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  1. 1
    031956

    Thirteenth annual report.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction

    Geneva, WHO, 1984 Dec. ix, 152 p.

    88 recommendations were formulated by the International Conference on Population held in Mexico City in 1984. 4 of these dealt specifically with research requirements in the population field and are reproduced in this report in their entirety. As a result of the changing perspectives and requirements of the scientific fields in which the Special Program of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction operates and taking into account the various suggestions resulting from recent reviews of the Program, several new developments have occurred. First is the attempt to distinguish more clearly between activities related to research and development and those related to resources for research. These 2 distinct but closely connected activities will be reorganized to interact in a complementary fashion. In the research and development component, the most notable changes relate to the creation of new Task Forces on the Safety and Efficacy of Fertility Regulating Methods and on Behavioral and Social Determinants of Fertility Regulation. The Program has been actively promoting coordination with other programs which support and conduct research in human reproduction. The research and development section of this report provides a technical review of the activities and plans of the various task forces, covering the following: new and improved methods of fertility regulation (long-acting systemic methods, oral contraceptives, post-ovulatory methods, IUDs, vaccines, plants, male methods, female sterilization, and natural methods), safety and efficacy of fertility regulating methods, infertility, and service and psychosocial research. The section devoted to resources for research describes some features of the network of centers, reviews the Program's institution strengthening activities in the different regions, and also considers research training and the program of standardization and quality control of laboratory procedures. The section covering special issues in drug development focuses on relations with industry, patents, and the role of the Special Program in the drug regulatory process.
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  2. 2
    028322

    The Billings method of family planning: an assessment.

    Betts K

    Studies in Family Planning. 1984 Nov-Dec; 15(6/1):253-66.

    This paper critically analyzes claims for the effectiveness of the Billings method of natural family planning and raises questions about the wisdom of actively promoting this method. The Billings method, developed in Australia, is based on client interpretation of changing patterns of cervical mucus secretion. Evaluation of the method's use-effectiveness has been hindered by its supporters' insistence on distinguishing between method and user failures and by the unreliability of data on sexual activities. However, the findings in 5 large studies aimed at investigating the biological basis of the Billings method provide little support for the claims that most fertile women always experience mucus symptoms, that these symptoms precede ovulation by at least 5 days, and that a peak symptom coincides with the day of ovulation. Although many women do experience a changing pattern of mucus symptoms, these changes do not mark the fertile period with sufficient reliability to form the basis for a fully effective method of fertility control. In addition, the results of 5 major field trials indicate that the Billings method has a biological failure rate even higher than the symptothermal method. Pearl pregnancy rates ranged from 22.2-37.2/100 woman-years, and high discontinuation rates in both developed and developing countries were found. Demand for the method was low even in developing countries where calendar rhythm and withdrawal are relatively popular methods of fertility control, suggesting that women of low socioeconomic status may prefer a method that does not require demanding interaction with service providers and acknowledgment of sexual activity. The Billings method is labor-intensive, requiring repeated client contact over an extended time period and high administrative costs, even when teachers are volunteers. It is concluded that although natural family planning methods may make a useful contribution where more effective methods are unavailable or unacceptable, many of the claims made for the Billings method are unsubstantiated by scientific evidence.
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  3. 3
    020489

    Breast feeding: fertility and contraception.

    Kleinman RL; Senanayake P

    London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1984. 43 p. (IPPF Medical Publications)

    This booklet, for health care workers in developing countries, reviews the fertility-controlling effects of breastfeeding, its strengths and limitations as an element in family planning, and how to provide modern methods of contraception to lactating women. Breastfeeding currently provides about 30% more protection against pregnancy in developing countries than all of the organized family planning programs. The recent trend toward a falling off in the practice of breastfeeding poses a threat to infant welfare and a danger of increased fertility. Health workers are urged to reach pregnant women in the community with knowledge about the value of breastfeeding versus bottle feeding. Each country must set its own policies concerning contraception for lactating women. It is preferable for lactating women to use nonhormonal methods, but if selected, they should not be used too early. Lowest-dose preparations, especially progestogen-only pills, are preferable. Determination of when to start contraception during lactation should be based on breastfeeding patterns in the community, the age at which supplementary foods are introduced, usual birth spacing intervals, and the mean duration of lactation amenorrhea. If the usual time of resumption of menstruation in a given community is known, a rough guide to the optimal time for starting contraception is returning menstruation minus 2 months.
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