwo, and one in Kibuyuni. The main objective of the visit was to give the participants a chance to study an on-going project, exchange ideas with the group, and test some of the concepts learned against real life situations in the community. Group members discussed at length the problem of leadership--identified as being key to group project success: 5 types of leaders were identified. It was concluded that training could help alleviate some of the prevalent leadership problems; rotating leadership would also be an alternative. A checklist for monitoring and evaluation of projects was drawn up and could also be used to assess project proposals. Workshop evaluation, issues raised and recommendations, and general comments are given.
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  3. 3

    Status of women statement of the World Association for Dynamic Psychiatry, WADP at the International Conference on Population, Mexico City, August 6-13, 1984, of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA).

    Ammon G

    Dynamische Pscyhiatrie/Dynamic Psychiatry. 1984; 17(3):283-4.

    The World Association for Dynamic Psychiatry has a special competence on the subject of the status of women because of its transcultural research and information. Academies, universities, and professional organizations of 22 countries of Asia, Africa, America, and Europe work together on human as well as psychiatric problems. It is necessary to declare "Human Rights for Women" throughout the world. The definition of the role of sexes is as a main part the result of social, cultural, and religious training. According to the research, women are sometimes superior to men in the areas of sensitivity, creativity, concern for others, ability to love, conceptual thinking, and bearing pain. Women have a stronger power for physical work than men and strive for sexual and professional activities. The demand is for equal rights for women in politics, in work and wages, in family and sexual life, in education, in decision for children and child rearing, at court, in property, in medical treatment, in respect of their personality and identity, and to be represented in art, literature, movies, and mass media. The human being with the potentiality and gift of giving life to others deserves the greatest respect in world society. She alone can decide to give life at the time she likes, with whom she likes, or not at all. Her body belongs to her alone. Experience shows that in regions of the world where women have equal rights and education the problem of population explosion is less evident.
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  4. 4

    The Mexico City conference and the population issue

    Golini A

    Genus. 1984 Jul-Dec; 40(3-4):191-200.

    This article is a report on the U.N.-sponsored International Conference on Population, held in Mexico City in August 1984. The author distinguishes between the "demographic pseudo-problems", which are basically political in nature, and the "real demographic problems" discussed at the conference. Changes in attitudes since the Bucharest conference of 1974 are described, and it is noted that most countries now favor a population policy involving both birth control and economic development. Demographic problems examined at the conference are briefly outlined, and the human rights focus of the conference recommendations is discussed. (summary in FRE, ITA)
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  5. 5

    Family planning in the service of human development.

    Mahler H

    Who Chronicle. 1984; 38(6):239-42.

    In his remarks to the International Conference on Population, the author identifies human development as the common theme underlying health, family planning, and economic progress. National policies should seek to stimulate people to develop their own material, intellectual, and spiritual potential. Attempts to force fertility control practices on populations can be expected to be met with resentment, resistance, and rejection. The World Health Organization's health for all by the year 2000 strategy views people as both the subject and object of their development. It goes beyond the struggle to remain alive to support people in adopting measures that will make their life progressively more pleasant. It is a strategy to support people in taking action, in ways understandable and acceptable to them, to assume growing responsibility for their own health destiny and thus contribute to their socioeconomic destiny. In addition, this strategy aims to ensure that each child is born truly wanted. The central condition for the success of population policies is their placement of the physical, social, and spiritual well-being of people at the highest rung of the developmental ladder.
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  6. 6

    [Hunger and disease in less developed countries and en route to development (the Third World). Proposal for solutions] Hambre y enfermedades en los paises menos adelantados y en vias de desarrollo (Tercer Mundo). Propuesta de soluciones.

    Piedrola Gil G

    Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Medicina. 1984; 101(1):39-96.

    The extent, causes, and possible solutions to problems of hunger, inequality, and disease in developing countries are discussed in this essay. Various frameworks and indicators have been proposed for identifying the poorest of nations; currently, 21 African, 9 Asian, and 1 American nation are regarded as the poorest of the poor. The 31 least developed countries, the 89 developing countries, and the 37 developed countries respectively have populations of 283 million, 3 billion; infant mortality rates of 160, 94, and 19/1000 live births; life expectancies of 45, 60, and 72 years; literacy rates of 28, 55, and 98%; per capita gross national products of $170, and $520, and $6230; and per capita public health expenditures of $1.70, $6.50, and $244. Developing countries in the year 2000 are expected to have 4.87 billion of the world's 6.2 billion inhabitants. The 3rd world contains 70% of the world's population but receives only 17% of world income. 40 million persons die of hunger or its consequences each year. Economic and social development is the only solution to problems of poverty and underdevelopment, and will require mobilization of all present and future human and material resources to achieve maximum possible wellbeing for each human being. Among principal causes of underdevelopment in the 3rd World are drought, illness, exile, socioeconomic disorder, war, and arms expenditures. Current food production and a long list of possible new technologies would be adequate to feed the world's population, but poor distribution condemns the world's people to hunger. Numerous UN agencies, organizations, and programs are dedicated to solving the problems of hunger, underdevelopment, and disease. In 1982, 600 billion dollars were spent in armanents, of $112 for each of the world's inhabitants; diversion of these resources to development goals would go a long way toward solving the problem of underdevelopment. The main problem is not lack of resources, but the need to establish a new and more just economic and distributive order along with genuine solidarity in the struggle against underdevelopment. Several steps should be taken: agricultural production should be increased with the full participation of the developng nations; the industrialized or petroleum-producing nations should aid the poor states with at least .7% and up to 5% of their gross national products for the struggle against drought, disease, illiteracy, and for the green revolution and new agropastoral technologies; prices paid to poor countries for raw materials should be fair; responsible parenthood, education, women's rights, clean drinking water, environmental sanitation and primary health care should be promoted; the arms race should be halted, and the North-South dialogue should be pursued in a spirit of goodwill and cooperation.
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  7. 7

    On the road to Nairobi '85.

    Shahani LR

    Development: Seeds of Change. 1984; 4:85-6.

    The Secretary General of the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women discussed preparations for the conference, which will be held in Nairobi in July 1985, and made a special plea for the continued support of the conference's goals by the Arab parliamentarians. The Nairobi conference is an outgrowth of the 1975 World Conference of the International Women's Year and of the 1980 World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women, Equality, Development and Peace. The 1975 conference raised the consciousness of the world in reference to women's role in development, and the 1980 conference provided a plan of action for integrating women in the development process. The task of the 1985 conference is to assess the accomplishments of the past 10 years and to identify strategies for the future. 1 of the documents which will be discussed at the conference is the UN's world survey of the role of women in development. In preparation for the conference the secretariat is preparing a report on women and children living under racist regimes in South Africa and another on women and children living in occupied Arab territories. Priorities identified by the conference's preparatory body include the need 1) to promote equality in international economic relations, 2) to reduce international tensions, and 3) to address the needs of poor, rural, abused, elderly women and the needs of women residing in areas of armed conflict. The preparatory body also expressed the view that the goals of equality, development and peace should be given equal priority. The participants at the conference should identify the ways in which women can most effectively continue their struggle to create conditions conducive to peace, ensure that the provisions of the Covention of the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women are implemented, and consider ways in which women can be further integrated into the development process. The nongovernment forum, which will convene a meeting in Nairobi just prior to the opening of the world conference, is likely to provide innovative suggestions for the consideration of the participants at the conference. Meanwhile all nations, and especially the Arab nations, are called on to promote the role women in their own nations and to work out differences within and between governments in the many preliminary meetings which will precede the conference. These efforts will ensure that the participants come together in Nairobi in a spirit of cooperation.
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  8. 8

    The family: models for providing comprehensive services for family and child welfare.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs

    New York, United Nations, 1984. 68 p. (ST/ESA/138)

    This study used 7 focused case studies from developing and developed countries to examine different programs attempting to provide comprehensive family and child welfare services, and to relate the findings to the World Plan of Action for the Implementation of the Objectives of the International Women's Year and the Programme of Action for the Second Half of the United Nations Decade for Women. The various chapters examine the objectives and purposes of comprehensive family and child welfare services; present the 7 case studies; outline the administrative structures and operation of both national and locally based programs and explore emerging issues of decentralization and interorganizational coordination; describe various aspects of service delivery including the range of services, comprehensive services, principles shaping the services, the village or neighborhood as the focal point, and staff functions; examine the relationship of comprehensive family and child welfare services to objectives of the UN Decade for Women and International Women's Year in the areas of modes of delivery, education, health, and employment and self-reliance; and offer conclusions in these areas. Comprehensive services consist of a number of complementary services designed to be mutually reinforcing and linked to produce a system rather than merely a collection of disparate services. The case studies of 3 nongovernmental organizations in the US, Sri Lanka, and Kenya and 4 governmental agencies in India, Bangladesh, Czechoslovakia, and Colombia show that comprehensive programs support national development policies. The study also demonstrates that although decentralization of authority stimulates local participation in program implementation, it does not foster local participation in the policy formulation process. It appears that no nongovernmental organization has had any direct effect on the formulation of national policies. Decentralization was seen in the administrative structures and operation of every governmental program to some extent, although the studies did not specify which functions were exercised primarily at a given level. The effectiveness of administrative structures was found to depend more on the will and behavior of the individuals using them than on any characteristics inherent in the structures. Pre-existing community structures were used whenever possible in implementing programs, and they appeared to improve prospects of involving local institutions in planning, decision-making, and implementation of the program. The case studies indicate that interorganizational communication has functioned satsifactorily in many respects, although more research on this topic is needed.
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  9. 9

    The Tunis Declaration emanating from the Arab Parliamentary Conference on Development and Population, [May 8-11, 1984, Tunis, Tunisia].

    Tunisia. Chambre des Deputes; Global Committee of Parliamentarians on Population and Development

    [Unpublished] 1984. 12 p.

    Parliamentarians from 16 Arab countries met in Tunis, Tunisia, on May 8-11, 1984, to discuss the current demographic and development situation in the Arab nations. The participants agreed that currently income is poorly distributed both within and between Arab countries (per capita income varies from US$500-US$30,000), life expectancy varies markedly between countries, international migration is extensive, the annual population growth rate is 2.9%, and population policies in most Arab countries are poorly formulated. The participants recognized the reciprocal relationship between development and population. They noted that the development process includes meeting the moral, material, health, and fertility needs of all segments of society; development requires broad participation; cooperation with other 3rd World countries is essential; industrialized nations should limit their use of resources; and Arab nations should act on the recommendations of international conferences on population and development and adhere to the agreements between Arab countries on migration issues. The participants recommended that participants continue to actively promote social equality in the Arab world and that Arab nations 1) formulate policies to keep resources and population within balance and to reduce mortality differentials in their own countries; 2) establish fertility goals that take into account population growth, the health and welfare of mothers and children, human rights, and social equality; 3) promote policies which preserve the traditions of the Arab world; 4) improve women's rights by increasing economic and educational opportunities for women, expanding the decision-making role of women, and ensuring that women are presented in a favorable light in the mass media; 5) address the needs of the most vulnerable members of society; 7) improve services for the urban poor and reduce urban growth through rural development and the establishment of small cities; 8) establish policies to reduce the brain drain, to ensure the welfare and rights of migrants, to encourage Arab investment in the development of Arab countries, and to encourage trained Arabs to return to their country of origin; and 9) to mobilize world opinion against Zionist expansionist and forced migration policies. Furthermore, the participants call for action on the part of the delegates, Arab nations, and interational organizations to facilitate the operationalizing of these recommendations by focusing attention on population and development issues, by collecting, analyzing, and disseminating information on population and development, and by providing financial support.
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  10. 10

    [Statement by Dr. Ahmad Sobeh, Chief of the Palestine Delegation] Discurso del Dr. Ahmad Sobeh, Jefe de la Delegacion Palestina...

    Palestine Liberation Organization [PLO]

    [Unpublished] 1984. Presented at the International Conference on Population held in Mexico City, August 6-13, 1984. 3 p.

    The recommendations approved at the Bucharest Conference were based on the principles of national sovereignty in the development of plans; national liberation as a precondition to development and population planning, population policies based on human rigths, and legal protection of the family. The speaker argues that his people, the Palestinians, seek to carry out the recommendations of this Conferenc,e but they live under conditions which they have not chosen and do not wish to perpetuarte. 1/2 of the Palestinian people live under military occupation, where their rights are routinely violated. The speaker claims that the deportation of persons, the creation of illegal settlements, the breaking up of families, the control of natural resources and the closing of educational institutions by the military all violate the spirit and letter of the Bucharest recommendations and contradict what this meeting is debating. The Palestinian people's lack of independence hinders their right to self-determination and keeps them from engaging in population planning. The individual and collective deportation of Palestinians and the taking of their lands impedes their social development and thus their population policy. The speaker points out that, nevertheless, the Palestinian people and its sole representative, the PLO, work to improve their situation. For over 36 years they have been fighting for the rights to homes and property and to live like all other peoples. He stresses that effective population planning must be based on freedom justice and peace, all of which his people lack. The Palestinian people seek the help of the international community in reclaiming their rights.
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  11. 11

    Fertility and the family: highlights of the issues in the context of the World Population Plan of Action.

    United Nations. Secretariat

    In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. Fertility and family. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 45-73. (International Conference on Popualtion, 1984; Statements)

    This paper uses as its organizing principle 5 major themes which run through the sections of the 1974 World Population Plan of Action (WPPA) devoted to fertility and the family. The purpose of this paper it to assure that their discussion is comprehensive and that it reviews all the major research and policy concerns with respect to fertility and the family that have played an important role in the general debate about these issues since 1974. Summerized here are the contributions included in this volumen, as each deals with at least 1 of these issues. The 1st major theme focuses on fertility response to modernization as a facet of the interrelationship between population and development. Discussed are aspects of modernization leading to fertility increases, in particular the reduced incidence and shorter duration of breastfeeding, and those leading to fertility decline, namely the decline in the value of children as a source of labor and old-age support. Freedom of choice, information and education are the principal approaches within which childbearing decision making is discussed. Women's reproductive and economic activity during their life cycle, and the relationship of family types and functions to fertility levels and change are equally addressed. Finally, demographic goals and policy alternatives with respect to fertility change are discussed in terms of a number of policy options: family planning programs, economic incentives and disincentives and more global socioeconomic measures. Although primary attention is given to the problems and policies of developing countries, the special problems of certrain developed countries which view their fertility as too low are also considered. The issues raised in this paper are put forward as an aid to assist in the identification of emderging areas of policy concern and of fruitful new research directions.
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  12. 12

    Report of the Expert Group on Fertility and Family. Introduction.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. Fertility and family. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 1-44. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)

    This volume is comprised of the reports of the 1st of 4 Expert Group Meetings, scheduled in preparation for the 1984 International Conference on Population. Individuals and organizations attending this meeting are listed. The central task of the meeting was to examine critical, high-priority issues relevant to fertility and family and, on that basis, to make recommendations for action that would enhance the effectiveness of and compliance with the World Population Plan of Action, adopted in 1974 at Bucharest. The 1st item on the agenda dealt with ways in which modernization elements in the socio-cultural and economic patterns and institutions of societies alter reproduction. The 2nd topic of discussion was the relationship between family structure and fertility. The view adopted was that family structure could be influenced by a variety of factors that would have implications for fertility (e.g., delayed at marriage, improvements in education). The deliberations on factors influencing choice with respect to childbearing focused upon the complexity of decision making in matters of reproduction. In question, too, was a possible conflict between the acknowledged rights to freedom of choice in respect to childbearing and to the rights and goals of society, as well the acceptability of incentives and disincentives as measures introduced by governments to achieve social goals. The 4th item, reproductive and economic activity of women, was discussed from several perspectives: the amount of reproductive lifetime available to women for productive pursuits other than childbearing; the introduction of social support programs and income-generating opportunities. In the discussion of demographic goals and policy alternatives, the 5th item on the agenda, the policy options considered were family planning programs, incentives and desincentives, social and economic development, and marriage and divorce laws. Particular attention was given to the importance of local institutional settings for the achievement of government policy goals. The Expert Group's recommendations on population policy, family planning, the conditions of women, adolescent fertility, IEC, management and training, international cooperation and areas of research (demographic data, determinants of fertility, operational research and bio-medical) are included in this introduction. Finally, presented in the form of annexes are the agenda for the meeting, the list of documents and the texts of the opening statements.
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  13. 13

    Statement of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc.

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America [PPFA]

    [Unpublished] 1984 Aug. Background note prepared for the International Conference on Population, held in Mexico City, August 6-13, 1984. 2 p.

    The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc. (PPFA), advocate of reproductive rights that safeguard health for every individual, is the largest national voluntary family planning agency in the US. It provides medical, educational, and counseling services to more than 3 million persons each year, and its international division has assisted over 3000 agencies in 100 countries. The Federation believes that no one should be coerced to practice family planning or to use any particular method of fertility regulation, nor should anyone be denied information and the means to determine family size. The Federation calls upon all governments to increase participation in and financial support for voluntary family planning programs and to recognize and encourage the conttributions of non-governmental voluntary organizations (NGOs).
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  14. 14

    Reflections on population.

    Salas RM

    New York, Pergamon, 1984. 240 p.

    This book, a sequel to "International Population Assistance: The First Decade," characterizes the work of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) with the developing countries up to 1984, relating these experiences to the issues before the 1984 International Conference on Population. The 1st chapter provides an overview of the significant developments in population up to the 1984 International Conference on Population. The next 7 chapters discuss the following main issues before the Conference and generally reflect the arrangement of the document to be brought before the Conference concerning recommendations for further implementation of the World Population Plan of Action: fertility, status of women and the family; morbidity and mortality; population distribution, internal and international migration; population growth and structure; promotion of knowledge and implementation of policies and programs; international cooperation and the role of UNFPA; and the year 2000 and beyond. Within each of these chapters, excerpts have been arranged in an analytic order, with the aim of facilitating the flow of arguments presented. Appendices contain the 5 "State of World Population Reports" issued from 1980-84 and 7 Rafael M. Salas statements which, primarily due to their focus on the population issues of particular importance to the major regions of the globe, are reproduced in their entirety. This volume reflects the process of population policymaking of the UNFPA with the developing countries in support of their population programs in the past 15 years. These policies were sanctioned and validated, both nationally by the countries themselves and globally by UN deliberative bodies and conferences. The experience of UNFPA in policy formulation indicates that an effective population policy must have its proper time perspective and must be scientifically determined in its component elements, normative and applicable at different levels, multisectoral in its emphasis, and measurable in its impact and consequenes.
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  15. 15

    Male involvement in family planning: report of an IPPF staff consultation.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, England, IPPF, 1984 Feb. 20 p.

    The promotion of "Male Responsibility for and Practice of Family Planning" was established as a federation-wide Action Area in the IPPF 1982-84 Plan in response to recongizing the need for positive male involvement in family planning programs. Specific identified goals for this action area include the development of programs to educate men about family planning, the need to motivate them to use contraception, and changing the attitudes of male opinion leaders. Implementing the plan and promoting effective male involvement programs are in progress. The Secratariat is undertaking activities to identify Federation and regional strategies and directions and to develop support activities. Program Committee discussion and examination of the issue with subsequent publications are examples of Secretariat involvements. An International Staff Consultation on Male Involvement was held at the IPPF International Office in 1983 to review progress in developing male programs in IPPF; to analyze issues and problems in IPPF programs with regard to men's needs; to examine strategies for increasing male involvement in family planning and to formulate guidelines for program development; and to develop short and longer-term action plans to strengthen male programs within the Federation. The Consultation maded valuable contribution by identifying specific historical, economica, socio-cultural, legal, policy and technological perspectives on male involvement in family planning, as well as providing background papers presented by each participant. Working groups identified and developed a "Strategy for Action of Male Involvement in Family Planning" for the IPPF on 3 strategic levels: policy-makers, service providers and the community. Additionally, Consultation members reviewed audio-visual materials to assess their effectiveness as comunication means. Participants endorsed the need for program review and "strategic planning" by the IPPF. The value in the consultation in examining male programs and in promoting the exchange of ideas within the Federation was affirmed by both the Secretariat and association reoresentativees.
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  16. 16

    New currents and emerging emphasis in research and policy.

    Page HJ

    In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. Fertility and family. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 107-23. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)

    The Expert Group Meeting on Fertility and Family was assinged the identification of those areas in current scientific knowledge and concerns regarding fertility and family that were of greatest salience for policy formulation and implementation. Particular attention was to be paid to shifts that had occurred since the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest. This article is mainly an overview of the work of the Group and is organized around 3 main themes: 1) advances in knowledge of fertility levels and trends; 2) advances in understanding the relations between development, fertility and the family; 3)theoretical advances and practical experience with regard to policy formulation and implementation. 1) Knowledge of existing patterns of fertility and their composition has increased markedly over the last decade as a result of more data, better estimation techniques for measuring fertility levels and of new approaches to studying the reporductive process and family formation (e.g., the development of analytical models that allow quantification of the role of the various proximate determinants of fertility). A far-reaching realization is that proximate determinants of fertility may respond to the same set of factors but their responses may exhibit different elasticities. 2) In the understanding the relations between development, fertility and family, 2 main areas of concern can be identified. He level and type of analyses to date, especially the empirical ones, have been carried out at the micro-level, focusing on the individual decision maker. Although such models are advances over earlier ones developed largely from classical demographic transition theory, yet, their use has not been entirely satisfying because of the common failure to adequately specify the concepts involved and/or to substitute for them broad socioeconomic indicators in empirical work. In addition, institutional supports for and interrelations with particular patterns of fertility and family have been neglected, resulting, theoretical and practical impoverishment. The 2nd area of concern is the identification of those dimensions of family structure and function that are most intimately interlocked with modernization and fertility change. The discussion focuses on the interplay between modernization, the relationship between the generations, and between the sexes. Finally, there is an increasing awareness that a number of aspirations regarding fertility and family may be contradictory with respect to general advances in policcy formulation and implementation. 4 important trends can be discerned: 1) assessment of the potential utility and effectiveness of policy and programmatic efforts; 2) trends in the definition of desirable goals; 3) new directions in terms of the institutiona means for achieving these goals; and 4) shifts in the perception of the individual's freedom of choice.
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  17. 17

    Interview: Prof. Kpedekpo on the Pathfinder Fund.

    Popleone. 1984 Jul; 1(1):4-8.

    A representative of the Sub Saharan Regional Office of the Pathfinder Fund describes the goals and activities of the organization. The Pathfinder Fund, founded in 1957, is a nonprofit, private, international organization which furnishes funds and technical assistance for innovative population programs and activities. It promotes the development of effective family planning programs and national population policies and seeks to upgrade the status of women. The 3 divisions of the organization reflect these concerns: 1) the Family Planning Division, 2) the Population Policy Division, and 3) the Women's Program Division. The organization also has an evaluation department wich reviews project performance and a connunications program department which reports on innovative projects, provides information on family planning methods and service management, and promotes communication between family planning professionals. Distincitve features of the organization are 1) a willingness to support unique and untried approaches to family planning, 2) flexibility and promptness in processing funding requests; and 3) an emphasis on providing family planning services which respect user needs and preserve user dignity. Its regional staff is comprised of professionals native to the regions. The staff actively encourages individuals, organizations, and governments to develop creative programs and seeks out individuals in each country to serve as leaders in the population field. Funding decisions take into account the project's possible impact, potential for replication and self-sufficiency, and relevancy in terms of community neefs and priorities. The Pathfinder Fund currently supports 300 projects in 50 developing countries, and in the fiscal year ending June 1983 it expended US$7.5 million of US Agency for International Development funds and US$800,000 contributed byt private donors. The Sub Saharan Regional Office was established in 1974. In Sierra Leone, the Fund previously provided support for training staff for the Planned Parenthood Association of Sierra Leone; it currently provides institutional support for the National Population Committee, and is considering funding an adolescent Women's center in Sierra Leone and in 2 other African countries. Pathfinder Fund recognizes the importance of disseminating population information. Existing policy relevant population information needs to be brought to the attention of the public and policymakers.
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  18. 18

    Family planning and health: an evaluation.

    Pomeroy R

    Planned Parenthood Review. 1984 Spring-Summer; 4(1):9-10.

    The Planned Parenthood Federation of America supports international family planning efforts through its affiliation with the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) and the activities of its own International Division, Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA). FPIA is founded on the beliefs that family planning is a basic human right; family planning programs benefit individuals, families, communities, and nations; and family planning along with other needed socieconomic programs can have a major impact on development. Careful timing, spacing, and limiting of births is directly and causally related to improved infant and maternal survival through readily observed and easily explained mechanisms. Mothers in developing countries are anywhere from 10 to 20 or 30 times as likely to die in childbirth as mothers in developed countries. Risks are greatest for mothers under 18 years old, over 30, for those having births within 2 years of a previous birth, and 4th or later deliveries. The differences occur for women at all levels of affluence and access to medical care in all societies, but are particularly sharp in developing countries. Among the poorest countries, 200 or more of every 1000 liveborn infants may die in their 1st year compared to fewer than 10/1000 live births in some wealthy egalitarian countries. The infant mortality rate is so closely related to the overall level of well-being in a country or region that it is regarded as 1 of the most revealing measures of how well a society is meeting the needs of its people. Many of the risk factors for maternal mortality also contribute to infant mortality. Infant mortality in developing countries drops appreciably when women practice family planning and reduce the number of high risk pregnancies. Throughout the developing world, the higher risk infants born to very young or older mothers, mothers with recent previous pregnancies, and mothers with 3 or 4 previous births are 3-10 times more likely to die in their 1st year. Too short birth intervals may threaten the life of the older child through early weaning and resulting increased susceptibility to malnutrition and infection. Careful planning of births through contraception can result in a population better able to contribute economically and less likely to strain the medical resources.
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  19. 19

    IPPF plan 1985-87. Adopted by the Member's Assembly, November 1983.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, IPPF, 1984 Feb. 26 p.

    This 3-year plan describes how the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) intends to pursue the common goals of its membership: guide and encourage program development at all levels; indicate IPPF international strategies which support the work of Family Planning Associations (FPAs); and provide a statement to the outside world of IPPF's contribution to family planning during the plan period. The Plan has 7 Action Areas which reflect IPPF's overall priorities: the role of the nongovernmental sector in family planning; promotion of family planning as a basic human right; coverage and quality of family planning services; meeting needs of young people; women's development; male involvement in family planning; and resource development. Within each Action Area, the discussion suggests national strategies by which FPAs can achieve their objectives, while international strategies identify activities through which volunteers and staff can carry out their roles at the international and regional level. Action Area 1 outlines measures to carry out IPPF's basic commitment to support the efforts of FPAs in their national environments and describes how IPPF intends to play its full part as an international federation of voluntary family planning organizations. Continued efforts are needed thoughout the Federation to increase understanding of the pioneering role of FPAs and IPPF in advancing family planning as part of overall development and social change. The objectives of Action Area 1 -- the role of the nongovernmental sector in family planning -- are to improve FPA program effectiveness, to strengthen the contribution of volunteers to planned parenthood; to broaden community participation in family planning; and to intensify understanding of the role of nongovernmental organizations in family planning. The objectives of Action Area II are to increase adherence to family planning as a basic human right, to overcome obstacles to the exercise of the human right to family planning, and to increase awareness of the interrelationship between people and development, resources, and the environment. Objectives of the remaining 5 Action Areas include: ensure greater availability and accessibility of family planning services; raise and maintain standards of family planning services and increase their acceptability; improve and expand the education components of family planning programs; improve and extend family life education and counseling activities for young people; improve and expand efforts at the community level to intergrate family planning with women's development; increase male contraceptive practice; and focus effort on meeting unmet need.
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  20. 20

    The human right to family planning. Report of the Working Group on the Promotion of Family Planning as a Basic Human Right to the Members' Assembly and the Central Council of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, November 1983.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Working Group on the Promotion of Family Planning as a Basic Human Right

    London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1984. 52 p.

    This report examines the problems involved in the exercise of the right to family planning; reviews the approaches taken towards overcoming these problems and promoting the right to family planning at local, national, and international levels, including the experience of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF); and makes recommendations to the 1983 meetings of the Central Council and the Members' Assembly on the action that should be taken by the IPPF and its members to enhance the commitment to family planning as a basic human right during 1982-84 Plan and beyond. The report's 5 sections discuss the following: the concept of the right to family planning (historical background and a conceptual elaboration); links between the right to family planning and other human rights (basic human rights and needs, advocacy for social development, and women's rights); access to fertility regulation information and services (full and voluntary choice of methods, rights of young people, financial accessibility of fertility regulation services, and the right to have children); incentives and disincentives to individuals and couples, incentives to providers of fertility regulation information and services, and research needs; and strategies for promoting family planning as a basic human right (ensuring that the individual has the knowledge of the right to fertility regulation and understands the options, generating societal support for family planning, ensuring ready access to the means ror fertility regulation, legal support for the right to family planning, and increasing political commitment to the right to family planning). The application of the term "the right to family planning" to many different elements of personal and social behavior as well as to policy making and program development has led to some confusion and potential conflict between rights and responsibilities. It is recommended that a clear distinction be made in the definition of the right to family planning to reflect 2 important components, namely, the right of everyone to have ready access to information, education, and services for fertility regulation; and the right of everyone to make decisions about reproductive behavior. Family planning organizations canachieve institutional credibility as caring organizations and assure program effectiveness by encouraging the recognition of the links between the right to family planning and the right to other social and economic improvements that are the essence of development.
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  21. 21

    A crucial new direction for international family planning.

    Hosken FP

    Humanist. 1984 Jan-Feb; 44(1):5-8, 45.

    Women's needs and human rights have been ignored in the ongoing political debates on family planning. It is the right of each woman to have access to contraceptives and to the essential and crucial information about reproduction and her own body's fertility and sexuality. The basic human right of every individual to choose, to decide freely, based on biological and factual information, whether or not to have children, continues to be denied to very large numbers of women. The vast majority of women in the developing world have no such options. Environmentalists and population planners continue to evade the issue, despite the price paid for this omission: the failure of many family planning programs. The correlation between "development" and population control was internationally discussed for the 1st time at the UN World Population conference in Bucharest, but not 1 word was said to show the far more convincing and clearly visible correlation between the educational status of women and declines in population growth rates. These facts continue to be ignored even today by most population experts and their funding sources, especially the US Agency for International Development (USAID). In countries where women as a group have access to education, both population growth rates and infant mortality noticeably decline. In the East and West African countries visited by this individual, it appears that family planning is making no progress. This is the case despite the fact that more and more money is spent in Africa by international family planning organizations. The primary reason why population growth is not soaring in many African countries is because infant mortality is so high, about 50% in many countries. The reason why family planning is failing in Africa is because every African man seeks to confirm his ego and his manhood by fathering as many children as possible. Male sexuality is totally out of control, not female sexuality as claimed by proponents of female circumcision and genital mutilation. There is no hope for change in settings where women are illiterate and the chattel of men. International family planning organizations, although spending millions on family planning in Africa, have entirely ignored the facts. Polygamy, as well as the failure of men to face their responsibilities for their children, are nowhere even mentioned by the international family planning establishment as reasons for the burgeoning population growth rates. Family planning programs in Africa are still almost totally directed toward women, while men--the real cause of the population growth rates--are never made to face the reality of their obligations. International family planning organizations have failed to make the information about reproduction accessible in easily comprehensive form. The "Universal Childbirth Picture Books" have been found to be easily adaptable to all environments and all cultures and explain the basic, biological facts that are shared by women everywhere.
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