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  1. 1


    International Planned Parenthood Federation

    London, England, IPPF, 1984. 3 p. (IPPF Fact Sheet)

    Long term problems of population growth in China are indicated by the fact that 65% of the 1,024,950,000 1983 population is under 30 years of age; 50% is under 21. Although family planning was started in the 1950s, it was neglected during the 1960s Cultural Revolution, and did not become a national program until 1971. The one child per family policy, proposed in 1978, has since become the basis for government regulations which are strictly enforced. Family planning messages are conveyed through every possible type of media, and services are made available to the entire population. Various economic incentives and disincentives such as, monthly health care subsidies granted to couples who have only one child until he reaches the age of 14, grain allocations for an only child, and larger private plots, are used to help reward those who obey the family planning policy. All contraceptives are available free of charge: at the end of 1983, 69.5% of fertile couples were using some form of modern contraceptive method. The China Family Planning Association was formed in 1980 with the objective of assisting the government program by motivating people to accept family planning. The Association's 3 year plan for 1985-1987 is: 1) to strengthen family planning publicity; 2) to increase the management and professional skills of the personnel; 3) to strengthen the Association's organization at central and branch level; and 4) to participate in international conferences and other activities.
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  2. 2

    [National Conference on Fertility and Family, Oaxaca de Juarez, Oaxaca, April 13, 1984] Reunion Nacional sobre Fecundidad y Familia, Oaxaca de Juarez, Oax., a 13 de abril de 1984.

    Mexico. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion [CONAPO]

    Mexico City, Mexico, CONAPO, 1984. 228 p.

    Proceedings of a national conferences on the family and fertility held in April 1984 as part of Mexico's preparation for the August 1984 World Population Conference are presented. 2 opening addresses outline the background and objectives of the conference, while the 1st paper details recommendations of a 1983 meeting on fertility and the family held in New Delhi. The main body of the report presents 2 conference papers and commentary. The 1st paper, on fertility, contraception, and family planning, discusses fertility policies; levels and trends of fertility in Mexico from 1900 to 1970 and since 1970; socioeconomic and geographic fertility differentials; the relationship of mortality and fertility; contraception and the role of intermediate variables; the history and achievements of family planning activities of the private and public sectors in Mexico; and the relationship between contraception, fertility, and family planning. The 2nd paper, on the family as a sociodemographic unit and subject of population policies, discusses the World Population Plan of Action and current sociodemographic policies in Mexico; the family as a sociodemographic unit, including the implications of formal demography for the study of family phenomena, the dynamic sociodemographic composition of the family unit, and the family as a mediating unit for internal and external social actions; and steps in development of a possible population policy in which families would be considered an active part, including ideologic views of the family as a passive object of policy and possible mobilization strategies for families in population policies. The conference as a whole concluded by reaffirming the guiding principles of Mexico's population policy, including the right of couples to decide the number and spacing of their children, the fundamental objective of the population policy of elevating the socioeconomic and cultural level of the population, the view of population policy as an essential element of development policy, and the right of women to full participation. Greater efforts were believed to be necessary in such priority areas as integration of family planning programs with development planning and population policy, creation of methodologies for the analysis of families in their social contexts, development and application of contraceptive methodologies, promotion of male participation in family planning, coordination of federal and state family planning programs, and creation of sociodemographic information systems to ensure availability of more complete date on families in specific population sectors. The principles of the World Population Plan of Action were also reaffirmed.
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  3. 3

    The 1984 International Conference on Population: what will be the issues?

    Willson PD

    International Family Planning Perspectives. 1984 Jun; 10(2):43-8.

    In Mexico City from August 6-13, 1984, the UN will sponsor the International Conference on Population (ICP), 10 years after the UN's 1st worldwide governmental population conference on population. The ICP will reaffirm the World Population Plan of Action, assess the progress made in its implemention, and set priorities for the future. Issues to be discussed at the conference include 1) very slowly declining population growth rates, 2) a still increasing world population size, 3) strategies to meet the unmet need for family planning services, 4) intergrating population into development planning, 5) whether the ICP should set specific targets, and 6) whether other important issues not related to population, such as apartheid or disarmament, will be discussed. The 1974 Bucharest conference developed and approved the World Population Plan of Action, which placed population planning squarely in the development context, and endorsed family planning as a human right, but did not set targets for fertility decline. Perhaps most importantly, the Bucharest conference marked the end of the international political debate over whether governments should support family planning. The ICP, which has been more strongly supported by developing than developed countries, is charged with 1) reinforcing the momentum of population activities, 2) identifying emerging problems, and 3) initiating programs where none have yet had substantial impact. The Preparatory Committe for the ICP drafted 83 recommendations covering the relationship between population and development, and policies on morbidity and mortality, fertility, migration, aging, and the roles of governments and international organizations. The recommendations emphasize the urgency of the need to support family planning as well as mention family life and sex education, natural family planning, breast feeding, and male involvement in family planning for the 1st time. In addition, the recommendations support strong service goals, the integration of women in development, and increased funding for population activities.
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  4. 4

    The measurement of family planning program effort: who wears the rose-colored glasses?

    Lapham RJ; Mauldin WP

    [Unpublished] 1984. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association [APHA], Anaheim, California, November 11-15, 1984. 43 p.

    This study analyzes infromation from 3 types of population specialists on how much effort is being applied in family planning programs in developing nations. In short, what and how well are these programs doing? As part of a study of the conditions of fertility decline in 1965-80, new data on family planning program efforts were collected in 1983 and early 1984 from some 425 population specialists around the world. They include 3 types: (1) country officials and senior staff working in public or private family planning programs; (2) staff in donor agencies such as the World Bank, AID, and UNFPA; (3) other observers, including researchers. The study analyzes the extent to which these 3 types differ on total program effort scores, and on 4 broad components of program effort: (a) policies; (b) services and service-related activities; (c) record-keeping and evaluation; (d) availability and accessibility of fertility-control supplies and services. Score differences on selected program items such as training programs and supervision are also examined. The analysis shows that country officials and public program staff believe that services and service-related activities are in better shape than do observers in the other 2 categories. The policy implications of this and other findings are discussed. (author's)
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  5. 5

    China: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 May. xii, 156 p. (Report No. 67)

    A Needs Assessment and Program Development Mission visited the People's Republic of China from March 7 to April 16, 1983 to: review and analyze the country's population situation within the context of national population goals as well as population related development objectives, strategies, and programs; make recommendations on the future orientation and scope of national objectives and programs for strengthening or establishing new objectives, strategies, and programs; and make recommendations on program areas in need of external assistance within the framework of the recommended national population program and for geographical areas. This report summarizes the needs and recommendations in regard to: population policies and policy-related research; demographic research and training; basic population data collection and analysis; maternal and child health and family planning services; management training support for family planning services; logistics of contraceptive supply; management information system; family planning communication and education; family planning program research and evaluation; contraceptive production; research in human reproduction and contraceptives; population education and dissemination of population information; and special groups and multisectoral activities. The report also presents information on the national setting (geographical and cultural features, government and administration, the economy, and the evolution of socioeconomic development planning) and demographic features (population size, characteristics, and distribution, nationwide and demographic characteristics in geographical core areas). Based on its assessment of needs, the Mission identified mjaor priorities for assistance in the population field. Because of China's size and vast needs, external assistance for population programs would be diluted if provided to all provincial and lower administrative levels. Thus, the Mission suggests that a substantial portion of available resources be concentrated in 3 provinces as core areas: Sichuan, the most populous province (100,220,000 people by the end of 1982); Guandong, the province with the highest birthrate (25/1000); and Jiangsu, the most densely populated province (608 persons/square kilometer. In all the government has identified 11 provinces needing special attention in the next few years: Anhui, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jilin, Shaanxi and Shandong, in addition to Guangdong, Jiangsu, and Sichuan.
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  6. 6

    The International Parliamentary Assembly on Population and Development held in Mexico City.

    Xing W

    China Population Newsletter. 1984 Aug; 1(3):14-16.

    The International Parliamentary Assmebly on Population and Development took place on August 15-16, 1984, with the participation of more than 300 parliamentarians from 60 countries. The aim was to promote an exchange of views on population programs and policies among parliamentarians, and to support the recommendations adopted by the UN International Conference on Population. The assembly held discussion in 3 subcommittees on the subjects of 1) policies of population and development; 2) the legal and social status of women; and 3) the improvement of family planning service. On population policy, parliamentarians generally agreed that policy formulation is the prerogative of each sovereign country, stressing that such policies and programs should be integrated with social and economic development. The developing countries stronly demanded that a new international economic order be established and international aid increased to help them in solving the popultion problem. Concerning the status of women, the assembly unanimously agreed that both men and women should not only be legally equal, but should also have de facto equality for employment, education and social life. Attention should be given particularly to the rights and status of rural women. Examples of how the status of Chinese women has improved were offered by Chinese representative and were appreciated by the assembly. On improving family planning services, participants urged provision of information about birth control to people of marriageable age and of access to contraceptives to eligible couples; moreover, they advocated the strengthening of medical care for women and children and the lowering of infant and maternal mortality rates. Dr. Qian Xinzhong described the priorities and goals of family planning programs in China. Finally, the assembly unanimously adopted the "Action Plan," whose contents embody independence, respect for national sovereignty, and the spirit of cooperation and conformity to the interest of the international community, particularly the developing nations.
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  7. 7

    Speech at the UN International Conference on Population, Mexico City, August, 1984.

    Wang W

    China Population Newsletter. 1984 Aug; 1(3):1-3.

    In seeking a solution to its population problem, China, as a developing socialist country, has been making unremitting efforts to develop economy while controlling the rapid growth. The objective is to control rapid population growth so that population growth may be in keeping with socioeconomic development and commensurate with utilization of natural resources and environmental protection. In the past decade, and particularly since 1979, China has made much progress in developing economy and gained remarkable successes in controlling population growth. The natural population growth rate dropped to 1.15% in 1983, from 2.089% in 1973. Living standards have improved with a gradual annual increase of per capita income. All this proves that the policy of promoting family planning to control population growth along with planned economic development is correct. In China family planning is a basic state policy. The government has advocated the practice of "1 couple, 1 child" since 1979. This does not mean that 1 couple could have 1 child only in every case. The government provides guidance for the implementation of family planning programs in the light of specific conditions such as economic developments, cultural background, population structure, and the wishes of the people in different localities. The requirements are more flexible in rural than in urban areas and more so among the people of national minorities than among the people of the Han Nationality. In rural areas, couples who have actual difficulties and want to have 2 children may have a 2nd birth with planned spacing. In carrying out its family planning program, China has consistently adhered to the principle of integrating state guidance with the masses' voluntariness. The government has always emphasized the importance of encouraging the people's own initiatives, through publicity and education, which is the key link in implementing the family planning program.
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  8. 8

    Family planning in the service of human development.

    Mahler H

    Who Chronicle. 1984; 38(6):239-42.

    In his remarks to the International Conference on Population, the author identifies human development as the common theme underlying health, family planning, and economic progress. National policies should seek to stimulate people to develop their own material, intellectual, and spiritual potential. Attempts to force fertility control practices on populations can be expected to be met with resentment, resistance, and rejection. The World Health Organization's health for all by the year 2000 strategy views people as both the subject and object of their development. It goes beyond the struggle to remain alive to support people in adopting measures that will make their life progressively more pleasant. It is a strategy to support people in taking action, in ways understandable and acceptable to them, to assume growing responsibility for their own health destiny and thus contribute to their socioeconomic destiny. In addition, this strategy aims to ensure that each child is born truly wanted. The central condition for the success of population policies is their placement of the physical, social, and spiritual well-being of people at the highest rung of the developmental ladder.
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  9. 9

    Laws and policies affecting fertility: a decade of change. Leis e politicas que afetam a fecundidade: uma decada de mudancas.

    Isaacs SL; Cook RJ; Pile JM; Smit L; Levitt L; Cairns G; Heckel N

    Population Reports. Series E: Law and Policy. 1984; (7):E105-E151.

    In the last decade over 50 countries have strengthened laws or policies relating to fertility. Approximately 40 developing countries have issued explicit statements on population policy emphasizing the relationship to national development. In several countries constitutional amendments have been passed reflecting a more positive attitude toward family planning. High-level units, e.g. small technical units, interministerial councils and coordinating councils have been established to formulate policies or coordinate programs. Other actions relating to fertility include: increased resources for family planning programs, both in the public and in the private sector; elimination of restrictions on family planning information, services and supplies; special benefits for family planning acceptors or couples with small families, and measures to improve the status of women, which indirectly affects childbearing patterns. The recognition that policies, laws and programs to influence fertility are an integral part of efforts to promote social and economic development was reaffirmed at the International Conference on Population in Mexico City in 1984. 147 governments expressed their support for voluntary programs to help people control their fertility. Governments cite at least 4 reasons for increased attention to policies affecting fertility and family planning. Some of these are the desire to slow population growth to achieve national development objectives, concern for maternal and child health, support for the basic human right to determine family size, and equity in the provision of health services. In addition to the strongest laws and policies to lower fertility in Asia, legal changes are occurring in Latin America, Africa, and the Middle East. Family planning programs, laws on contraceptives and voluntary sterilization, compensation, incentives and disincentives, the legal status of women and fertility and policy-making and implementation are reviewed, as well as equal employment, education, political and civil rights and equality of women within marriage and the family.
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  10. 10

    The United Nations' flawed population policy.

    Huessy PR

    Washington, D.C., Heritage Foundation, 1984 Aug 27. 16 p. (Backgrounder No. 376)

    The United Nations' 2nd World Population Conference (Mexico City, 1984) called for greatly expanding funding for family planning assistance worldwide. The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), the conference's chief sponsor, will no doubt receive the largest portion of any assistance increase. UNFPA plays a critical role in population-related programs worldwide. The central debate on population policy should be over the extent and adequacy of the natural resources base and how countries can humanely and voluntarily change family size preferences. In countries like Singapore and South Korea, success has been achieved by combining social and economic incentives to discourage large families. Although couples in developing countries report wanting contraceptive service programs, they also want families of 4 to 6 children. So far UNFPA has been ineffective in changing the population situation. This overview of its activities reveals that UNFPA loses ultimate reponsibility for implementation of many of its own programs. UNFPA does not advocate a reduction in population growth within a single country, but rather helps couples have the number of children they desire. UNFPA's specific population and family programs are divided into functional areas: basic data collection, population change study, formulation and implementation of population policies, support for family planning/maternal child health programs and educational and communication programs. UNFPA stresses the importance of using contraceptives but not of achieving the small family norm. UNFPA's projects in some of the largest less developed nations are described, illustrating how the UN agency spends its assistance funds. From 1971 to 1982, the UNFPA spent almost US $230 million in the 10 largest less developed countries without any significant change in population growth. UNFPA program administrators are far from resolving the serious population problems facing developing countries and generally oblivious to new directions in which population policies should move. No progress will be made until UNFPA recognizes the need to approach the problem from a different perspective, working to change attitudes toward small families.
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  11. 11

    Fertility and the family: highlights of the issues in the context of the World Population Plan of Action.

    United Nations. Secretariat

    In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. Fertility and family. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 45-73. (International Conference on Popualtion, 1984; Statements)

    This paper uses as its organizing principle 5 major themes which run through the sections of the 1974 World Population Plan of Action (WPPA) devoted to fertility and the family. The purpose of this paper it to assure that their discussion is comprehensive and that it reviews all the major research and policy concerns with respect to fertility and the family that have played an important role in the general debate about these issues since 1974. Summerized here are the contributions included in this volumen, as each deals with at least 1 of these issues. The 1st major theme focuses on fertility response to modernization as a facet of the interrelationship between population and development. Discussed are aspects of modernization leading to fertility increases, in particular the reduced incidence and shorter duration of breastfeeding, and those leading to fertility decline, namely the decline in the value of children as a source of labor and old-age support. Freedom of choice, information and education are the principal approaches within which childbearing decision making is discussed. Women's reproductive and economic activity during their life cycle, and the relationship of family types and functions to fertility levels and change are equally addressed. Finally, demographic goals and policy alternatives with respect to fertility change are discussed in terms of a number of policy options: family planning programs, economic incentives and disincentives and more global socioeconomic measures. Although primary attention is given to the problems and policies of developing countries, the special problems of certrain developed countries which view their fertility as too low are also considered. The issues raised in this paper are put forward as an aid to assist in the identification of emderging areas of policy concern and of fruitful new research directions.
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  12. 12

    Report of the Expert Group on Fertility and Family. Introduction.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. Fertility and family. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 1-44. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)

    This volume is comprised of the reports of the 1st of 4 Expert Group Meetings, scheduled in preparation for the 1984 International Conference on Population. Individuals and organizations attending this meeting are listed. The central task of the meeting was to examine critical, high-priority issues relevant to fertility and family and, on that basis, to make recommendations for action that would enhance the effectiveness of and compliance with the World Population Plan of Action, adopted in 1974 at Bucharest. The 1st item on the agenda dealt with ways in which modernization elements in the socio-cultural and economic patterns and institutions of societies alter reproduction. The 2nd topic of discussion was the relationship between family structure and fertility. The view adopted was that family structure could be influenced by a variety of factors that would have implications for fertility (e.g., delayed at marriage, improvements in education). The deliberations on factors influencing choice with respect to childbearing focused upon the complexity of decision making in matters of reproduction. In question, too, was a possible conflict between the acknowledged rights to freedom of choice in respect to childbearing and to the rights and goals of society, as well the acceptability of incentives and disincentives as measures introduced by governments to achieve social goals. The 4th item, reproductive and economic activity of women, was discussed from several perspectives: the amount of reproductive lifetime available to women for productive pursuits other than childbearing; the introduction of social support programs and income-generating opportunities. In the discussion of demographic goals and policy alternatives, the 5th item on the agenda, the policy options considered were family planning programs, incentives and desincentives, social and economic development, and marriage and divorce laws. Particular attention was given to the importance of local institutional settings for the achievement of government policy goals. The Expert Group's recommendations on population policy, family planning, the conditions of women, adolescent fertility, IEC, management and training, international cooperation and areas of research (demographic data, determinants of fertility, operational research and bio-medical) are included in this introduction. Finally, presented in the form of annexes are the agenda for the meeting, the list of documents and the texts of the opening statements.
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  13. 13

    Family planning and the quality of life.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    [Unpublished] 1984 Aug. Background note presented at the International Conference on Population held in Mexico City, August 6-13, 1984. 4 p. (E/CONF.76/NGO/3)

    Now 32 years old, the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) is currently working through Family Planning Associations in 119 countries on all 5 continents. Its primary programs and concerns are voluntary informed choice aboutt parenthood; the relationship of family planning programs to national policy; availability of information concerning family planning in terms of options; maternal and infant health; the status of women; male responsibility; and the quality of human life. It emphasizes the need for other non-governmental organizations (MGOs to promote and implement the World Population Plan of Action.
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  14. 14

    Population on the world agenda, 1984: a view from Bucharest.

    Demeny P

    Population and Development Review. 1984; 10(2):353-9.

    Thise comments and remarks were fomulated in 1974 during a panel discussion which was part of the program for the Population Tribune, a nongovernmental meeting, organized in parallel with the 1st UN World Population Conference at Bucharest. The panelists discussed the ways in which they expected the deliberations of a similarly conceived international conference, taking place 10 years after Bucharest, would differ from those of the 1974 meeting. The author prefaces his comments by clarifying his own position: population change is nnot the determinant of economic and social development. 5 major differences between the future policy debates and those at Bucharest are identified, explored and critically judged. The next Conference's deliberations will be characterised by a greatly increased understanding and appreciation of what its topic is supposed to be, of what the population problem really is and of what population policy is about. The author argues that the present conference did not deal with these issues in a satisfactory fashion. He maintains that there has been a failure to identify the structure of the population problem: an inconsistency between collective and individual interest. The principle to be adopted by governments is to analyze their own situation, identify their problems and act according to their best interest. The principles are the same whether a country is developed or developing. A 2nd major difference will be an increased understanding and appreciation that population policies should be guided by a search for improvement and optimization. A 3rd important difference will be increased demographic sophistication of the participants, to overcome the mechanistic and naive interpretation of the development-fertility link. A 4th difference is the expectation that, by 1984, the economic sophistication in discussing problems of development will have been greatly increased, which will facilitate constructive discussions of economic-demographic interrelations. A final change expected for 1984 would manifest itself in a calmer yet more helpful stance of the developed countries with respect to the developing world in demographic matters. Ultimately, the solutions must be local, rather than global.
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  15. 15

    Population growth and economic and social development.

    Clausen AW

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1984. 36 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)

    In his address to national leaders in Nairobi, Kenya, Clausen expresses his views on population growth and development. Rapid population growth slows development in the developing countries. There is a strong link between population growth rates and the rate of economic and social development. The World Bank is determined to support the struggle against poverty in developing countries. Population growth will mean lower living standards for hundreds of millions of people. Proposals for reducing population growth raise difficult questions about the proper domain of public policy. Clausen presents a historical overview of population growth in the past 2 decades, and discusses the problem of imbalance between natural resources and people, and the effect on the labor force. Rapid population growth creates urban economic and social problems that may be unmanageable. National policy is a means to combat overwhelmingly high fertility, since governments have a duty to society as a whole, both today's generation and future ones. Peoples may be having more children than they actually want because of lack of information or access to fertility control methods. Family planning is a health measure that can significantly reduce infant mortality. A combination of social development and family planning is needed to teduce fertility. Clausen briefly reviews the effect of economic and technological changes on population growth, focusing on how the Bank can support an effective combination of economic and social development with extending and improving family planning and health services. The World Bank offers its support to combat rapid population growth by helping improve understanding through its economic and sector work and through policy dialogue with member countries; by supporting developing strategies that naturally buiild demand for smaller families, especially by improving opportunities in education and income generation; and by helping supply safe, effective and affordable family planning and other basic health services focused on the poor in both urban and rural areas. In the next few years, the Bank intends at least to double its population and related health lending as part of a major effort involving donors and developing countries with a primay focus on Africa and Asia. An effective policy requires the participation of many ministeries and clear direction and support from the highest government levels.
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  16. 16

    Mexico City Declaration on Population and Development.

    International Conference on Population (1984: Mexico City)

    [New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities], 1984. 8 p. (UN/ICP/83/E/100,000; E/CONF.76/L.4)

    This pamphlet reproduces the Declaration on Population and Development prepared by representatives of 29 countries and adopted by the International Conference onn Population held in Mexico City August 6-14, 1984. The Conference noted the widening disparities between developed and developed countries, and reaffirmedd its commitment to improving the standard of living and equality of life of all peoples of this planet. Population issues are increasingly recognized as a fundamental element in development planning, and such plans must reflect the links among population, resources, environment, and development. Experience over the past decade suggests the need for full participation by the entire community and grassroots organizations in the design and implementation of policies and programs. Such an approach not only ensures that programs are relevant to local needs and consistent with personal and social values, but also promotes awareness of demographic problems. In addition, community support is essential to facilitate the integration of women into the process of social and economic development. Major efforts must be made to ensure that couples and individuals can decide freely, responsibly, and without coercion the number and spacing of their children and have the information, education, and means to make this decision. Increased funding is needed to develop new methods of contraception as well as to improve the safety, efficacy, and acceptability of existing methods. As part of the goal of health for all by the year 2000, special attention should be given to maternal and child health services within a primary health care system. Breastfeeding, adequate nutrition, clean water, immunization programs, oral rehydration therapy, and birth spacing offer the potential to improve child survival dramatically. Attention must also be given to the social and economic implications of recent changes in the age structure of the population, rapid urbanization, and international migratory movements. Governments as well as nongovernmental organizations continue to have a critical role in the implementation of the World Population Plan of Action, and should be supported by adequate international assistance.
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  17. 17

    Fertility and family.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. ix, 476 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)

    The Expert Group on Fertility and Family was one of 4 expert groups assigned the task of examining critical, high priority population issues and, on that basis, making recommendations for action that would enhance the effectiveness of and compliance with the World Population Plan of Action. The report of the Expert Group consisted of 6 topics: 1) fertility response to modernization; 2) family structure and fertility; 3) choice with respect to childbearing, 4) reproductive and economic activity of women, 5) goals, policies and technical cooperation, and 6) recommendations. Contained in this report are also selected background papers with discuss in detail fertility determinants such as modernization, fertility decision processes, socioeconomic determinants, infant and child mortality as a ddeterminant of achieved fertility in some developed countries, the World Fertility Survey's contribution to understanding of fertility levels and trends, fertility in relation to family structure, measurement of the impact of population policies and programs on fertility, and techinical cooperation in the field of fertility and the family.
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  18. 18

    Promoting male responsibility in family planning in the Africa Region.

    Onyango-Omuodo D

    In: International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Male involvement in family planning: programme initiatives. London, England, IPPF, [1984]. 9-12.

    Deliberate involvement of men in family planning matters has only caught on in the Africa Region at the onset of the 1980s. Prior to this, family planning had been of cooperation from their partners, women have sometimes tended to go about family planning matters secretly. Such an approach is undesirable and may have some serious consequences and implications, since family planning involves health matters. Involving men and obtaining their support and commitment to family planning is of crucial importance in the Africa Region, given men's elevated position in African society. The involvement of men in family planning matters will also accelerate the understanding and practice of family planning in general. Regional activities of Family Planning Associations (FPA) in Africa are still in their infancy. A major activity was a Tegional Consultation held in Nairobi, Kenya in February 1983 to formulate appropriate approaches and channels based on actual experiences in a number of countries. This Consultation clearly showed that men could be most profitable reached not as a distinct group but through family life education programs, community education programs and related organizations. Information, materials, approaches and guidelines on male responsibility are being acquired and developed on a continuing basis for distribution to FPAs and Field Offices. A review of FPA activities indicates that practically all FPAs will have some kind of activity aimed at reaching men. However, Anglophone FPAs have greater explicit male orientedd projects than the Francophone ones. Challenges facing this program area will be found in Francophone countriees and countries with concertrations of Muslim culture. Rigid policy and legal systems which favor male domination present anothr challenge. Major efforts, such as small-scale research studies, study visits to successful projects, training in project development and implementation, will be made to enhance the capability of FPAs in devloping and managing projects relating to male involvement in family planning.
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  19. 19

    The family planning movement within the African Region of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Le mouvement pour la planification familiale dans la Region Afrique de la Federation Internationale pour la Planification Familiale.

    Sozi MK

    Africa Link. 1984 Sep; 1, 3-11.

    The African Region of International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) was established in 1971 to: encourage and sustain voluntary groups, provide information about family planning as a basic right, provide limited family planning services where acceptable and needed, and eventually influence change in public opinion so that governments could accept some responsibility for family planning programs. Today almost all of Anglophone Africa is covered by IPPF-funded activities, progress is being made in Francophone Africa, and Lusophone Africa is a target for the 1980s. National family planning associations and the IPPF have laid a firm foundation for family planning and raised its credibility to acceptable levels. However, both inadequate logistic infrastructures for the smooth flow of services and overcaution in adopting innovative methods such as community-based delivery systems to those not easily reached by coventional delivery systems have led service to lag behind demand. Leaders at all levels must join efforts to solve this dilemma. Family planning associations are the best suited channels for family planning work in the African Region, but they lack the capacity to cover all needs. As a result, these associations are shiftingg their efforts toward supplementing government work in this area. Although the government response has been far from uniform, governments have shown an ability to accommodate the operations of family planning organizations and have integrated family planning into national health services. Although 19 governments in the Region consider the fertility levels in their countries to be satisfactory and a few consider fertility too low, family planning is accepted as an instrument for the promotion of family welfare. The importance of national leadership in promoting and implementing family planning programs is increasingly recognized. Parliamentarians can formulate national policies favorable to family planning, promote awareness among their constituencies, and vote for more resources for the family planning effort.
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  20. 20

    Sierra Leone population policy--status report.

    John G

    Popleone. 1984 Jul; 1(1):2-4.

    Sierra Leone has no national population policy; however, the government is promoting numerous programs which impact on population problems, and in 1983 the government established a National Population Commission. A number of government health programs seek to reduce mortality and morbidity, particularly for mothers and children. Government programs provide 1) maternal and child health (MCH) care, primary health care, and immunization services; 2) training for traditional birth attendants, community health nurses, and paramedical personnel; 3) child spacing and fertility advisory services at some government MCH centers; and 4) construction of health centers. In addition, the government supports the inclusion of UN Fund for Population Activities' Fertility Advisory Services in the programs of several MCH centers, and, with assistance from the US Agency for International Development, is planning to make family planning services available at 120 MCH centers. The government is also supportive of the activities of the Planned Parenthood Association of Sierra Leone. Abortion is legal only in cases where the life of the mother is in jeopardy. Sierra Leone has no specific policies aimed at population redistribution; however, government agricultural development programs to equalize economic conditions in rural and urban areas should help reduce migration to urban centers. The National Population Commission is charged with the tasks of 1) formulating a national population policy, 2) promoting family planning, and 3) coordinating and promoting population activities in reference to development policies and program. The commission members represent a broad spectrum of the community, and the commission is composed of a working committee and a secretariat. A number of task forces are currently developing recommendations in the areas of fertility, mortality, morbidity, migration, labor, population law, women in development, policy and the environment, and population information dissemination.
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  21. 21

    Third Asian and Pacific Conference perspectives on family planning, population, and development.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]. Population Division

    Asian-Pacific Population Programme News. 1984; 13(2):25-30.

    Differences between the Report of the UN World Population Conference and the Report of the Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference were discussed in reference to 1) the relative importance placed on family planning and development in lowering fertility levels, 2) the degree to which family planning and development programs should be integrated, and 3) setting family planning targets. The UN conference was held in Bucharest, Hungary, in 1974 and the Asian and Pacific Conference was held in Colomb, Sri Lanka in 1982. The relative importance of family planning and development on fertility was a major issue at the Bucharest conference. The World Population Plan for Action (WPPA) formulated at the Bucharest conference did not recommend family planning as a strategy for reducing fertility; instead, the WPPA recommended that countries interested in reducing fertility should give priority to development programs and urged developed countries to promote international equity in the use of world resources. In contrast, the Asia-Pacific Call for Action on Population and Development as formulated at the Colomb conference, strongly recommended both development and family planning programs as a means to reduce fertility. It urged governments to adopt strong family planning policies, to make family planning services available on a regular basis, and to educate and motivate their populations toward family planning. In regard to integration strategies, the WPPA called for integrating family planning programs and development programs wherever possible, and particularly recommended integrated delivery of family planning and health services. The Asia-Pacific Call for Action supported an integrated approach, but only in those situations where it was proven to be a workable approach, i.e., where it improved the efficiency of family planning services. Combining family planning and maternal and child health programs is known to be an advantageous approach, but the consequences of integrating family planning with other health programs and with development programs needs further study. The WPPA recommended that governments set targets for life expectancy and infant mortality, but it did not mention setting fertility targets or establishing an ideal family size. It did urge governments to create the type of socioeconomic conditions which would permit couples to have the number of children they desired and to space them in the manner they wished. The WPPA noted that substantial national effort would be required to reduce the birthrate to the UN projected rate of 30/1000 population in developing regions by 1985. The Asia-Pacific Call for Action urged countries to set specific targets which would make it possible for them to attain replacement level fertility in the year 2000. It will be interesting to observe the degree to which the Asian and Pacific countries will be able to influence the participants at the upcoming International Conference on Population to their way of thinking on these critical issues. A copy of the Asia-Pacific Call for Action on Population and Development is included in an annex to the article.
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  22. 22

    The human right to family planning. Report of the Working Group on the Promotion of Family Planning as a Basic Human Right to the Members' Assembly and the Central Council of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, November 1983.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Working Group on the Promotion of Family Planning as a Basic Human Right

    London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1984. 52 p.

    This report examines the problems involved in the exercise of the right to family planning; reviews the approaches taken towards overcoming these problems and promoting the right to family planning at local, national, and international levels, including the experience of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF); and makes recommendations to the 1983 meetings of the Central Council and the Members' Assembly on the action that should be taken by the IPPF and its members to enhance the commitment to family planning as a basic human right during 1982-84 Plan and beyond. The report's 5 sections discuss the following: the concept of the right to family planning (historical background and a conceptual elaboration); links between the right to family planning and other human rights (basic human rights and needs, advocacy for social development, and women's rights); access to fertility regulation information and services (full and voluntary choice of methods, rights of young people, financial accessibility of fertility regulation services, and the right to have children); incentives and disincentives to individuals and couples, incentives to providers of fertility regulation information and services, and research needs; and strategies for promoting family planning as a basic human right (ensuring that the individual has the knowledge of the right to fertility regulation and understands the options, generating societal support for family planning, ensuring ready access to the means ror fertility regulation, legal support for the right to family planning, and increasing political commitment to the right to family planning). The application of the term "the right to family planning" to many different elements of personal and social behavior as well as to policy making and program development has led to some confusion and potential conflict between rights and responsibilities. It is recommended that a clear distinction be made in the definition of the right to family planning to reflect 2 important components, namely, the right of everyone to have ready access to information, education, and services for fertility regulation; and the right of everyone to make decisions about reproductive behavior. Family planning organizations canachieve institutional credibility as caring organizations and assure program effectiveness by encouraging the recognition of the links between the right to family planning and the right to other social and economic improvements that are the essence of development.
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  23. 23

    Meeting the needs of young people.

    Ippf Medical Bulletin. 1984 Apr; 18(2):1-4.

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), recognizing its responsibility to assist young people in fulfilling their roles as parents, citizens, and leaders, seeks to improve the quality of life of young people by advocating and promoting, especially to governments and other organizations, measures that will respond to their total human needs, including the provision of education and employment opportunities. IPPF, as a family planning organization, can contribute directly to the preparation of young people for responsible parenthood and to meeting their fertility related needs. Family planning associations (FPAs) are encouraged to initiate, strengthen, or support programs which respond to the needs of young people. Priority should be given to meeting the needs of the most disadvantaged groups, with emphasis on out of school and rural youth, slum dwellers, youth in urban industrialized areas, and abandoned adolescents and children, with special attention to the early group adolescent age group. The involvement of young people as active partners in IPPF's work is essential for its efforts to promote and sustain commitment to family planning at policymaking and community levels in the years ahead and to prepare the next generation of leaders within the Federation. Population, family life, and sex education, including family planning and reproductive health management, provide in both formal and nonformal settings, are the cornerstone of youth programs. FPAs should look for ways to remove legal, administrative, and other barriers to the availability of adequate education and services. As pregnancy poses special hazards for adolescents, particularly those under age 16, services should cater to the special circumstances in which adolescent childbearing is taking place. No single contraceptive method can be regarded satisfactory for adolescents as a group, but each method may have a place in adolescent services. Several factors, such as age, parity, and other personal amd medical considerations, need to be carefully assessed in helping the individual adolescent to make a choice. IPPF affirms that meeting the needs of young people is a major objective for the Federation and that priority should be given to meeting the needs of the most disadvantaged young people. Parents have primary responsibility in the preparation of the young for responsible parenthood, and their participation in meeting the fertility related needs of young people as part of an improved quality of family life should be encouraged and supported. Education and counseling should respond to the needs of young people who engage in sex relations and those who do not. Research should be encouraged, particularly at the national and local level, in biomedical, social science, service delivery, and legal and policy areas.
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  24. 24

    US is key player in Salvador's controversial birth control plan.

    Hedges C

    CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR. 1984 Jan 13; 78(34):8, 23.

    The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has played a key role in El Salvador's family planning program and has identified population control as among its main objectives in the country. In addition to helping to start the Salvadorean Health Ministry's Family Planning Coordination Office, USAID has provided over $4 million to the Salvadorean Demographic Association (ADS). These organizations distribute contraceptives nationwide and perform surgical sterilizations on women. USAID estimates that 25% of women of childbearing age in El Salvador are now using some form of contraception. However, the program has been criticized by many local physicians and health workers. It is argued that the US has ignored the really pressing health needs of the Salvadorean people and is attempting to limit the number of poor people. The most controversial aspect of the population program concerns the surgical sterilizations performed on 21,000 women each year. Relief workers have charged that food has been offered to women in displaced persons camps if they agree to be sterilized, and that some procedures are performed against the will of patients. ADS teams make home visits to explain the advantages of sterilization, and each field nurse is expected to sign up an average of 1 woman/day for the procedure. USAID officials have indicated they will conduct an investigation into the alleged abuses of sterilization. The agency has also initiated a US$25 million program in El Salvador intended to reduce shortages of pharmaceutical supplies and replace some medical equipment.
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