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Report of the Regional Awareness Conference on Population and Development, Castries, Saint Lucia, 30 April - 1 May 1984.
[Unpublished] 1984. , 53,  p.The Population and Development Project of the Caribbean region aims to increase the awareness of regional leaders on population issues, explain the consequences of continued demographic trends upon socioeconomic development, present up-to-date medical protocols for family planning services to medical practitioners, and improve family planning service delivery in selected countries. Proceedings from a Regional Awareness Conference on Population and Development and presented. Opening remarks of the conference were made by the Minister of Health of Saint Lucia, the Secretary-General of the Caribbean Community, and representatives from the UNFPA and CARICOM. Chairmen for conference sessions were elected, an agenda adopted, and procedural matters settled. An abstract of the regional population policy paper is discussed, followed by consideration of the benefits of population programs for family planning and health, and presentation of the medical steering committee's work. National population task force reports are included for Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Monsterrat, St. Christopher-Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Anguilla, Bermuda, the British Virgin Islands, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos, and the Bahamas. Jamaica's experience in formulating and implementing its population policy follows, preceding presentations on migration and adolescent fertility. Concluding sections cover resources for the awareness of population impacts on development, a suggested draft model of national population policy, information on the development law and policy program, a panel discussion of population policy implications, and proposals and recommendations for a plan of action to implement population policy. A list of participants is included among the annexes.
WHO Programme in Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning. Report of the second meeting of the WHO Programme Advisory Committee in Maternal and Child Health, Geneva, 21-25 November 1983.
[Unpublished] 1984. 95 p. (MCH/84.5)The objectives of the 2nd meeting of the Program Advisory Committee (PAC) for the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Program in Maternal and Child Health, including Family Planning (MCH/FP) were to 1) assess the MCH/FP program's achievements since the 1st PAC meeting in June, 1982, 2) determine the level of scientific and financial resources available for the program, and 3) to examine the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the delivery of MCH/FP services. The committee reviewed the activities and targets of the program's 4 major areas (pregnancy and perinatal care, child health, growth, and development, adolescent health, and family planning and infertility), and developed a series of recommendations for each of these areas. Specific recommendations were also made for each of the major program areas in reference to the analysis and dessimination of information and to the development and use of appropriate health technologies. Upon reviewing the role of TBAs in the delivery of MCH/FP services, PAC recommended that all barriers to TBA utilization be removed and that training for TBAs should be improved and expanded. PAC's examination of financial support for MCH/FP activities revealed that for a sample of 26 countries, the average annual amount allocated to MCH activities was less than US$3/child or woman. This low level of funding must be taken into account when setting program targets. International funding agencies did indicate their willingness to increase funding levels for MCH programs. The appendices included 1) a list of participants, 2) an annotated agenda, 3) detailed information on the proposed activities of the program's headquarters for 1986-87, and 4) a description of the the function, organizational structure, and technical management of the MCH/FP program. Also included in the appendices was an overview of the current status of MCH and a series of tables providing information on infant, child, and maternal health indicators. Specifically, the tables provided information by region and by country on maternal, child, and infant mortality; causes of child deaths; maternal health care coverage; contraceptive prevalence; infant and child malnutrition; the number of low weight births; adolescent health; teenage births; breast feeding prevalence and duration; and the proportion of women and children in the population.
Health and health services in Judaea, Samaria and Gaza 1983-1984: a report by the Ministry of Health of Israel to the Thirty-Seventh world Health Assembly, Geneva, May 1984.
Jerusalem, Israel, Ministry of Health, 1984 Mar. 195 p.Health conditions and health services in Judea, Samaria, and Gaza during the 1967-83 period are discussed. Health-related activities and changes in the social and economic environment are assessed and their impact on health is evaluated. Specific activities performed during the current year are outlined. The following are specific facets of the health care system that are the focus of many current projects in these districts; the development of a comprehensive network of primary care programs and centers for preventive and curative services has been given high priority and is continuing; renovation and expansion of hospital facilities, along with improved staffing, equipment, and supplies for basic and specialty health services increase local capabilities for increasingly sophisticated health care, and consequently there is a decreasing need to send patients requiring specialized care to supraregional referral hospitals, except for highly specialized services; inadequacies in the preexisting reporting system have necessitated a continuting process of development for the gathering and publication of general and specific statistical and demographic data; stress has been placed on provision of safe drinking water, development of sewage and solid waste collection and disposal systems, as well as food control and other environmental sanitation activities; major progress has been made in the establishment of a funding system that elicits the participation and financial support of the health care consumer through volunary health insurance, covering large proportions of the population in the few years since its inception; the continuing building room in residential housing along with the continuous development of essential community sanitation infrastructure services are important factors in improved living and health conditions for the people; and the health system's growth must continue to be accompanied by planning, evaluation, and research atall levels. Specific topics covered include: demography and vital statistics; socioeconomic conditions; morbidity and mortality; hospital services; maternal and child health; nutrition; health education; expanded program immunization; environmental health; mental health; problems of special groups; health insurance; community and voluntary agency participation; international agencies; manpower and training; and planning and evaluation. Over the past 17 years, Judea, Samaria, and Gaza have been areas of rapid population growth and atthe same time of rapid socioeconomic development. In addition there have been basic changes in the social and health environment. As measured by socioeconomic indicators, much progress has been achieved for and by the people. As measured by health status evaluation indicators, the people benefit from an incresing quantity and quality of primary care and specialty services. The expansion of the public health infrastructure, combined with growing access to and utilization of personal preventive services, has been a key contributor to this process.
The role of food safety in health and development. Report of a Joint FAO-WHO Expert Committee on Food Safety.
World Health Organization Technical Report Series. 1984; (705):1-79.This document presents the recommendations of a Joint Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)-World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committe on Food Safety. Illness due to contaminated food is perhaps the most widespread health problem in the world and a major cause of reduced economic productivity. The safety of food is affected by food systems, sociocultural factors, food chain technology, ecologic factors, nturitional aspects, and epidemiology. It was the assumption of the Committee that, if food safety is given sufficient priority within national planning, countries can prevent and control foodborne disease, especially pathogen-induced diarrheal syndromes, and interrupt the vicious cycle of diarrhea-malnutrition-disease. Attainment of this objective requires a national commitment and the collaboration of all ministries and agencies concerned with health, agriculture, finance, planning, and commerce as well as the food industry, the biamedical and agricultural scientific community, and the consuming public. Prevention and control interventions should aim to avoid or minimize contamination, to destroy or denature the contaminant, and to prevent the further spread or multiplication of the contaminant. The Committee outlined a series of recommendations for achieving a worldwide reduction in the morbidity and mortality caused by foodborne hazards. Food safety should be considered an integral part of the primary health care delivery system. Food safety should also be regarded as an integral part of the total food system. National food control infrastructures should be strengthened, and regional, national, multinational, and international surveillance of foodborne diseases should be carried out. Each country should aim to develop at least 1 laboratory capable of identifying the etiologic agents of diarrhea and other foodborne diseases. Health workers should be trained to play a role in identifying and monitoring critical control points in food production and preparation. Health education, within the context of the cultural and social values of the community, should inform the public about food safety hazards and preventive measures. Finally, the hazard analysis critical control point approach to prevention is recommended.
World Health Statistics Quarterly. Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales. 1984; 37(2):130-61.This paper sets forth the number of malaria cases reported in 1973-82 to the World Health Organization (WHO) by region. Excluding Africa, the total number of cases rose from 3.9 million in 1973 to a high of 10.7 million in 1977 and declined to 6.5 million in 1982. It is noted, however, that reporting during this period was often deficient and uneven. The prevalence of malaria has remained relatively unchanged in Africa south of the Sahara, with the exception of urban centers where transmission has been considerably reduced. In the Americas, the number of cases reported has risen steadily since 1973. South East Asia experienced a dramatic increase in malaria cases in 1976, but intensive efforts haveresulted in a decline almost back to the 1973 level. About 28% of the world's population lives in areas where malaria never existed or disappered without specific antimalaria efforts. Another 18% lines in areas where the disease has been eliminated by improvements in health facilities, environmental changes, and specific antimalaria measures. 46%, or 2117 million people, live areas where the incidence of malaria has been reduced to varying degrees, ranging from a slight reduction of the original endemicity to the near elimination of the disease. A final 8%, or 365 million people, live in areas where no specific antimalaria measures are undertaken and the original levels of endemicity remain largely unchanged outside of certain urban centers. In addition to presenting data on malaria cases by world region, tables accompanying this article summarize malaria eradication registration, the importation of malaria cases into malaria-free countries, and the development of resistance to chloroquine.
Cooperation by UNICEF in the elimination of traditional practices affecting the health of women and children in Africa (Extract).
In: Report on a Seminar on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children in Africa, organized by the Senegal Ministry of Public Health and the NGO Working Group on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children. Dakar, Senegal, Ministry of Public Health and NGO Working Group on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women adn Children, 1984. 182-4.This contribution begins with a statement of praise for the efforts of the Senegal conference, complimenting the conference's recognition of positive and negative influencing practices. Positive practices should be encouraged with arguments and striking examples. Attention is drawn to UNICEF document PRO-71, the product of the 1980 Inter-Organization Consultation Meeting on Combating the Practice of Female Circumcision (FC), through the improvement of women's status, and the elimination of false ideologies such as those related to the necessity of FC for the preservation of female modesty, virginity, and chastity. Further attention is drawn to the efforts of a multi-disciplinary study group on FC set up in Ivory coast. Finally, the readiness of UNICEF to further female and child health development, and growth chart, oral rehydration, breastfeeding immunization, food supplementation, family spacing, and female education developments, are discussed.
In: Mortality and health policy. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Mortality and Health Policy, Rome, 30 May to 3 June 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 289-303. (International Conference on Population, 1984; ST/ESA/SER.A/91)The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) assistance program encompasses basic data collection, population dynamics, formulation of population policies, implementation of general policies, family planning activities, communication and education programs, and special programs and multisector activities. This paper focuses on UNFPA assistance in the area of mortality. The Fund does not provide support for activities related to the reduction of mortality per se; rather, it contributes indirectly to the improvement of infant, child, and maternal health through assistance to family planning programs integrated with maternal-child health care. The types of activities UNFPA supports in this area include prenatal, delivery, and postnatal care of mothers and infants; infant and child care; health and nutrition education; promotion of breastfeeding; monitoring of infant malnutrition; and diagnostic studies and treatment of infertility and subfecundity. The Fund has cumulatively expended about US$87.3 million for activities in the area of mortality and health policy. The Fund is currently providing collaborative assistance to the World Health Organization and the UN for a comprehensive project aimed at measuring mortality trends and examining the roles of socioeconomic development and selected interventions in the mortality decline in certain developing countries. At present there is a need for research on the persistence of high mortality in the least developed countries, the early levelling off of life expectancies in many countries, and the determinants of socioeconomic differentials in mortality. Understanding of the mortality situation in many developing countries has been hindered by a lack of descriptive data on mortality by socioeconomic, regional, and occupational status. The real challenge lies in the implementation of policies designed to reduce mortality; political, managerial, and cultural factors unique to each country, as well as pervasive poverty, make this a difficult process.
In: Mortality and health policy. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Mortality and Health Policy, Rome, 30 May to 3 June 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 270-88. (International Conference on Population, 1984; ST/ESA/SER.A/91)This paper reviews the technical cooperation efforts undertaken by the United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development (DTCD) to help combat the high mortality levels in developing countries and to evolve policies in response to the World Population Plan of Action. Although the transfer of medical technology and the provision of drugs and other medical supplies remain important means of controlling death and disease, there is growing recognition of the need to develop national skills to deal with mortality, to maintain a continuous record of mortality and morbidity levels and their response to ameliorative programs, and to analyze the interrelationships between demographic, health, and socioeconomic variables. DTCD has focused on data collection and analysis, the integration of research findings into population policy formulation, and training and skill development to facilitate self-reliance. However, the lack of regular mechanisms for coordinating the activities of the various United Nations agencies that play a role in in technical cooperation in the areas of mortality and health policy has been a serious limitation. Another problem has been the dearth of tested alternative techniques for conducting simple health surveys whose results could be used in planning. Closer cooperation between United Nations agencies in this field is urged. It is also important that the recent reassignment of a low priority to data collection and analysis on the part of the United Nations Development Program be reversed. Unless data collection, analysis, and evaluation are reassigned a high priority, planners will be forced to depend on subjective judgments to evolve mortality policies. Finally, technical cooperation activities that aim to integrate mortality and morbidity control into population policies must be responsive to human rights.
Mortality and health policy: highlights of the issues in the context of the World Population Plan of Action.
In: Mortality and health policy. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Mortality and Health Policy, Rome, 30 May to 3 June 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 37-79. (International Conference on Population, 1984.; ST/ESA/SER.A/91)This paper reviews the major issues that have emerged in the analysis of mortality and health policy since the 1974 World Population Conference. The 1st part summarizes current mortality conditions in the major world regions and evaluates progress toward achieving the goals of the World Population Plan of Action. It is noted that the current mortality situation is characterized by continued wide disparities between the more developed and less developed regions, especially during the 1st year of life. The 2nd part focuses on the synergistic relationship between health and development, including social, economic, and health inequalities. It is asserted that mortality rates in developing countries are a function of the balance governments select between development strategies favoring capital accumulation and concentrated investments on the 1 hand and strategies oriented toward meeting basic needs and reducing inequalities in income and wealth. Data from developed countries suggest that economic development does not necessarily lead to steady gains in life expectancy. Some variations in mortality may reflect changes in family relationships, especially women's status, that are induced by social and economic development, however. The 3rd part of this paper analyzes the effect of health policies on mortality, including curative and preventive programs and primary health care. The lack of community participation is cited as a key factor in the weak performance of primary health care in many developing countries. In addition, there is strong evidence that the concepts and technologies of modern medicine must be adapted to existing systems of disease prevention and care to gain acceptability. The 4th section, on the implementation of health policies, discusses health care management, planning, and financing. It is noted that successful implementation of health policies is often hindered by scarcity, inadequate allocation, and inefficient utilization of health resources. Finally, more effective means to cope with rising costs of health care are needed.
In: The Graduate Education of Foreign Physicians in Public Health and Preventive Medicine. The Role of United States Teaching Institutions, edited by Wendy W. Steele and Sally F. Oesterling. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates, . 29-31.This presentation focuses on the changing role of US schools of public health over the past 60 years and covers predictions and trends of future changes. Foreign physician graduates of US schools of public health were not only responsible for founding the WHO, but have also served in positions such as director-general of WHO. Since World War II there has been an increase in foreign students trained in US schools of public health. Between 1965 and 1981 the number of foreign students increased from approximately 250 to about 700/year, and by 1983 the foreign student enrollment in US schools of public health had reached almost 1200. Most of the increase comes from heavily populated countries in Asia and in Africa. India was the country of origin for an average of 24 public health students in the US during 1967-68, but this number declined to 16 by 1977-78 and 1981. Nigeria significantly increased the number of trainees sent to the US from 5 students in 1967-68 to 54 in 1981. Although the total enrollment of foreign students has more than tripled since the 1960s, the % of foreign students in US schools of public health has dropped from over 20% in the early 1960s to about 13% in 1983. A review of all Johns Hopkins medical graduates shows that 75% of over 700 foreign medical graduate students live in their countries of origin, and only 14% live in the US. In general, the number of students from each country reflects that country's need. Assuming adequate levels of financing, US schools of public health should assist in the development of a sufficient number of schools of public health in their countries to meet those countries' needs for public health professionals.
In: The Graduate Education of Foreign Physicians in Public Health and Preventive Medicine. The Role of United States Teaching Institutions, edited by Wendy W. Steele and Sally F. Oesterling. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates, . 26-28.The School of Public Health at Loma Linda University in California was founded in 1967, and as of December 1983 had graduated a total of 1764 students, 187 of whom were physicians. 28 countries and 45 foreign schools were represented in this enrollment. The experience at Loma Linda University is different from many others in that there has been little government sponsorship of foreign medical graduates. Of 89 foreign medical graduates, only 17 were sponsored by the US Agency for International Development or the WHO, and all 17 returned to their home countries where they are making significant contributions in Tanzania, Kenya, Thailand and Indonesia. In 1970, the Loma Linda University School of Public Health developed an evening program in which most of the course work was taught in Los Angeles 1 evening per week over a 2-year period. 10 health officers and a few others completed that program. Their success stimulated extending the program. In 1973 an experimental program teaching a general Master of Public Health (MPH) course to Canadians was initiated. In 1980, Loma Linda University also launched an extended program in the Central American-Caribbean area. In the context of a general program in public health and preventive medicine leading to a Master of Public Health Degree, the curriculum in international health seeks to prepare health workers who will be: trainers of trainers; cross-cultural communicators; managers and supervisors of primary health care services; and practitioners of the integrated approach to community development. Graduates are prepared to deal with sociocultural, environmental and economic barriers. Students not having a professional background in health are required to add an area of concentration to degree requirements. Areas of concentration include: tropical agriculture, environmental health, health administration, health promotion, maternal and child health, nutrition and quantitative methods/health planning. The goal of the International Health Department is to help people help themselves to better health. Loma Linda University has also been involved with schools in Asia, Africa, Latin America and recently in the Philippines. The preventive medicine residency program at Loma Linda is for the 2nd and 3rd years only at the present.
In: The Graduate Education of Foreign Physicians in Public Health and Preventive Medicine. The Role of United States Teaching Institutions, edited by Wendy W. Steele and Sally F. Oesterling. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates, . 15-8.At a time when there is a growing interdependency among nations with regard to trade, resources and security, there is an increasing provincialism in the US. In such a climate it is difficult to generate support for international programs. Involvement on the part of medical schools has waned almost to the point of nonparticipation in international medical affairs, largely because of constraints on training and residency programs. Academic health centers have not been supported as a matter of policy. Leadership in international health in other parts of the world, diminished involvement in international health, current priorities and programs and a future prospectus are discussed. The WHO seems an unlikely source for necessary leadership in helping define future directions for education or new strategies in preventive medicine and public health in the developing world. Institutions in Europe have deteriorated and participation and leadership from them are unlikely. Few people today are interested in clinical tropical medicine. Another reason for waning academic activity in international health relates to the paucity of interest on the part of foundations. An important initiative was the development about 5 or 6 years ago of the WHO Tropical Disease Research Program. It now has a budget of about US $25 million and has attracted additional money from the US and from other countries. A gamut of prospects has resulted including a maria vaccine, a leprosy vaccine, a new drug for malaria. In the developing countries, there is a much larger base of basic competence than existed only 10 or 20 years ago, but these health workers need support if health goals are to be attained. Schools of public health should be as much professional schools as schools of medicine, and the practice of public health should be engaged in. The US Centers for Disease Control (CDC), in its global Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) program in Thailand and in Indonesia has pioneered admirable new approaches in practical training. Provision must be made for sufficient faculty to permit both professional practice and education in any school that offers public health education. The US has a vital and unique role to play in public health and preventive medicine.
In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 359-81. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)This discussion focuses on the prospective impact of population growth, within the context of global constraints on resources and the environment, on certain basic conditions of socioeconomic development, i.e., food, education, health, housing, and income distribution. A table presents a basic summary of world demographic conditions as of 1980. About 3/4 of the world population of 4.4 billion is in the less developed countries. The population of these countries grows at an annual rate of about 3 1/2 times that of the more developed countries. Compared to the latter, the LDCs' birthrate is more than double, and its total fertility rate is nearly 2 1/2 times as large. The problem of hunger and undernutrition is serious, and continued population growth only makes the task of dealing with it more difficult over time. According to the US Presidential Commission on World Hunger (1980), 1 out of every 8 persons in the world is malnourished, and the number is rising. Poverty is the root cause of undernutrition. The rate of growth of food production has been slightly above that of population. The influence of population growth on food demand has been far greater than that of income growth. New sources of growth in food supply do not portend to be as readily available as before. In some ways current demographic trends will tend to improve the education, health, and housing (EHH) capital. Parents will be able to afford schooling for their children more easily because of later marriages, wider spacing of children, and fewer children. Lower fertility will make for fewer health risks particularly to mothers and infants. The problem of providing basic services for a rapidly growing population could be made more manageable by concentrating more on the human than on the material linkages between inputs and outputs, between the capital formers and the formed home capital. Population growth helps to perpetuate poverty by restraining the growth of wages. There has been a widening gap in per capita income between the richest and the poorest countries and between the middle income and the poorest. The burden of population growth is lessened through any means that raises factor productivity. 1 means would be the removal of conventions restricting the use of any factor below full capacity.
Who Chronicle. 1984; 38(6):249-55.This article highlights the central features of the 5-Year Regional Plan of Action on Women in Health and Development, adopted by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in 1981. Although the Plan does not mandate specific actions, it encourages certain activities and establishes an annual reporting system concerning these activities. The Plan recognizes that women's health depends upon numerous factors outside of medicine, including women's employment, education, social status, and accepted roles, access to economic resources, and political power. The low status of women is reinforced by the sexual double standard that makes women responsible for the reproductive process yet denies them the right to control that process. The Plan advocates an incremental approach, in which projects 1st focus on priority areas and groups and then expand to provide more general benefits. Programs exclusively for women are not advocated; encouraged, instead, is the integration of women's health and development activities into the mainstream of general activities promoting health. Among the areas targeted for action are the collection of statistics on women's health, women's nutritional problems, environmental health, maternal-child health services, screening for breast and cervical cancer, and family planning . Community participation is proposed as a good vehicle for local action and an essential tool in the campaign for health for all. Efforts must be made to enlist women's support in identifying community needs, planning health actions, selecting appropriate resources and personnel, establishing and administering health services, and evaluating the results. Overall, the Plan provides a solid basis upon which health authorities of the Americas can build.
[Mortality and health policies in the international context: the main developments over the last 10 years] Mortalidad y politicas de salud en el ambito internacional: principales acciones en los ultimos diez anos
Comercio Exterior. 1984 Jul; 34(7):612-7.A review of global trends in morbidity and mortality since the World Population Conference held in Bucharest in 1974 is presented. Consideration is given to the goals outlined in the World Population Plan of Action and the extent to which they have been realized. The author also examines the extent to which social and health policies can affect mortality. (ANNOTATION)
Idrc Reports. 1984 Oct; 13(3):18-9.Every 6 seconds someone contracts a sexually transmitted disease (STD), according to Dr. Richard Morisset, chairperson of the International Conjoint STD Meeting held in June 1984 in Canada. Under the patronage of the World Health Organization (WHO), this meeting brought together 1000 specialists from more than 50 countries. Several workshops dealt with STDs in the 3rd world. The workshops revealed an urgent need for drug therapies and assistance for women and children in developing countries because these groups are most affected. A resolution to this effect had been adopted during the annual meeting of the general assembly of the International Union Against Veneral Diseases and Treponematoses (VDTI). WHO was asked to take aggressive action in this area of health. The VDTI resolution also mentioned the fatal cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the connection between cancer and venereal diseases, and the increases in the rates of mortality, infertility, and neonatal infections resulting from chlamydia, a bacterial infection. The need to form a common front in order to review and improve diagnostic methods and various treatments was also emphasized. Dr. King Holmes, an STD researcher at the University of Washington, claimed that "even though a reduction in the number of cases of STDs is possible in the long run, the immediate future is rather bleak." Efforts of the medical world should focus primarily on chlamydis, according to Holmes. This disease is similar to gonnorrhea but is now believed to be much more widespread. Currently, it is estimated that more than 500 million people throughout the world are afflicted. The resulting infections are said to be responsible for a significant proportion of cases of pelvin inflammatory disease and of ectopic pregnancies. US show that when the disease goes undiagnosed in pregnant women, their newborns risk contracting conjunctivitis (50% chance) and penumonia (20% chance). The longterm effects of chlamydia on newborns are unknown. Women and children suffer the most serious complications for STDs. Half of all infertility in women is caused by such diseases. Cervical cancer is the result of an STD. Dr. Willard Cates from the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta appealed to governments, WHO, and other international organizations to concentrate their efforts on pregnant women, if prevention and treatment programs for the entire population were not feasible at present. Research in progress in the US and France has identified the virus that causes AIDS, but neither group of researchers believe that the production of vaccine is imminent. 1 conclusion of the Canada conference was that without a profound change in attitude, scientists will be unable to stamp out the epidemic of STDs.
Who Chronicle. 1984; 38(3):109-15.The theme of the 1984 World Health Day--children's health, tomorrow's wealth--provides an occasion to convey to a worldwide audience the message that children are a priceless resource, and that any nation which neglects them does so at its peril. World Health Day 1984 spotlights the basic truth that the healthy minds and bodies of the world's children must be safeguard, not only as a key factor in attaining health for all by 2000, but also as a major part of each nation's health in the 21st century. An investment in child health is a direct entry point to improved social development, productivity, and quality of life. Care of child health starts before conception, through postponement of the 1st pregnancy until the mother herself has reached full physical maturity, and through spacing of births. It continues from conception on, through suitable care during pregnancy, childbirth, and childhood. In the developing countries the child must be protected by all available means, particularly from the killer diseases. What happens in the immediate family and community around the mother and child, and even far away in the world, can have a direct impact on the health and security of both of them. The mother and child need to be placed in an environment that will ensure their health by protecting the overall setting in which they live. This means providing clean water, disposing of waste, and helping to improve shelter. Nothing can diminish the importance of good food, enough food, and proper nutrition for children and their mothers. Beyond the immediate physical needs are the equally important needs for love and understanding which stimulate the healthy development of the child. The emergence of new health problems of mothers and children in developing and developed countries should be kept in mind. Better health services must be made available to all who need them. The World Health Organization (WHO) provided resource material on World Health Day issues for dissemination throughout the world. Extracts from 4 articles on this year's theme are reproduced. The articles report on the success of the Rural Health Center in Ballabhgarh (India) in reducing maternal and infant mortality, the value of breastfeeding as 1 of the simplest and safest ways of ensuring adequate spacing of births, Tunisia's integration of a program of immunization into the routine activities of the health care system, and the needs of the healthy child.
New York, United Nations, 1984. 108 p. (Population Studies, No. 85; ST/ESA/SER.A/85)The 3 parts of this report on world, regional, and international developments in the field of population, present a summary of levels, trends, and prospects in mortality, fertility, nuptiality, international migration, population growth, age structure, and urbanization; consider some important issues in the interrelationships between economic, social, and demographic variables, with special emphasis on the problems of food supply and employment; and deal with the policies and perceptions of governments on population matters. The 1st part of the report is based primarily on data compiled by the UN Population Division. The 2nd part is based on information provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and the International Labor Organization (ILO), as well as that compiled by the Population Division. The final part is based on information in the policy data bank maintained by the Population Division, including responses to the UN Fourth Population Inquiry among Governments. In 1975-80 the expectation of life at birth for the world was estimated at 57.2 years for both sexes combined. The corresponding figure for the developed and developing regions was 71.9 and 54.7 years, respectively. In 1975-80 the birthrate of the world was estimated at 28.9/1000 population and the gross reproduction rate was 1.91. These figures reflect considerable decline from the levels attained 25 years earlier: a crude birthrate of 38/1000 population and a gross reproduction rate of 2.44. World population grew from 2504 million in 1950 to 4453 million in 1983. Of the additional 1949 million people, 1645 million, or 84%, accrued to the less developed countries. The impact of population growth on economic development and social progress is not well understood. The governments of some developing countries still officially welcome a rapid rate of population growth. Many other governments see cause for concern in the need for the large increases in social expenditure, particularly for health and education, that accompany a young and growing population. Planners are concerned that the rapidly growing supply of labor, compounded by a trend toward rapid urbanization, may exceed that which the job market is likely to absorb. In the developed regions the prospect of a declining, or an aging, population is also cause for apprehension. There is a dearth of knowledge as to the impact of policies for altering the consequences of these trends. Many policies have been tried, in both developed and developing countries, to influence population growth and distribution, but the consequences of such policies have been difficult to assess. Frequently this problem arises because their primary objectives are not demographic in character.
[Unpublished] 1984 Aug. Presented at the International Conference on Population, Mexico City, August 6-13, 1984. 8 p.The Philippines government has for 14 years pursued a policy of fertility reduction based on non-coercive community-based family planning programs. The country has programs to develop agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and minerals, its rural areas being given top priority. The population growth rate is expected to drop from the 2.8% rate of 1970-75 to 2.2% in 1987, with replacement-level fertility by the year 2000.. Life expectancy and infant mortality figures are also improving. Women have traditionally enjoyed high status in the Philippines, but further access to educational and employment opportunities is being advocated. A cooperative venture among Southeast Asian nations has formulated and implemented 19 projects to meet the challenge of rapid population growth. Gratitude is expressed for the help of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), along with a plea to conference participants to strengthen that organziation as well as the activities of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), of which there are 138 in the Philippines.
Global distribution of schistosomiasis: CEGET/WHO Atlas. Distribution Mondiale de la schistosomiase: Atlas CEGET/OMS.
World Health Statistics Quarterly. Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales. 1984; 37(2):186-99.Schistosomiasis, the most prevalent of the water-borne diseases, is endemic in 74 tropical developing countries and infects over 200 million persons in rural and agricultural areas. However, recent advances in diagnostic techniques, new antischistosomal drugs, and accumulated understanding of the epidemiology of the infection offer improved prospects for schistosomiasis control. Morever, adaptation of quantotative parasitologic techniques for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis will make more data available for use in national control programs. The World Health Organization (WHO) has been instrumental in providing reliable reference material on the geographic distribution of schistosomiasis and, on the basis of a survey of Member States, collaborated with Centre d'etudes de geographic tropicale (CEGET), in the development of an Atlas. This volume consists of topographic relief maps that identify the presence of absence of schistosomiasis by village or locality. There are wide variations in the prevalence, intensity of infection, ans species of parasite according to ecologic differences, snail intermediate hosts, and occupational and cultural norms. The Atlas also highlights the relationship of water resource development projects to schistosomiasis endemicity. Attention to such data may lead to the selection of project areas known not to be endemic. More sophisticated geographic analyses based on land form, soil and geologic characteristics, ground water level, and agricultural land use have been used predictively in Japan. The Atlas is expected to serve as a reference point to evaluate the global progress in schistosomiasis control.
New York, UNICEF, 1984 May. 280 p.The data in this set of 135 country profiles for 1981 are made up from 9 major sources and cover the countries and territories with which the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) cooperates. In terms of infant morttality, countries are divided into 5 infant mortality groups: a very high infant mortality (a) group of countries, with a 1981 infant mortality rate (IMR) estimate of 150 (rounded) or more deaths per 1000 live births; a very high infant mortality (b) group of countries with a 1981 IMR estimate between 110 (rounded) and 140 (rounded); a high infant mortality group of a middle infant mortality group of countries, with a 1981 IMR estimate of between 26 and 50 (rounded); and a low infnat mortality group of countries, with a 1981 IMR estimate of 25 or less. For each country data are also presented on nutrition, demographic, education, and economic indicators.
in Touch. in Touch 1984 Mar-Apr; 8(66):8-9, 13.Each year the World Health Organization (WHO) promotes a slogan to highlight a problem in need of attention. This year's slogan is "Children's Health-Tomorrow's Wealth." To get a healthy citizen, the nation must take care of its infants and children over a very long period. at the outset the mother must be healthy and not suffering from any chronic disease. She must not have intestinal parasites which adversely affect her nutrition. After birth up to 3 years the baby grows rapidly, requiring effective breastfeeding, supplementary feeding, prevention of disease, treatment, sunlight, fresh air, environmental sanitation, and so forth. From the 3rd to the 10th year the growth is slow. The 3rd growth spurt is from the 10th to 15th year. After this age the growth slows down. Any disease may affect the natural growth of the baby. The health of children can be assured if environmental sanitation, safe drinking water, medical care, education, housing, and so forth can be ensured for the mother, her family, her children. Bangladesh differs from other countries in many aspects. In Bangladesh the major problems are poor environmental sanitation, intestinal parasite disease, diarrheal diseases, scarcity of safe drinking water, poor preventive care, and a lack of health education. Depending on the country's gross national product with appropriate WHO assistance, it is possible to improve the condition. The government cannot take on the responsibility alone. It must share the responsibility with the people. Prevention of diseases by vaccianation is a simple and relatively cheap technique, but it requires good organization to ensure that enough children are protected and that the vaccine used is effective. The full responsibility for dealing with mother and child health does not rest with the families alone. The efforts of families must be aided by the provision of adequate health care that is available on all levels.
Report of the Second African Population Conference: organized in co-operation with the United Nations Fund for Population Activities and the government of the United Republic of Tanzania (Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania, 9-13 January 1984)
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa [ECA], 1984. 20, ; 158, 29 p. (no. ST/ECA/POP/1)This two-volume work contains the proceedings of the Second African Population Conference, held in Arusha, Tanzania, in January 1984. Vol. 1 includes summaries of the inaugural address and of the discussions at earlier meetings, a summary of the country statements submitted, and the text of the Kilimanjaro Programme of Action for African Population and Self-Reliant Development. Vol. 2 includes papers on the demographic situation in Africa and future population trends; the relationship between population and development; spatial distribution; family health, welfare, and family planning; the role of women in development; UNFPA assistance programs in Africa; and priorities in population programs in Africa.
BMJ. British Medical Journal. 1984 May 26; 288(6430):1611-2.In response to an article on disease among children in the Third World, the author of this letter outlines the efforts of the World Health Organization (WHO) to both alleviate disease in delveloping countries and promote an approach to health suited to current realities in these countries. WHO has become increasingly aware that the diseases affecting the Third World can be eradicated only through a broad, integrated approach that places health in the wider context of social and economic development. WHO has adopted a primary health care strategy to tackle the control of tropical diseases and the reduction of mortality and morbidity among Third World children. Central to this approach is the use of appropriate health technology and the participation of families and communities in the health services. A primary health care orientation further addresses theproblem of how Third World countries can best allocate scarce health resources. In its specific action programs such as control of diarrheal diseases and immunization, WHO aims to help countries and communities to improve their own health. It is the application of existing knowledge thatis needed in the Third World, not new knowledge or technology.
International Conference on Population, 1984. Mortality and health policy. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Mortality and Health Policy, Rome, 30 May to 3 June 1983
New York, N.Y, United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, 1984. vi, 320 p. (no. ST/ESA/SER.A/91)These are the proceedings of the Expert Group on Mortality and Health Policy convened in preparation for the International Conference on Population, held in Mexico City in August 1984. The aim of the expert group was to examine critical, high-priority population issues and to make recommendations for revisions to the World Population Plan of Action. The present publication contains a report of the discussions and a list of recommendations concerning mortality and health goals, health and development, social policies and programs, mortality and reproductive behavior, data collection and research, and technical cooperation. The report also includes a selection of background papers. These papers deal with mortality and health policy in the context of the World Population Plan of Action and of policies and programs affecting mortality and health, the costs of developing a child survival package in developing countries, financial analysis to assess the viability of health programs, technical cooperation in mortality and health policy, and United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) assistance in this area.